Within the limited, but growing, literature on small business ethics almost no attention has been paid to the issue of social responsibility within ethnic minority businesses. Using a social capital perspective, this paper reports on an exploratory and qualitative investigation into the attitudinal and behavioural manifestations of CSR within small and medium-sized Asian owned or managed firms in the U.K., with particular reference to the distinctive factors motivating organisational responses. It offers alternative explanations of entrepreneurial behaviour and suggests areas for (...) further research. (shrink)
Ethics consultation is a commonly applied mechanism to address clinical ethical dilemmas. However, there is little information on the viewpoints of health care providers towards the relevance of ethics committees and appropriate application of ethics consultation in clinical practice. We sought to use qualitative methodology to evaluate free-text responses to a case-based survey to identify thematically the views of health care professionals towards the role of ethics committees in resolving clinical ethical dilemmas. Using an iterative and reflexive model we identified (...) themes that health care providers support a role for ethics committees and hospitals in resolving clinical ethical dilemmas, that the role should be one of mediation, rather than prescription, but that ultimately legal exposure was dispositive compared to ethical theory. The identified theme of legal fears suggests that the mediation role of ethics committees is viewed by health care professionals primarily as a practical means to avoid more worrisome medico-legal conflict. (shrink)
This study examined the pattern of economic disparity in the modern contraceptive prevalence rate among women receiving contraceptives from the public and private health sectors in India, using data from all four rounds of the National Family Health Survey conducted between 1992–93 and 2015–16. The mCPR was measured for currently married women aged 15–49 years. A concentration index was calculated and a pooled binary logistic regression analysis conducted to assess economic disparity in modern contraceptive use between the public and private (...) health sectors. The analyses were stratified by rural–urban place of residence. The results indicated that mCPR had increased in India over time. However, in 2015–16 only half of women – 48% – were using any modern contraceptive in India. Over time, the economic disparity in modern contraceptive use reduced across both public and private health sectors. However, the extent of the disparity was greater when women obtained the services from the private sector: the value of the concentration index for mCPR was 0.429 when obtained from the private sector and 0.133 when from the public sector in 2015–16. Multivariate analysis confirmed a similar pattern of the economic disparity across public and private sectors. Economic disparity in the mCPR has reduced considerably in India. While the economic disparity in 2015–16 was minimal among those accessing contraceptives from the public sector, it continued to exist among those receiving services from the private sector. While taking appropriate steps to plan and monitor private sector services for family planning, continued and increased engagement of public providers in the family planning programme in India is required to further reduce the economic disparity among those accessing contraceptive services from the private sector. (shrink)
What drives organisations to engage in socially responsible purchasing initiatives? To investigate this important question, this article uses a case-study approach to examine the context within which supplier diversity programmes have emerged in both the U.S. and U.K. The analysis identifies legislative and policy developments, economic imperatives, stakeholder pressures and ethical influences as forces shaping organisational responses. It reveals important contextual differences between U.K. and U.S. experience and offers an empirical and theoretical explanation of corporate behaviour.
