The developing infant can accomplish all important perceptual tasks that an adult can, albeit with less skill or precision. Through infant perception research, infant responses to experiences enable researchers to reveal perceptual competence, test hypotheses about processes, and infer neural mechanisms, and researchers are able to address age-old questions about perception and the origins of knowledge.In Development of Perception in Infancy: The Cradle of Knowledge Revisited, Martha E. Arterberry and Philip J. Kellman study the methods and data of (...) scientific research on infant perception, introducing and analyzing topics through philosophical, theoretical, and historical contexts. Infant perception research is placed in a philosophical context by addressing the abilities with which humans appear to be born, those that appear to emerge due to experience, and the interaction of the two. The theoretical perspective is informed by the ecological tradition, and from such a perspective the authors focus on the information available for perception, when it is used by the developing infant, the fit between infant capabilities and environmental demands, and the role of perceptual learning. Since the original publication of this book in 1998, Arterberry and Kellman address in addition the mechanisms of change, placing the basic capacities of infants at different ages and exploring what it is that infants do with this information. Significantly, the authors feature the perceptual underpinnings of social and cognitive development, and consider two examples of atypical development - congenital cataracts and Autism Spectrum Disorder. Professionals and students alike will find this book a critical resource to understanding perception, cognitive development, social development, infancy, and developmental cognitive neuroscience, as research on the origins of perception has changed forever our conceptions of how human mental life begins. (shrink)
The “Perky effect” is the interference of visual imagery with vision. Studies of this effect show that visual imagery has more than symbolic properties, but these properties differ both spatially (including “pictorially”) and temporally from those of vision. We therefore reject both the literal picture-in-the-head view and the entirely symbolic view.
Developmental research on infants' categorization of living and nonliving objects finds that very young children are equally skilled in grouping such objects. The lack of a specialization for one type of object over another may be due to knowledge of function and the time frame for acquiring such knowledge.
Uno de los más famosos legados que recibe el pensamiento moderno proveniente del estoicismo antiguo es la concepción del cosmopolitismo, a pesar de lo cual la idea original estoica cuenta con nuevos enfoques y corrientes. La filósofa e importante clasicista Martha Nussbaum ha establecido en la actualidad una de las teorías más destacables teniendo en cuenta un punto de vista explícitamente estoico. En este artículo pretendo analizar, por un lado la exposición que Nussbaum ha hecho de la ciudadanía mundial, (...) así como las discusiones críticas ulteriores que su teoría del cosmopolitismo ha originado. (shrink)
O artigo toma Martha Nussbaum como referência para tematizar a tensão clássica existente entre vulnerabilidade e autossuficiência humana e discutir as implicações de tal tensão ao campo da educação para a democracia. Defende-se a posição que a educação para a vida democrática depende do modo como tal tensão é conduzida nos processos educativos. Desse modo, dado que tanto a vulnerabilidade quanto a autossuficiência são aspectos intrínsecos à condição humana, a educação para a democracia depende do cultivo de uma autossuficiência (...) moderada na busca de sentido para a vulnerabilidade humana. Tal cultivo passa, pois, por orientar a vulnerabilidade humana em direção a uma autossuficiência que não perca de vista a fragilidade do bem viver humano. Palavras-chave : Vulnerabilidade. Autossuficiência. Condição humana. Educação para a democracia. (shrink)
O filósofo Axel Honneth completa 60 anos de idade. Uma viagem em pensamentos de Marx a Hegel para Frankfurt: ida e volta.Axel Honneth encontrou com sua obra sociofilosófica um eco profundo. Seus livros, rapidamente traduzidos para o inglês, desencadearam animadas discussões em revistas internacionais. Hoje, já é difícil para ele dar conta dos comentadores interessados e satisfazer a todos os críticos, os quais esperam por réplicas. Na percepção de sua profissão, Honneth se encontra hoje ao lado de filósofos como (...) class='Hi'>Martha Nussbaum, Robert Pippin, Avishai Margalit ou Judith Butler. Que seus livros encontrem uma ressonância significativa revela tanto sobre o conteúdo da teoria como sobre o talento literário do autor. (shrink)
