97 found
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  1.  7
    Genetics and Reductionism.Sahotra Sarkar - 1998 - Cambridge University Press.
    With the advent of the Human Genome Project there have been many claims for the genetic origins of complex human behavior including insanity, criminality, and intelligence. But what does it really mean to call something 'genetic'? This is the fundamental question that Sahotra Sarkar's book addresses. The author analyses the nature of reductionism in classical and molecular genetics. He shows that there are two radically different kinds of reductionist explanation: genetic reduction and physical reduction . This important book clarifies the (...)
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  2.  60
    Biodiversity and Environmental Philosophy: An Introduction.Sahotra Sarkar - 2005 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book explores the epistemological and ethical issues at the foundations of environmental philosophy, emphasising the conservation of biodiversity. Sahota Sarkar criticises attempts to attribute intrinsic value to nature and defends an anthropocentric position on biodiversity conservation based on an untraditional concept of transformative value. Unlike other studies in the field of environmental philosophy, this book is as much concerned with epistemological issues as with environmental ethics. It covers a broad range of topics, including problems of explanation and prediction in (...)
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  3. Genetics and Reductionism.Sahotra Sarkar - 2000 - Philosophical Quarterly 50 (198):128-130.
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  4. Models of Reduction and Categories of Reductionism.Sahotra Sarkar - 1992 - Synthese 91 (3):167-94.
    A classification of models of reduction into three categories — theory reductionism, explanatory reductionism, and constitutive reductionism — is presented. It is shown that this classification helps clarify the relations between various explications of reduction that have been offered in the past, especially if a distinction is maintained between the various epistemological and ontological issues that arise. A relatively new model of explanatory reduction, one that emphasizes that reduction is the explanation of a whole in terms of its parts is (...)
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  5.  84
    Molecular Models of Life: Philosophical Papers on Molecular Biology.Sahotra Sarkar - 2004 - Bradford.
    Despite the transformation in biological practice and theory brought about by discoveries in molecular biology, until recently philosophy of biology continued to focus on evolutionary biology. When the Human Genome Project got underway in the late 1980s and early 1990s, philosophers of biology -- unlike historians and social scientists -- had little to add to the debate. In this landmark collection of essays, Sahotra Sarkar broadens the scope of current discussions of the philosophy of biology, viewing molecular biology as a (...)
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  6. Doubting Darwin: Creationist Designs in Evolution.Sahotra Sarkar - 2007 - Blackwell.
  7.  59
    Environmental Philosophy: From Theory to Practice.Sahotra Sarkar - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 45 (1):89-91.
    Environmental philosophy is a hybrid discipline drawing extensively from epistemology, ethics, and philosophy of science and analyzing disciplines such as conservation biology, restoration ecology, sustainability studies, and political ecology. The book being discussed both provides an overview of environmental philosophy and develops an anthropocentric framework for it. That framework treats natural values as deep cultural values. Tradeoffs between natural values are analyzed using decision theory to the extent possible, leaving many interesting question for philosophical deliberation. This framework is supposed to (...)
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  8.  33
    Environmental Philosophy: From Theory to Practice.Sahotra Sarkar - 2011 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    The first comprehensive treatment of environmental philosophy, going beyond ethics to address the philosophical concepts that underlie environmental thinking and policy-making today Encompasses all of environmental philosophy, including conservation biology, restoration ecology, sustainability, environmental justice, and more Offers the first treatment of decision theory in an environmental philosophy text Explores the conceptions of nature and ethical presuppositions that underlie contemporary environmental debates, and, moving from theory to practice, shows how decision theory translates to public policy Addresses both hot-button issues, including (...)
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  9.  47
    Nagel on Reduction.Sahotra Sarkar - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 53:43-56.
    This paper attempts a critical reappraisal of Nagel's (1961, 1970) model of reduction taking into account both traditional criticisms and recent defenses. This model treats reduction as a type of explanation in which a reduced theory is explained by a reducing theory after their relevant representational items have been suitably connected. In accordance with the deductive-nomological model, the explanation is supposed to consist of a logical deduction. Nagel was a pluralist about both the logical form of the connections between the (...)
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  10.  94
    Information in Genetics and Developmental Biology: Comments on Maynard Smith.Sahotra Sarkar - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (2):208-213.
