Results for 'Neurons'

757 found
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  1. Mirror Neurons and Social Cognition.Shannon Spaulding - 2013 - Mind and Language 28 (2):233-257.
    Mirror neurons are widely regarded as an important key to social cognition. Despite such wide agreement, there is very little consensus on how or why they are important. The goal of this paper is to clearly explicate the exact role mirror neurons play in social cognition. I aim to answer two questions about the relationship between mirroring and social cognition: What kind of social understanding is involved with mirroring? How is mirroring related to that understanding? I argue that (...)
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  2. Mirror Neurons Are Not Evidence for the Simulation Theory.Spaulding Shannon - 2012 - Synthese 189 (3):515-534.
    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in theories of mindreading. New discoveries in neuroscience have revitalized the languishing debate. The discovery of so-called mirror neurons has revived interest particularly in the Simulation Theory (ST) of mindreading. Both ST proponents and theorists studying mirror neurons have argued that mirror neurons are strong evidence in favor of ST over Theory Theory (TT). In this paper I argue against the prevailing view that mirror neurons are evidence for (...)
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  3. As If: Connecting Phenomenology, Mirror Neurons, Empathy, and Laughter.Chris A. Kramer - 2012 - Phaenex 7 (1):275-308.
    The discovery of mirror neurons in both primates and humans has led to an enormous amount of research and speculation as to how conscious beings are able to interact so effortlessly among one another. Mirror neurons might provide an embodied basis for passive synthesis and the eventual process of further communalization through empathy, as envisioned by Edmund Husserl. I consider the possibility of a phenomenological and scientific investigation of laughter as a point of connection that might in the (...)
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  4. After All, It’s Still Replication: A Reply to Jacob on Simulation and Mirror Neurons.Luca Barlassina - 2011 - Res Cogitans 8 (1):92-111.
    Mindreading is the ability to attribute mental states to other individuals. According to the simulation theory (ST), mindreading is based on the ability the mind has of replicating others' mental states and processes. Mirror neurons (MNs) are a class of neurons that fire both when an agent performs a goal-directed action and when she observes the same type of action performed by another individual. Since MNs appear to form a replicative mechanism in which a portion of the observer's (...)
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  5.  31
    Mirror Neurons and Practices: A Response to Lizardo.Stephen P. Turner - 2007 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 37 (3):351–371.
    Lizardo argues that The Social Theory of Practices is refuted by the discovery of mirror neurons. The book argues that the kind of sameness of tacit mental content assumed by practice theorists such as Bourdieu is fictional, because there is no actual process by which the same mental content can be transmitted. Mirror neurons, Lizardo claims, provide such a mechanism, as they imply that bodily automatisms, which can be understood as the basis of habitus and concepts, can be (...)
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  6. Making Sense of Mirror Neurons.Lawrence Shapiro - 2009 - Synthese 167 (3):439 - 456.
    The discovery of mirror neurons has been hailed as one of the most exciting developments in neuroscience in the past few decades. These neurons discharge in response to the observation of others’ actions. But how are we to understand the function of these neurons? In this paper I defend the idea that mirror neurons are best conceived as components of a sensory system that has the function to perceive action. In short, mirror neurons are part (...)
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  7. Embodied Simulation: From Neurons to Phenomenal Experience. [REVIEW]Vittorio Gallese - 2005 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 4 (1):23-48.
    The same neural structures involved in the unconscious modeling of our acting body in space also contribute to our awareness of the lived body and of the objects that the world contains. Neuroscientific research also shows that there are neural mechanisms mediating between the multi-level personal experience we entertain of our lived body, and the implicit certainties we simultaneously hold about others. Such personal and body-related experiential knowledge enables us to understand the actions performed by others, and to directly decode (...)
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  8. What Do Mirror Neurons Contribute to Human Social Cognition?Pierre Jacob - 2008 - Mind and Language 23 (2):190–223.
    According to an influential view, one function of mirror neurons (MNs), first discovered in the brain of monkeys, is to underlie third-person mindreading. This view relies on two assumptions: the activity of MNs in an observer’s brain matches (simulates or resonates with) that of MNs in an agent’s brain and this resonance process retrodictively generates a representation of the agent’s intention from a perception of her movement. In this paper, I criticize both assumptions and I argue instead that the (...)