The practical aspect of ancient philosophy has been recently made a focus of renewed metaphilosophical investigation. After a brief presentation of three accounts of this kind developed by Martha Nussbaum, Pierre Hadot, and Michel Foucault, the model of the therapeutic argument developed by Nussbaum is called into question from the perspectives offered by her French colleagues, who emphasize spiritual exercise (Hadot) or the care of the self (Foucault). The ways in which the account of Nussbaum can be defended are (...) then discussed, including both a ‘negative’ defense, i.e. the indication of the weaknesses of Hadot and Foucault’s proposals, and a ‘positive’ one focused on the points in which Nussbaum can convincingly address doubts about her metaphilosophical account. In response to these analyses, some further remarks made by Hadot and Foucault are discussed in order to demonstrate that their accounts are not as distant from Nussbaum after all. Finally, a recent metaphilosophical study by John Sellars together with a therapeutic (medical) model developed by the author of the present article are suggested as providing a framework for potential reconciliation between all three accounts discussed and a resource for further metaphilosophical studies. (shrink)
Este artigo se propõe refletir sobre a possibilidade de uma teoria do respeito social e da solidariedade cívica. Para este, serão utilizados três conceitos introduzidos ou desenvolvidos por vários autores: o conceito de sofrimento socialmente evitável desenvolvido por Barrington Moore jr., a idéia de sociedade decente de Avishai Margalit e, finalmente, o conceito de capability assim como o utilizam Amartya Sem e Martha Nussbaum. Este último será posto em relação a uma teoria da autonomia moral que servirá de base (...) para uma teoria da solidariedade cívica que pretende ser um complemento das teorias da justiça tradicionais, não uma alternativa a elas.This paper aims at reﬂ ecting on the possibility of a theory of social respect and of civic solidarity. To this end, three concepts, which were introduced and developed by various authors, will be used: Barrington Moore jr.’s concept of socially avoidable suffering, Avishai Margalit’s idea of a decent society and, ﬁ nally, Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum’s capability approach. The latter will be connected to a theory of moral autonomy that will lay the groundwork for a theory of civic solidarity, which aims at complementing traditional theories of justice, without representing an alternative to them. (shrink)
Este artigo tem como objetivo refletir sobre as modificações cognitivas e identitárias nos/dos sujeitos da sociedade digital – denominados aqui de sujeitos imersivos, no sentido proposto por Lucia Santaella. Para tanto, considera-se a hipótese de que a compreensão de conceitos como ciberespaço, cibercultura e virtualização exige, antecipadamente, o resgate do sentido de termos como virtual, real, realidade e atualidade. O marco teórico destaca principalmente os argumentos apresentados por Pierre Lévy e Giles Deleuze. Parte-se do questionamento da fronteira entre mente e (...) corpo, entre real e virtual. Posteriormente, são identificadas algumas mudanças provocadas pela virtualização e seus efeitos nos espaços escolares. Os procedimentos metodológicos são demarcados pela abordagem qualitativa com amparo na pesquisa bibliográfica. Os resultados indicam a emergência de um novo sujeito de aprendizagem com processos cognitivos distintos e novas demandas sociais. Estas condições impõem um redimensionamento dos saberes e atitudes dos professores e dos especialistas em educação. Os apontamentos finais sugerem a necessidade de intensificação dos estudos acerca da virtualização da sociedade contemporânea a fim de compreender as características identitárias dos sujeitos imersivos. Palavras-chave : Virtual e real. Virtualização. Ciberespaço e cibercultura. Modificações cognitivas e identitárias. (shrink)
O texto apresenta uma visão geral do caminho percorrido por Marilena Chaui em sua reflexão sobre a universidade, que se efetua desde os anos 1970 e culmina na compreensão da gênese e do funcionamento específico da forma contemporânea da universidade: a _universidade operacional_, reduzida à condição de organização prestadora de serviços, administrada segundo a lógica da empresa capitalista moderna, atravessada pela heteronomia e distanciada de sua vocação política democrática. Os artigos de Chaui dedicados à universidade configuram um rico espaço de (...) inteligibilidade no qual se entrecruzam a sua interpretação sobre as estruturas históricas e culturais da sociedade brasileira, sua concepção da democracia, sua análise acerca dos efeitos que o neoliberalismo impõe sobre a produção e a destinação dos saberes, o lugar e o sentido da universidade. A crítica de Chaui à universidade refaz uma memória institucional necessária ao enfrentamento de sua forma atual: busca vincular o exercício de entendimento à recusa do instituído, convocando, assim, o desejo de transformação. (shrink)
Here's the interview granted by Martha Nussbaum to Fabrizia Abbate about the role of preference in social dynamics. How important are aesthetic preferences in the development of moral attitudes and choices ?