    Maynard Smith notes that he provides a natural history and not a philosophical analysis of the use of concepts of information in contemporary biology. Just a natural history, however rich, would do little to resolve the ongoing controversy about the role of these concepts in biology. None of the disputants deny that the biological use of these concepts is pervasive. The dispute is about whether these concepts—and the framework in which they are embedded—continue to be of explanatory value in contemporary (...)
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  11.  51
    A Companion to the Philosophy of Biology.Sahotra Sarkar & Anya Plutynski (eds.) - 2008 - Blackwell.
    Comprised of essays by top scholars in the field, this volume offers concise overviews of philosophical issues raised by biology. Brings together a team of eminent scholars to explore the philosophical issues raised by biology Addresses traditional and emerging topics, spanning molecular biology and genetics, evolution, developmental biology, immunology, ecology, mind and behaviour, neuroscience, and experimentation Begins with a thorough introduction to the field Goes beyond previous treatments that focused only on evolution to give equal attention to other areas, such (...)
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  12. Defining “Biodiversity”; Assessing Biodiversity.Sahotra Sarkar - 2001 - The Monist 85 (1):131-155.
    This paper analyzes the concept of biodiversity in conservation biology and assesses potential methods for its measurement.
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  13.  97
    From the reaktionsNorm to the Adaptive Norm: The Norm of Reaction, 1909–1960. [REVIEW]Sahotra Sarkar - 1999 - Biology and Philosophy 14 (2):235-252.
  14.  1
    A Companion to the Philosophy of Biology.Sahotra Sarkar & Anya Plutynski (eds.) - 2010 - Wiley/Blackwell.
    Comprised of essays by top scholars in the field, this volume offers detailed overviews of philosophical issues raised by biology. Brings together a team of eminent scholars to explore the philosophical issues raised by biology Addresses traditional and emerging topics, spanning molecular biology and genetics, evolution, developmental biology, immunology, ecology, mind and behaviour, neuroscience, and experimentation Begins with a thorough introduction to the field Goes beyond previous treatments that focused only on evolution to give equal attention to other areas, such (...)
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  15. The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia.Sahotra Sarkar & Jessica Pfeifer (eds.) - 2005 - Routledge.
    The philosophy of science is the branch of philosophy that examines the profound philosophical questions that arise from scientific research and theories. A sub-discipline of philosophy that emerged in the twentieth century, the philosophy of science is largely a product of the British and Austrian schools of thought and traditions. The first in-depth reference in the field that combines scientific knowledge with philosophical inquiry, The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia is a two-volume set that brings together an international team of (...)
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  16.  69
    Did Malament Prove the Non-Conventionality of Simultaneity in the Special Theory of Relativity?Sahotra Sarkar & John Stachel - 1999 - Philosophy of Science 66 (2):208-220.
    David Malament's (1977) well-known result, which is often taken to show the uniqueness of the Poincare-Einstein convention for defining simultaneity, involves an unwarranted physical assumption: that any simultaneity relation must remain invariant under temporal reflections. Once that assumption is removed, his other criteria for defining simultaneity are also satisfied by membership in the same backward (forward) null cone of the family of such cones with vertices on an inertial path. What is then unique about the Poincare-Einstein convention is that it (...)
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  17. The Science Question in Intelligent Design.Sahotra Sarkar - 2011 - Synthese 178 (2):291-305.
    Intelligent Design creationism is often criticized for failing to be science because it falls afoul of some demarcation criterion between science and non-science. This paper argues that this objection to Intelligent Design is misplaced because it assumes that a consistent non-theological characterization of Intelligent Design is possible. In contrast, it argues that, if Intelligent Design is taken to be non-theological doctrine, it is not intelligible. Consequently, a demarcation criterion cannot be used to judge its status. This position has the added (...)
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  18.  47
    The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Biodiversity.Justin Garson, Anya Plutynski & Sahotra Sarkar (eds.) - 2017 - Routledge.
    Biological diversity - or ‘biodiversity’ - is the degree of variation of life within an ecosystem. It is a relatively new topic of study but has grown enormously in recent years. Because of its interdisciplinary nature the very concept of biodiversity is the subject of debate amongst philosophers, biologists, geographers and environmentalists. The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Biodiversity is an outstanding reference source to the key topics and debates in this exciting subject. Comprising twenty-three chapters by a team of (...)
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  19.  3
    The Philosophy and History of Molecular Biology: New Perspectives.Sahotra Sarkar (ed.) - 1996 - Kluwer Academic.