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  9.  9
    Untangling the Cortex: Advances in Understanding Specification and Differentiation of Corticospinal Motor Neurons.Lorelei D. Shoemaker & Paola Arlotta - 2010 - Bioessays 32 (3):197-206.
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  10.  8
    «Learning to See». The Role of the Mirror Neurons System, Between Neuroscience of Perception and Ordinary Language Analysis.Fausto Caruana - 2010 - Rivista di Filosofia 101 (3):333-354.
  11. Dichoptic Visual Masking Reveals That Early Binocular Neurons Exhibit Weak Interocular Suppression: Implications for Binocular Vision and Visual Awareness.Stephen L. Macknik & Susana Martinez-Conde - 2004 - Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 16 (6):1049-1059.
  12.  82
    Where Do Mirror Neurons Come From?Cecilia Heyes - forthcoming - Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews.
    1. Properties of mirror neurons in monkeys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (...)
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  13. If Mirror Neurons Are the Answer, What Was the Question?Emma Borg - 2007 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (8):5-19.
    Mirror neurons are neurons which fire in two distinct conditions: (i) when an agent performs a specific action, like a precision grasp of an object using fingers, and (ii) when an agent observes that action performed by another. Some theorists have suggested that the existence of such neurons may lend support to the simulation approach to mindreading (e.g. Gallese and Goldman, 1998, 'Mirror neurons and the simulation theory of mind reading'). In this note I critically examine (...)
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  14. Beyond Sensorimotor Segregation: On Mirror Neurons and Social Affordance Space Tracking.Maria Brincker - 2015 - Cognitive Systems Research 34:18-34.
    Mirror neuron research has come a long way since the early 1990s, and many theorists are now stressing the heterogeneity and complexity of the sensorimotor properties of fronto-parietal circuits. However, core aspects of the initial ‘ mirror mechanism ’ theory, i.e. the idea of a symmetric encapsulated mirroring function translating sensory action perceptions into motor formats, still appears to be shaping much of the debate. This article challenges the empirical plausibility of the sensorimotor segregation implicit in the original mirror metaphor. (...)
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  15. Mirror Neurons and the Simulation Theory of Mind-Reading.Vittorio Gallese & Alvin Goldman - 1998 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2 (12):493-501.
  16. Macaque Mirror Neurons.Colin Allen - manuscript
    Primatologists generally agree that monkeys lack higher-order intentional capacities related to theory of mind. Yet the discovery of the so-called “mirror neurons” in monkeys suggests to many neuroscientists that they have the rudiments of intentional understanding. Given a standard philosophical view about intentional understanding, which requires higher-order intentionality, a paradox arises. Different ways of resolving the paradox are assessed, using evidence from neural, cognitive, and behavioral studies of humans and monkeys. A decisive resolution to the paradox requires substantial additional (...)
     
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  17.  75
    A Philosopher's Reflections on the Discovery of Mirror Neurons.Pierre Jacob - 2009 - Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (3):570-595.
    Mirror neurons fire both when a primate executes a transitive action directed toward a target (e.g., grasping) and when he observes the same action performed by another. According to the prevalent interpretation, action-mirroring is a process of interpersonal neural similarity whereby an observer maps the agent's perceived movements onto her own motor repertoire. Furthermore, ever since Gallese and Goldman's (1998) influential paper, action-mirroring has been linked to third-person mindreading on the grounds that it enables an observer to represent the (...)
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  18.  43
    Imitation, Mirror Neurons and Autism.Justin H. G. Williams, Andrew Whiten, Thomas Suddendorf & David I. Perrett - 2001 - Philosophical Explorations.
    Various deficits in the cognitive functioning of people with autism have been documented in recent years but these provide only partial explanations for the condition. We focus instead on an imitative disturbance involving difficulties both in copying actions and in inhibiting more stereotyped mimicking, such as echolalia. A candidate for the neural basis of this disturbance may be found in a recently discovered class of neurons in frontal cortex, 'mirror neurons' (MNs). These neurons show activity in relation (...)