The essays in this volume were written to celebrate the sixtieth birthday of G. E. L. Owen, who by his essays and seminars on ancient Greek philosophy has made a contribution to its study that is second to none. The authors, from both sides of the Atlantic, include not only scholars whose main research interests lie in Greek philosophy, but others best known for their work in general philosophy. All are pupils or younger colleagues of Professor Owen who are indebted (...) to his practice of philosophical scholarship as a first-order philosophical activity. At the heart of G. E. L. Owen's work has been a preoccupation with the role of philosophical reflection on language in the metaphysics and epistemology of Plato, Aristotle and other ancient Greek thinkers. This is accordingly the general topic of the present volume, which includes five papers on Plato's critical dialogues and seven on Aristotle, prefaced by two on Heraclitus and followed by a study of the debate in Hellenistic philosophy on the sorites. This is a book for specialists in Greek philosophy and philosophers of language which will also be of interest to some linguists. (shrink)
This work represents an attempt to assess the nature and extent of Moore's influence on twentieth century philosophy. The essays it contains were all written in or after 1958, the year of Moore's death, by philosophers whom he knew and respected. As such the writers were often able to highlight certain neglected aspects of his thought as well as ideas he never put in print. Though 10 of the 19 essays have appeared in print before, there are original papers by (...) Ryle, Ewing, William and Martha Kneale, Ayer, Lazerowitz and Urmson as well as somewhat longer studies by Kennick, Greig and Redpath. Together they deal with practically every aspect of Moore's metaphysical and ethical views, his often misunderstood philosophy of common sense, and the special methodology he thought particularly appropriate for investigating philosophical problems. In addition to special treatises on his views on utilitarianism, the naturalistic fallacy, free will, and propositions, the book is introduced with the delightful biographical study Braithwaite did for the Proceedings of the British Academy. The editors see Moore's writings not only as a model of the standard of exactness and refinement of thought one has come to expect of a careful philosopher, but as altering the direction of philosophical investigation. His method of analysis, and especially his ability to translate abstract formulations into concrete meanings, opened the eyes of philosophers to the fuzzy aspects and latent confusions in their own views and arguments. As his former pupils, the editors may be excused for feeling that philosophy after Moore will never be the same as before, but by bringing together this fine selection of essays they have done much to insure his contribution will not be forgotten.--A. B. W. (shrink)
De Anna’s book rotates around two notions, the ones of metaphysical realism and mental representation, and around two thinkers, Hilary Putnam, and John Haldane. De Anna’s background is always and only Aquinas, however, and he keeps reconstructing the issues by means of Thomistic arguments with the same tenacity shown by Brian Shanley in his famous paper he dedicated to Haldane. In the first chapter De Anna shows that the conjunction of metaphysical realism and naturalism brings about a form of semantic (...) realism, in the second chapter he reviews the arguments set forth by Putnam to refute semantic realism and per modum tollentem also the conjunction of metaphysical realism and naturalism. The third chapter is dedicated to Putnam’s interest for the interpretation of Aristotelian psychology advanced by Martha Nussbaum, the fourth to Haldane’s response to Putnam, and the fifth recapitulates the whole discussion by going back to what Aquinas says on the reception of sensible forms. For long years, naturalism seemed the inevitable consequence of metaphysical realism. To renounce naturalism would have meant to accept “magical theories” of reference and mental representation like the one proposed