    This book is a collection of papers which reflect the recent trends in the philosophy and history of molecular biology. It brings together historians, philosophers, and molecular biologists who reflect on the discipline's emergence in the 1950's, its explosive growth, and the directions in which it is going. Questions addressed include: (i) what are the limits of molecular biology? (ii) What is the relation of molecular biology to older subdisciplines of biology, especially biochemistry? (iii) Are there theories in molecular biology? (...)
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  20.  64
    Hierarchy Perspectives for Ecological Complexity.Sahotra Sarkar - 1982
  21.  6
    A Sustainable Philosophy—the Work of Bryan Norton.Ben Minteer & Sahotra Sarkar (eds.) - 2018 - Springer Verlag.
    This book provides a richly interdisciplinary assessment of the thought and work of Bryan Norton, one of most innovative and influential environmental philosophers of the past thirty years. In landmark works such as Toward Unity Among Environmentalists and Sustainability: A Philosophy of Adaptive Ecosystem Management, Norton charted a new and highly productive course for an applied environmental philosophy, one fully engaged with the natural and social sciences as well as the management professions. A Sustainable Philosophy gathers together a distinguished group (...)
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  22.  27
    The Human Genome Project: Has Blind Reductionism Gone Too Far?Alfred I. Tauber & Sahotra Sarkar - 1992 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 35 (2):220-235.
  23.  57
    A Note on Frequency Dependence and the Levels/Units of Selection.Sahotra Sarkar - 2008 - Biology and Philosophy 23 (2):217-228.
    On the basis of distinctions between those properties of entities that can be defined without reference to other entities and those that (in different ways) cannot, this note argues that non-trivial forms of frequency-dependent selection of entities should be interpreted as selection occurring at a level higher than that of those entities. It points out that, except in degenerately simple cases, evolutionary game-theoretic models of selection are not models of individual selection. Similarly, models of genotypic selection such as heterosis cannot (...)
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  24.  12
    Habitat Reconstruction: Moving Beyond Historical Fidelity.Sahotra Sarkar - 2011 - In Kevin deLaplante, Bryson Brown & Kent A. Peacock (eds.), Philosophy of Ecology. North-Holland. pp. 11--327.
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  25. From Ecological Diversity to Biodiversity.Sahotra Sarkar - 2007 - In David L. Hull & Michael Ruse (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Cambridge University Press.
  26.  42
    The Real Objective of Mendel's Paper: A Response to Monaghan and Corcos. [REVIEW]Raphael Falk & Sahotra Sarkar - 1991 - Biology and Philosophy 6 (4):447-451.
    Mendel's work in hybridization is ipso facto a study in inheritance. He is explicit in his interest to formulate universal generalizations, and at least in the case of the independent segregation of traits, he formulated his conclusions in the form of a law. Mendel did not discern, however, the inheritance of traits from that of the potential for traits. Choosing to study discrete non-overlapping traits, this did not hamper his efforts.
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  27. Evolutionary Theory in the 1920s: The Nature of the “Synthesis”.Sahotra Sarkar - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 71 (5):1215-1226.
    This paper analyzes the development of evolutionary theory in the period from 1918 to 1932. It argues that: (i) Fisher's work in 1918 constituted a not fully satisfactory reduction of biometry to Mendelism; (ii) there was a synthesis in the 1920s but that this synthesis was mainly one of classical genetics with population genetics, with Haldane's The Causes of Evolution being its founding document; (iii) the most important achievement of the models of theoretical population genetics was to show that natural (...)
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  28.  48
    Formal Darwinism: Some Questions.Sahotra Sarkar - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):249-257.
    Two questions are raised for Grafen’s formal darwinism project of aligning evolutionary dynamics under natural selection with the optimization of phenotypes for individuals of a population. The first question concerns mean fitness maximization during frequency-dependent selection; in such selection regimes, not only is mean fitness typically not maximized but it is implausible that any parameter closely related to fitness is being maximized. The second question concerns whether natural selection on inclusive fitness differences can be regarded as individual selection or whether (...)
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  29.  8
    In Memoriam: Raphael Falk, 1929–2019.Sahotra Sarkar - 2021 - Biological Theory 16 (1):1-4.
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  30. The Philosophy of Science: An Introduction.Sahotra Sarkar & Pfeifer Jessica - 2006 - In J. Pfeifer & Sahotra Sarkar (eds.), The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press.