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  19.  67
    What Do Mirror Neurons Mirror?Sebo Uithol, Iris van Rooij, Harold Bekkering & Pim Haselager - 2011 - Philosophical Psychology 24 (5):607 - 623.
    Single cell recordings in monkeys provide strong evidence for an important role of the motor system in action understanding. This evidence is backed up by data from studies of the (human) mirror neuron system using neuroimaging or TMS techniques, and behavioral experiments. Although the data acquired from single cell recordings are generally considered to be robust, several debates have shown that the interpretation of these data is far from straightforward. We will show that research based on single-cell recordings allows for (...)
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  20. Why Our Brains Cherish Humanity: Mirror Neurons and Colamus Humanitatem.Dr John R. Skoyles - 2008 - Cogprints.
    Commonsense says we are isolated. After all, our bodies are physically separate. But Seneca’s colamus humanitatem, and John Donne’s observation that “no man is an island” suggests we are neither entirely isolated nor separate. A recent discovery in neuroscience—that of mirror neurons—argues that the brain and the mind is neither built nor functions remote from what happens in other individuals. What are mirror neurons? They are brain cells that process both what happens to or is done by an (...)
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  21.  18
    Interactional Expertise Through the Looking Glass: A Peek at Mirror Neurons.Theresa Schilhab - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 38 (4):741-747.
    Interactional expertise is here to stay. Undoubtedly, in some sense of the word, one can attain a linguistic expert level within a field without full scale practical immersion. In the context of the idea of embodied cognition, the claim is provocative. How can an interactional expert acquire full linguistic competence without the simultaneous bodily engagement and real life interaction needed to get the language right? How can one understand the concept of hammering if one has never seen a hammer or (...)
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  22. Movement and Mirror Neurons: A Challenging and Choice Conversation. [REVIEW]Maxine Sheets-Johnstone - 2012 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 11 (3):385-401.
    This paper raises fundamental questions about the claims of art historian David Freedberg and neuroscientist Vittorio Gallese in their article "Motion, Emotion and Empathy in Esthetic Experience." It does so from several perspectives, all of them rooted in the dynamic realities of movement. It shows on the basis of neuroscientific research how connectivity and pruning are of unmistakable import in the interneuronal dynamic patternings in the human brain from birth onward. In effect, it shows that mirror neurons are contingent (...)
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  23. Mirror Neurons and the Phenomenology of Intersubjectivity.Dieter Lohmar - 2006 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 5 (1):5-16.
    The neurological discovery of mirror neurons is of eminent importance for the phenomenological theory of intersubjectivity. G. Rizzolatti and V. Gallese found in experiments with primates that a set of neurons in the premotor cortex represents the visually registered movements of another animal. The activity of these mirror neurons presents exactly the same pattern of activity as appears in the movement of one's own body. These findings may be extended to other cognitive and emotive functions in humans. (...)
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  24.  18
    More Questions for Mirror Neurons.Emma Borg - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):1122-1131.
    The mirror neuron system is widely held to provide direct access to the motor goals of others. This paper critically investigates this idea, focusing on the so-called ‘intentional worry’. I explore two answers to the intentional worry: first that the worry is premised on too limited an understanding of mirror neuron behaviour, second that the appeal made to mirror neurons can be refined in such a way as to avoid the worry. I argue that the first response requires an (...)
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  25.  63
    Mirror Neurons: This is the Question.Corrado Sinigaglia - 2008 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 15 (s 10-11):70-92.
    Despite the impressive body of evidence supporting the existence of a mirror neuron (MN) system for action, the original claim regarding its crucial role in action understanding remains controversial. Emma Borg has recently launched a sharp attack on this claim, with the aim of demonstrating that neither the original version nor the subsequent revisions of the MN hypothesis tell us very much about how intentional attribution actually works. In this article I take up the challenge she issues in the title (...)
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  26.  1
    Deciphering Mirror Neurons: Rational Decision Versus Associative Learning.Elias L. Khalil - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (2):206-207.
    The rational-decision approach is superior to the associative-learning approach of Cook et al. at explaining why mirror neurons (MNs) fire or do not fire – even when the stimulus is the same. The rational-decision approach is superior because it starts with the analysis of the intention of the organism, i.e., with the identification of the specific objective or goal that the organism is trying to maximize.
