The existence of the longitudinal field B (3) in the vacuum implies that the gauge group of electrodynamics is O(3),and not U(1) [or O(2)].This results directly in the charge quantization condition e=h(ϰ/A (0)).This condition is derived independently in this paper from the relativistic motion of one electron in the field and is shown to he that in which the electron travels infinitesimally close to the speed of light.
This paper considers the ethical issues raised by biobanking of material from children who are not mature enough to give ethically valid consent. The first part considers consent requirements for entry of such materials in the biobank, whereas the second part looks at the issues that arise when a competent child later wants to withdraw previously sored materials, and at the issues that arise when there is informational entanglement between information about a parent and information about a child. The paper (...) argues for three main conclusions: 1. That it is in most cases acceptable for parents to give proxy consent to entry of material from their children ino biobanks, even though this is not strictly speaking in the best interest of the child; 2. that a right to withdraw from the biobank is more important when material has been entered with proxy consent; and 3. that disputes about the withdrawal of entangled information, i.e. information that is both about a parent and a child, should be resolved in favour of the child. (shrink)
The German poet Barbara Köhler's 2007 poem-cycle Niemands Frau [Nobody's Wife] is more than a feminist response to Homer's Odyssey. In shifting the focus from the escapades of the hero Odysseus to the web of women characters that populates Homer's epic poem – Nausicaa, Circe, the Sirens, Helen, Ino Leucothea, the shades of the dead women whom Odysseus meets in Hades, and “Nobody’s wife” Penelope – Köhler also undertakes a grammatical shift: from the masculine singular pronoun “er” to the polyvalent (...) pronoun “sie” that denotes the feminine singular, the gender-unmarked plural and the formal “you.” “Sie” acts as the “quantum linguistic particle” that transports the reader from a world analogous to that conceived by Newtonian physics into a quantum universe of plural probabilities. Köhler's work explores the difference in power dynamics that results from this transformation, generating intriguing ways of reconceiving subjectivity, relationality, rationality, and authorship. Taken at their word, the poems open up a prospect of no longer insisting on the sovereign individual subject and his linear modes of narration, inheritance, calculation and grammatical proposition. (shrink)
El artículo es una reflexión que propone repensar la investigación educativa desde el enfoque cualitativo. El objetivo es describir y comprender sobre las distintas vertientes de la investigación educativa, el enfoque cualitativo en el campo de las educaciones; problematizar sobre el diseño del plan; explicar a la historia oral como método de investigación en el estudio de la educación y reflexionar sobre el rol del investigador. En suma, se plantea pensar la investigación educativa desde el enfoque cualitativo, por un lado, (...) porque permite comprender que los procesos de investigación y construcción de conocimiento son de forma participativa, colaborativa y dialógica; por otro lado, problematizar la posición del investigador en la investigación. Palabras clave: Investigación cualitativa, educación y enfoque cualitativo, plan de investigación, métodos cualitativos, historia oral y educación. (shrink)
A survey of high school student expectations on biotechnology was made, including the information, where it came from, how information resources influence their scientific thoughts. GM crops were used as the theme of biotechnology, because the technology is concerned with food which all people have a relationship with. From the 977 responses obtained from 8 high schools it was found most high schools' students expected benefits and risks from biotechnology. A wide variety of fruits and vegetables improvements were given when (...) students were asked to think about how they would improve their favourite fruit and vegetable. The information given by mass media tended to increase the feeling that science was risky. (shrink)
This paper examines human-nonhuman splices from a multidisciplinary approach, involving bioengineering and literary studies. Splices are hybrid beings, created through gene-splicing—a process which combines the DNA of the two species, resulting in a hybrid or chimeric being. A current trend in biotechnological research is the use of spliced pigs for xenotransplantation. Hiromitsu Nakauchi’s pancreas study that splices pigs with human iPS [induced pluripotent stem] cells in order to grow human organs inside pigs is being compared to a highly similar (...) case of porcine hybrids: the pigoon from Margaret Atwood’s fictional MaddAddam trilogy. Atwood’s pigoons are pigs, genetically modified with human stem cells to facilitate the growth of various human organs for use in organ transplants with no risk of rejection. The case studies from science and science fiction overlap significantly and thus allow for a critical reading of the two highly different sources with a focus on ethical and moral questions regarding the use and abuse of nonhuman animals for human purposes. Furthermore, the context of the fictional works adds new layers of knowledge and new perspectives to the problematic issue of animal “enhancement.” Through the dynamic agency that can be detected within Atwood’s novels and that encompasses human, animal, and hybrid agency, the reader can develop empathy for other-than-human experiences and use this new perspective for a critical reflection of actual technoscientific developments that affect both human and nonhuman animal life. The combination of the two discourses reveals a value of science fiction for both the scientific community and society at large, demonstrating how its critical reception can result in enhanced ethical standards. (shrink)