  31. Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia.Sahotra Sarkar & Jessica Pfeifer (eds.) - 2015 - Routledge.
  32.  24
    The Selection of Alleles and the Additivity of Variance.Sahotra Sarkar - 1994 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994:3 - 12.
    It is shown that, for technical reasons, the additivity of variance criterion employed by Lloyd (1988) to define a unit of selection is, in almost all models of selection, inconsistent with the possibility that genes are sometimes not the unit of selection. A case when the latter view is particularly attractive is that of heterosis, and the additivity criterion is inadequate in even such an extreme case. The connection between that criterion and the so-called "fundamental theorem of natural selection" is (...)
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  33.  71
    “The Boundless Ocean of Unlimited Possibilities”: Logic in Carnap'slogical Syntax of Language. [REVIEW]Sahotra Sarkar - 1992 - Synthese 93 (1-2):191 - 237.
  34. Sober on Intelligent Design. [REVIEW]Sahotra Sarkar - 2011 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 83 (3):683-691.
    This response to Sober's (2008) Evidence and Evolution draws out and criticizes some consequences of his analysis because of its reliance on a likelihood framework for adjucating the dispute between (Intelligent Design) creationism and evolution. In particular, Sober's analysis does not allow it to be formally claimed that evolutionary theory better explains living phenomena than Intelligent Design and makes irrelevant the contribution of the theory of evolution by natural selection to assessments of the status of the argument from design. Finally, (...)
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  35. Logical Empiricism at its Peak: Schlick, Carnap, and Neurath.Moritz Schlick, Rudolf Carnap, Otto Neurath & Sahotra Sarkar (eds.) - 1996 - Garland.
    A new direction in philosophy Between 1920 and 1940 logical empiricism reset the direction of philosophy of science and much of the rest of Anglo-American philosophy. It began as a relatively organized movement centered on the Vienna Circle, and like-minded philosophers elsewhere, especially in Berlin. As Europe drifted into the Nazi era, several important figures, especially Carnap and Neurath, also found common ground in their liberal politics and radical social agenda. Together, the logical empiricists set out to reform traditional philosophy (...)
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  36. Ecological Diversity and Biodiversity as Concepts for Conservation Planning: Comments on Ricotta.Sahotra Sarkar - 2006 - Acta Biotheoretica 54 (2):133-140.
    Ricotta argues against the existence of a unique measure of biodiversity by pointing out that no known measure of α-diversity satisfies all the adequacy conditions that have traditionally been set for it. While that technical claim is correct, it is not relevant in the context of defining biodiversity which is most usefully measured by β-diversity. The concept of complementarity provides a closely related family of measures of biodiversity which can be used for systematic conservation planning. Moreover, these measures cannot be (...)
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  37. The Principle of Complementarity in the Design of Reserve Networks to Conserve Biodiversity: A Preliminary History.Sahotra Sarkar & James Justus - 2001 - Journal of Biosciences 27:421-435.
    Explicit, quantitative procedures for identifying biodiversity priority areas are replacing the often ad hoc procedures used in the past to design networks of reserves to conserve biodiversity. This change facilitates more informed choices by policy makers, and thereby makes possible greater satisfaction of conservation goals with increased efficiency. A key feature of these procedures is the use of the principle of complementarity, which ensures that areas chosen for inclusion in a reserve network complement those already selected. This paper sketches the (...)
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  38. Drift and the Causes of Evolution.Sahotra Sarkar - 2011 - In Phyllis McKay Illari, Federica Russo & Jon Williamson (eds.), Causality in the Sciences. Oxford University Press. pp. 445.
     
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  39.  32
    The Genomic Challenge to Adaptationism.Sahotra Sarkar - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (3):505-536.
    Since the late 1990s, the characterization of complete DNA sequences for a large and taxonomically diverse set of species has continued to gain in speed and accuracy. Sequence analyses have indicated a strikingly baroque structure for most eukaryotic genomes, with multiple repeats of DNA sequences and with very little of the DNA specifying proteins. Much of the DNA in these genomes has no known function. These results have generated strong interest in the factors that govern the evolution of genome architecture. (...)
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  40.  58
    Harmony From Discord.Raphal Falk & Sahotra Sarkar - 1992 - Biology and Philosophy 7 (4):463-472.
  41.  52
    Carnap and the Compulsions of Interpretation: Reining in the Liberalization of Empiricism. [REVIEW]Sahotra Sarkar - 2013 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (3):353-372.