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  27.  75
    Mirror Neurons and the Evolution of Brain and Language.Maxim I. Stamenov & Vittorio Gallese (eds.) - 2002 - John Benjamins.
    Selected contributions to the symposium on "Mirror neurons and the evolution of brain and language" held on July 5-8, 2000 in Delmenhorst, Germany.
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  28.  15
    From Mirror Neurons to Joint Actions.Elisabeth Pacherie & Jérôme Dokic - unknown
    The discovery of mirror neurons has given rise to a number of interpretations of their functions together with speculations on their potential role in the evolution of specifically human capacities. Thus, mirror neurons have been thought to ground many aspects of human social cognition, including the capacity to engage in cooperative collective actions and to understand them. We propose an evaluation of this latter claim. On the one hand, we will argue that mirror neurons do not by (...)
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  29.  17
    I Feel Your Pain: Embodied Knowledges and Situated Neurons.Victoria Pitts‐Taylor - 2013 - Hypatia 28 (4):852-869.
    The widely touted discovery of mirror neurons has generated intense scientific interest in the neurobiology of intersubjectivity. Social neuroscientists have claimed that mirror neurons, located in brain regions associated with motor action, facial recognition, and somatosensory processing, allow us to automatically grasp other people's intentions and emotions. Despite controversies, mirror neuron research is animating materialist, affective, and embodied accounts of intersubjectivity. My view is that mirror neurons raise issues that are directly relevant to feminism and cultural studies, (...)
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  30.  49
    A Possible Role for Cholinergic Neurons of the Basal Forebrain and Pontomesencephalon in Consciousness.Nancy J. Woolf - 1997 - Consciousness and Cognition 6 (4):574-596.
    Excitation at widely dispersed loci in the cerebral cortex may represent a neural correlate of consciousness. Accordingly, each unique combination of excited neurons would determine the content of a conscious moment. This conceptualization would be strengthened if we could identify what orchestrates the various combinations of excited neurons. In the present paper, cholinergic afferents to the cerebral cortex are hypothesized to enhance activity at specific cortical circuits and determine the content of a conscious moment by activating certain combinations (...)
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  31.  88
    Constructing the Space of Action: From Bio-Robotics to Mirror Neurons.Massimiliano Cappuccio - 2009 - World Futures 65 (2):126 – 132.
    This article distinguishes three archetypal ways of articulating spatial cognition: (1) via metric representation of objective geometry, (2) via somatosensory constitution of the peripersonal environment, and (3) via pragmatic comprehension of the finalistic sense of action. The last one is documented by neuroscientific studies concerning mirror neurons. Bio-robotic experiments implementing mirror functions confirm the constitutive role of goal-oriented actions in spatial processes.
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  32.  21
    Mirror Neurons as a Conceptual Mechanism?Cristina Meini & Alfredo Paternoster - 2012 - Mind and Society 11 (2):183-201.
    The functional role of mirror neurons has been assessed in many different ways. They have been regarded, inter alia, as the core mechanism of mind reading, the mechanism of language understanding, the mechanism of imitation. In this paper we will discuss the thesis according to which MNs are a conceptual mechanism. This hypothesis is attractive since it could accommodate in an apparently simple way all the above-mentioned interpretations. We shall take into consideration some reasons suggesting the conceptualist characterization of (...)
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  33.  4
    Imitation of Affects and Mirror Neurons: Exploring Empathy in Spinoza’s Theory and Contemporary Neuroscience.Boukouvala Αnna - 2017 - Philosophia 45 (3):1007-1017.
    In Spinoza’s philosophy affects illustrate the way human beings interact with each other and the world, where the necessary meetings with other particular things define their being and its expressions. Most human beings don’t know themselves, are not conscious of their affects and, even less, do they know what the affects of others are. Although, they are by their definition as particular things obliged to exist in society and create a minimum of consensus. According to Spinoza, this consensus is built (...)
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  34. Do Mirror Neurons Support a Simulation Theory of Mind-Reading?Anna Christina Ribeiro - manuscript
    Both macaque monkeys and humans have been shown to have what are called ‘mirror neurons’, a class of neurons that respond to goal-related motor-actions, both when these actions are performed by the subject and when they are performed by another individual observed by the subject. Gallese and Goldman (1998) contend that mirror neurons may be seen as ‘a part of, or a precursor to, a more general mind- reading ability’, and that of the two competing theories of (...)