by Brentano. In the early 1990s, however, Putnam realizes that intentionality is a property of human beings that cannot be reduced to a natural context. Also for Haldane, of course, intentionality is an irreducible property, but this does not bring him to accept either a panpsychist understanding of matter or the dubious thesis that mental properties are added to inert matter in a way that Putnam would have called magic. Haldane goes back to Aquinas’s position that not only do concepts have a necessary connection with their extension, they also find their explanation as intellectual dispositions, habits, which are used when we state judgments, and De Anna does indeed a great job at clarifying this important discussion. (shrink)
This new anthology offers a wide selection of readings addressing the contemporary moral issues that arise from the division between the Global North and South—“the problem of the color-line” that W.E.B. Du Bois identified at the beginning of the twentieth century and which, on a scale that Du Bois could not have foreseen, is the problem of the twenty-first. The book is interdisciplinary in scope. In addition to standard topical essays in ethical theory by philosophers such as Anthony Appiah, (...) class='Hi'>Martha Nussbaum, and Peter Singer, it contains essays from economists such as Amartya Sen, Joseph Stiglitz, and Thomas DeGregori, as well as current empirical data from the World Bank, IMF, United Nations, and other sources. (shrink)
Since the 1930s, scientists studying the neurological disease scrapie had assumed that the infectious agent was a virus. By the mid 1960s, however, several unconventional properties had arisen that were difficult to reconcile with the standard viral model. Evidence for nucleic acid within the pathogen was lacking, and some researchers considered the possibility that the infectious agent consisted solely of protein. In 1982, Stanley Prusiner coined the term `prion' to emphasize the agent's proteinaceous nature. This infectious protein hypothesis was denounced (...) by many scientists as `heretical'.This two-part essay asks why the concept of an infectious protein was considered controversial. Some biologists justified their evaluation of this hypothesis on the grounds that an infectious protein contradicted the `central dogma of molecular biology'. Others referred to vague theoretical constraints such as molecular biology's `theoretical structure' or `framework'. Examination of the objections raised by researchers reveals exactly what generalizations were being challenged by a protein model of infection.This two-part survey of scrapie and prion research reaches several conclusions: A theoretical framework is present in molecular biology, exerting its influence in hypothesis formation and evaluation; This framework consists of several related, yet separable, generalizations or `elements', including Francis Crick's Central Dogma and Sequence Hypothesis, plus notions concerning infection, replication, protein synthesis, and protein folding; The term `central dogma' has stretched beyond Crick's original 1958 definition to encompass at least two other `framework elements': replication and protein synthesis; and From the study of scrapie and related diseases, biological information has been delineated into at least two classes: sequential and what I call `conformational'.In Part I of this essay, a brief review of the central dogma was given, and the developments in scrapie research from 1965 to 1972 were traced. This section summarized many of the puzzling, non-virus-like properties of the scrapie agent. Alternative hypotheses to the viral explanation were presented, including early versions of a protein-only hypothesis. Part II of this essay will follow the developments in scrapie and prion research from the mid-1970s through 1991. The growing prominence of a protein-only model of infection will be countered by continued objections from many researchers to a pathogen devoid of nucleic acid. These objections will help illuminate those generalizations in molecular biology that were indeed challenged by a protein-only model of infection. (shrink)