    Carnap’s work was instrumental to the liberalization of empiricism in the 1930s that transformed the logical positivism of the Vienna Circle to what came to be known as logical empiricism. A central feature of this liberalization was the deployment of the Principle of Tolerance, originally introduced in logic, but now invoked in an epistemological context in “Testability and Meaning”. Immediately afterwards, starting with Foundations of Logic and Mathematics, Carnap embraced semantics and turned to interpretation to guide the choice of a (...)
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  42.  46
    Generalized Norms of Reaction for Ecological Developmental Biology.Sahotra Sarkar & Trevon Fuller - unknown
    A standard norm of reaction (NoR) is a graphical depiction of the phenotypic value of some trait of an individual genotype in a population as a function of an environmental parameter. NoRs thus depict the phenotypic plasticity of a trait. The topological properties of NoRs for sets of different genotypes can be used to infer the presence of (non-linear) genotype-environment interactions. While it is clear that many NoRs are adaptive, it is not yet settled whether their evolutionary etiology should be (...)
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  43.  44
    Conservation Biology.Sahotra Sarkar - 2004 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Conservation biology emerged as an organized academic discipline in the United States in the 1980s though much of its theoretical framework was originally developed in Australia. Significant differences of approach in the two traditions were resolved in the late 1990s through the formulation of a consensus framework for the design and adaptive management of conservation area networks. This entry presents an outline of that framework along with a critical analysis of conceptual issues concerning the four theoretical problems that emerge from (...)
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  44.  9
    Ecology.Sahotra Sarkar - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  45. Philosophy, History, and Molecular Biology—Introduction.Sahotra Sarkar - 1996 - In The Philosophy and History of Molecular Biology: New Perspectives. Kluwer Academic. pp. 1--13.
  46.  58
    The Emergence of Logical Empiricism: From 1900 to the Vienna Circle.Sahotra Sarkar (ed.) - 1996 - Garland Publishing.
    A new direction in philosophy Between 1920 and 1940 logical empiricism reset the direction of philosophy of science and much of the rest of Anglo-American philosophy. It began as a relatively organized movement centered on the Vienna Circle, and like-minded philosophers elsewhere, especially in Berlin. As Europe drifted into the Nazi era, several important figures, especially Carnap and Neurath, also found common ground in their liberal politics and radical social agenda. Together, the logical empiricists set out to reform traditional philosophy (...)
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  47.  17
    Remembering Richard Lewontin.Stuart A. Newman, Peter Godfrey-Smith, Daniel L. Hartl, Philip Kitcher, Diane B. Paul, John Beatty, Sahotra Sarkar, Elliott Sober & William C. Wimsatt - 2021 - Biological Theory 16 (4):257-267.
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  48.  54
    How Development May Direct Evolution.Justin Garson, Linton Wang & Sahotra Sarkar - 2003 - Biology and Philosophy 18 (2):353-370.
    A framework is presented in which the role ofdevelopmental rules in phenotypic evolution canbe studied for some simple situations. Usingtwo different implicit models of development,characterized by different developmental mapsfrom genotypes to phenotypes, it is shown bysimulation that developmental rules and driftcan result in directional phenotypic evolutionwithout selection. For both models thesimulations show that the critical parameterthat drives the final phenotypic distributionis the cardinality of the set of genotypes thatmap to each phenotype. Details of thedevelopmental map do not matter. If phenotypesare (...)
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  49.  15
    Haldane and Mayr: A Response to Rao and Nanjundiah.Sahotra Sarkar - 2016 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 38 (1):151-154.
    The discussion with Rao and Nanjundiah about the history of interactions between J. B. S. Haldane and Ernst Mayr is further extended in this note. The nature of the dispute about beanbag genetics is explicated as consisting of two separate issues, one about the role of mathematical analysis in evolutionary biology, and the other about the value of single-locus genic models.
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  50.  30
    Environmental Philosophy: Response to Critics.Sahotra Sarkar - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 45 (1):105-109.
    The following piece is a response to the critiques from Frank, Garson, and Odenbaugh. The issues at stake are: the definition of biodiversity and its normativity, historical fidelity in ecological restoration, naturalism in environmental ethics, and the role of decision theory. The normativity of the concept of biodiversity in conservation biology is defended. Historical fidelity is criticized as an operative goal for ecological restoration. It is pointed out that the analysis requires only minimal assumptions about ethics. Decision theory is presented (...)
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