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  35.  16
    What is Mirrored by Mirror Neurons?Benjamin Rathgeber & Mathias Gutmann - 2008 - Poiesis and Praxis 5 (3-4):233-247.
    Mirror neurons are a particular class of visumotorical neurons, originally discovered in area F5 of the monkey premotorical cortex. They discharge both (1) when the animal performs a specific action and (2) when it observes a similar action. Actually, it is often assumed that this unique functioning could explain different abilities ranging from imitation behaviour to faculty of speech. In this article, we discuss the question what is meant by the expression: The neuron x mirrors the action y (...)
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  36.  37
    Chaotic Neurons and Analog Computation.Aihara Kazuyuki & Kyung Ryeu Jun - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):810-811.
    Chaotic dynamics can be related to analog computation. A possibility of electronically implementing the chaos -driven contracting system in the target article is explored with an analog electronic circuit with inevitable noise from the viewpoint of analog computation with chaotic neurons.
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  37.  21
    Hominin Infant Decentration Hypothesis: Mirror Neurons System Adapted to Subserve Mother-Centered Participation.Stein Braten - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (4):508-509.
    Falk's hominin mother-infant model presupposes an emerging infant capacity to perceive and learn from afforded gestures and vocalizations. Unlike back-riding offspring of other primates, who were in no need to decenter their own body-centered perspective, a mirror neurons system may have been adapted in hominin infants to subserve the kind of (m)other-centered mirroring we now see manifested by human infants soon after birth.
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  38.  1
    Evolutionary Origin of Synapses and Neurons - Bridging the Gap.Pawel Burkhardt & Simon G. Sprecher - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (10):1700024.
    The evolutionary origin of synapses and neurons is an enigmatic subject that inspires much debate. Non-bilaterian metazoans, both with and without neurons and their closest relatives already contain many components of the molecular toolkits for synapse functions. The origin of these components and their assembly into ancient synaptic signaling machineries are particularly important in light of recent findings on the phylogeny of non-bilaterian metazoans. The evolution of synapses and neurons are often discussed only from a metazoan perspective (...)
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  39.  21
    Reuse of Identified Neurons in Multiple Neural Circuits.Jeremy E. Niven, Lars Chittka & Michael L. Anderson - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (4):285.
    The growing recognition by cognitive neuroscientists that areas of vertebrate brains may be reused for multiple purposes either functionally during development or during evolution echoes a similar realization made by neuroscientists working on invertebrates. Because of these animals' relatively more accessible nervous systems, neuronal reuse can be examined at the level of individual identified neurons and fully characterized neural circuits.
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  40. Is empathy is mental simulation? Remarks on the representative approach based on the concept of mirror neurons.Paweł Gładziejewski - 2011 - Diametros:108-129.
    Paweł Gładziejewski, Is empathy is mental simulation? Remarks on the representative approach based on the concept of mirror neurons., Diametros 27 This paper draws on the theoretical achievements of analytic philosophy of mind and the empirical results of psychology and cognitive neuroscience in order to understand the nature of empathy and the sub-personal mechanisms upon which it is based. The paper distinguishes two types of empathy, which are often not sufficiently clearly distinguished in the literature, empathy as a kind (...)
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  41.  45
    Mirror Neurons: A Sensorimotor Representation System.Vittorio Gallese & Christian Keysers - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):983-984.
    Positing the importance of sensorimotor contingencies for perception is by no means denying the presence and importance of representations. Using the evidence of mirror neurons we will show the intrinsic relationship between action control and representation within the logic of forward models.
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  42.  35
    Mesial Frontal Cortex and Super Mirror Neurons.Marco Iacoboni - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (1):30-30.
    Depth electrode recordings in the human mesial frontal cortex have revealed individual neurons with mirror properties. A third of these cells have excitatory properties during action execution and inhibitory properties during action observation. These cells provide the neural mechanism that implements the functions of layers 3+4 of the shared circuits model (SCM).
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  43.  8
    Bodies Divide, Minds Unite: Mirror Neurons and Leibniz's Philosophy of Mind.Alessia Pannese - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (3):264-270.
    Among Leibniz’s contributions to the philosophy of mind, two topics bear relevance to contemporary discussions in cognitive sciences: the mind-body problem, and the universal language. Leibniz’s deterministic view rejects inter-substance causality between mental and bodily states, as well as between mental or bodily states of different individuals. In addition, Leibniz believed in the need to enhance communication through a universal language based on symbolic representations. Here I reconsider Leibniz’s ideas in the light of experimental evidence coming from mirror neurons. (...)
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  44.  1
    Intentional and Skillful Neurons.Jens Erling Birch - 2017 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 11 (3):339-356.
    In the mid-1990s, there was a major neuroscientific discovery which might drastically alter sport science in general and philosophy of sport in particular. The discovery of mirror neurons by Giacomo Rizzolatti and colleagues in Parma, Italy, is a substantial contribution to understanding brains, movements, and humans. Famous neuroscientist V. S. Ramachandran believes the discovery of mirror neurons ‘will do for psychology what DNA did for biology’. Somehow mirror neurons have not received the deserved attention in the philosophy (...)
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  45.  3
    More Questions for Mirror Neurons.Borg Emma - unknown
    The mirror neuron system is widely held to provide direct access to the motor goals of others. This paper critically investigates this idea, focusing on the so-called ‘intentional worry’. I explore two answers to the intentional worry: first that the worry is premised on too limited an understanding of mirror neuron behaviour, second that the appeal made to mirror neurons can be refined in such a way as to avoid the worry. I argue that the first response requires an (...)
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  46.  27
    What Happened to Homo Habilis? (Language and Mirror Neurons).Giacomo Rizzolatti - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):527-528.
    The evolutionary continuity between the prespeech functions of premotor cortex and its new linguistic functions, the main thesis of MacNeilage's target article, is confirmed by the recent discovery of “mirror” neurons in monkeys and a corresponding action-observation/action-execution matching system in humans. Physiological data (and other considerations) appear to indicate, however, that brachiomanual gestures played a greater role in language evolution than MacNeilage would like to admit.
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  47.  17
    The Neuron Doctrine is an Insult to Neurons.Stuart Hameroff - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):838-839.
    As presently implemented, the neuron doctrine (ND) portrays the brain's neurons and chemical synapses as fundamental components in a computer-like switching circuit, supporting a view of brain = mind = computer. However, close examination reveals individual neurons to be far more complex than simple switches, with enormous capacity for intracellular information processing (e.g., in the internal cytoskeleton). Other poorly appreciated factors (gap junctions, apparent randomness, dendritic-dendritic processing, possible quantum computation, the living state) also suggest that the ND grossly (...)
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  48. Apraxia, Metaphor and Mirror Neurons.V. S. Ramachandran - unknown
    Summary Ideomotor apraxia is a cognitive disorder in which the patient loses the ability to accurately perform learned, skilled actions. This is despite normal limb power and coordination. It has long been known that left supramarginal gyrus lesions cause bilateral upper limb apraxia and it was proposed that this area stored a visualkinaesthetic image of the skilled action, which was translated elsewhere in the brain into the pre-requisite movement formula. We hypothesise that, rather than these two functions occurring separately, both (...)
     
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  49.  13
    How Good Are Formal Neurons for Modelling Real Ones?E. N. Miranda - 1997 - Acta Biotheoretica 45 (2):171-179.
    A formal neuron has been studied mathematically. The spiking behaviour of a single neuron has been considered and the influence of the other neurons has been replaced by an average activity level. Four different kinds of spiking behaviour are predicted by the model: B (bursts), C (continuous), P (periodic) and S (silent) neurons and several real neurons can be classified within these four categories. Some properties of the spiking neuron are calculated: 1) the time between spikes, 2) (...)
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  50.  6
    Mirror Neurons Are Central for a Second-Person Neuroscience: Insights From Developmental Studies.Elizabeth Ann Simpson & Pier Francesco Ferrari - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (4):438 - 438.
    Based on mirror neurons' properties, viewers are emotionally engaged when observing others infant interactions.
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