SummaryThis paper examines the association between family structure and child health in India using the third round of the National Family Health Survey, conducted during 2005–06. Two important child health indicators – underweight and full immunization – are used as dependent variables. Descriptive and multivariate statistics are deployed to establish the relationship between family structure and child health. The results of the descriptive statistics show that children who belong to a non-nuclear family have better nutritional status and higher immunization coverage (...) than those in nuclear families. Children living with siblings have worse health status than those living without siblings for both the outcomes. Multivariate analysis shows that family structure has a small effect on the two child health outcomes, which is no longer significant after adjusting for socioeconomic measures and region. However, number of siblings is significantly and negatively associated with the nutritional status of children and full immunization coverage, even after other socio-demographic and geographic factors are controlled for. Along with family structure, parent's educational attainment, age of the mother and household economic status are significant determinants of underweight and full immunization. (shrink)
A growing number of studies have tested the association between intimate partner violence and the unintendedness of pregnancy or birth, and most have suggested that unintendedness of pregnancy is a cause of IPV. However, about nine in every ten women face violence after delivering their first baby. This study examined the effects of the intendedness of births on physical IPV using data from the National Family Health Survey. The multivariate logistic regression model analysis found that, compared with women with no (...) unwanted births, physical IPV was higher among those women who had unwanted births, followed by those who had mistimed births, even after adjusting for several women’s individual and socioeconomic characteristics. Thus, the reduction of women with mistimed and unwanted births could reduce physical IPV in India. The study highlights the unfinished agenda of family planning in the country and argues for the need to integrate family planning and Reproductive, Maternal and Child Health Care services to yield multi-sectoral outcomes, including the elimination of IPV. (shrink)
Zionist national identity in Israel is today challenged by two mutuallyantagonistic alternatives: a liberal, secular, Post-Zionist civic identity, on the one hand, and ethnic, religious, Neo-Zionist nationalistic identity, on the other. The other, Zionist, hegemony contains an unsolvable tension between the national and the democratic facets of the state. The Post-Zionist trend seeks a relief of this tension by bracketing the nationalcharacter of the state, i.e., by separation of state and cultural community/ies; the Neo-Zionist trend seeks a relief of the (...) same tension by bracketing the democratic nature of the state, i.e., by consolidating the Jewish ethno-national character of the state. The focus of the study is upon two dimensions of this unfolding cultural-political strife: the conflicting perceptions of time and space, and the ways they affect the perceptions of the boundaries of the collectivity, either in an inclusionary manner (the ``post'') or in an exclusionary manner (the ``neo''). (shrink)
With the improvements in medical care and resultant increase in life expectancy of the intellectually disabled, it will become more common for healthcare providers to be confronted by ethical dilemmas in the care of this patient population. Many of the dilemmas will focus on what is in the best interest of patients who have never been able to express their wishes with regard to medical and end-of-life care and who should be empowered to exercise surrogate medical decision-making authority on their (...) behalf. A case is presented that exemplifies the ethical and legal tensions surrounding surrogate medical decision making for acutely ill, never-competent, profoundly intellectually disabled patients. (shrink)
In Canada, laws and policies consistently reject the commodification of human organs and tissues, and Canadian practice is consistent with international standards in this regard. Until the Assisted Human Reproduction Act of 2004, gamete donation in Canada was an exception: Canadians could pay and be paid open market rates for gametes for use in in vitro fertilization. As sections of the AHR Act forbidding payment for gametes and permitting only reimbursement of receipted expenses gradually came into effect in 2005, Canada (...) did away with this anomaly. Medical practice and legal prohibitions in assisted human reproduction are now consistent with other areas of medicine where tissues and organs are taken from one person to benefit others: Altruistic donation, rather than selling and buying, will be the norm. (shrink)
With the aging of the general population and the ability of intensivists to support patients using ventilator support, tracheostomy has become a vital tool in the medical management of critically ill patients. While much of the medical literature on tracheostomy has focused on the optimal timing of and indications for performing this procedure, little is written on the ethical tensions that can revolve around decisions by patients, surrogates, and physicians on its use. This article will elucidate the ethical dilemmas that (...) can arise surrounding the use of tracheostomy in critically ill patients and how ethics consultants and committees can approach these cases to allow resolution. (shrink)
The UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority was right to permit tissue typing preimplantation genetic diagnosisOn July 21 2004, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority , Britain’s regulatory agency for reproductive technologies, revised its policy on preimplantation genetic diagnosis for tissue typing.1,2 The authority of the HFEA to enact such a policy was affirmed by the UK’s highest court, the House of Lords, on April 28 2005.3 Preimplantation genetic diagnosis combines in vitro fertilisation with genetic testing. In PGD, embryos generally (...) undergo biopsy prior to the eight cell stage, followed by genetic testing for a particular trait. Tissue typing PGD is done to identify an embryo that is tissue matched for a child suffering from a severe disease requiring bone marrow or cord blood stem cell transplantation and for whom no living donor exists. This procedure was first performed in 2000.4 Precise matching of tissue types is critical to successful tissue transplant, and the donors of such tissues are often referred to as “saviour siblings”.Where a tissue matched individual already exists, extracting bone marrow from that individual or collecting cord blood already in storage, rather than creating a match, presents the most immediate treatment alternative. Bone marrow donation from adults or other medically competent individuals is not generally ethically contested, and bone marrow donation from medically incompetent individuals is also permissible under certain conditions.5 Where no living tissue donor exists, however, intentionally creating a donor through tissue typing PGD is among a short list of possible treatment options.The July HFEA policy change makes PGD licensable in cases where tissue typing is the only purpose of testing. Previously, PGD was licensable in the UK only for disease testing, and tissue typing PGD was permissible only when …. (shrink)
The positive effect of women’s empowerment on the use of contraceptives is well established. However, the reverse effect, i.e. the potential effect of use of contraceptives on women’s empowerment, is relatively unexplored. This study examined the direct impact of contraceptive use on women’s empowerment in currently married women aged 15–49 years in India using data from the National Family Health Survey-4 conducted in 2015–16. A two-stage least squares regression model was used to account for the issue of endogeneity that appears (...) in a general logit model. The use of contraceptives by the sample women was found to be associated with greater women’s empowerment in terms of both their mobility and decision-making power. The pathways to greater women’s empowerment are often presumed to be factors such as changing perception of their domestic role and sense of control over their own body. While these are integral, this paper highlights how the possible control over family size and birth interval through use of contraception may also be critical pathways to increasing women’s empowerment. (shrink)
One of the key learning objectives in any health professional course is to develop ethical and judicious practice. Therefore, it is important to address how medical and pharmacy students respond to, and deal with, ethical dilemmas in their clinical environments. In this paper, we examined how students communicated their resolution of ethical dilemmas and the alignment between these communications and the four principles developed by Beauchamp and Childress. Three hundred and fifty-seven pharmacy and medical students (overall response rate=63%) completed a (...) questionnaire containing four clinical case scenarios with an ethical dilemma. Data were analysed using multiple methods. The findings revealed that 73% of the qualitative responses could be exclusively coded to one of the ‘four principles’ determined by the Beauchamp and Childress' framework. Additionally, 14% of responses overlapped between the four principles (multiple codes) and 13% of responses could not be coded using the framework. The subsequent subgroup analysis revealed different response patterns depending on the case being reviewed. The findings showed that when students are faced with challenging ethical dilemmas their responses can be aligned with the Beauchamp and Childress framework, although more contentious dilemmas involving issues of law are less easily categorised. The differences between year and discipline groups show students are developing ethical frames of reference that may be linked with their teaching environments and their levels of understanding. Analysis of these response patterns provides insight into the way students will likely respond in ‘real’ settings and this information may help educators prepare students for these clinical ethical dilemmas. (shrink)
Del Giudice proposes that short-term mating strategies are adaptive for attachment-avoidant men. We argue that this model (1) does not apply to the majority of avoidant men (fearful-avoidants); (2) is based on limited evidence that the remaining subset of avoidant men (dismissing-avoidants) engage in short-term mating strategies; and (3) disregards the importance of pair bonding even for dismissing-avoidants.
This is precisely the reason why Vijnanabhiksu took up cudgels against the advocated of Maya and expounded a system in which the world has been accepted as a real transformation of Prakrti, the power of the Absolute, and which thus has no ...
This article describes the UniversAAL platform, an open platform intended to facilitate the development, distribution, and deployment of technological solutions for Ambient assisted living. The platform is intended to benefit end users, authorities with responsibility for AAL, and organizations involved in the development and deployment of AAL services. It consists of an extensive set of resources aimed at these different groups. The resources are classified into three main groups: runtime support, development support, and community support. The article presents the benefits (...) that can be expected from the widespread adoption of the platform. The article also describes progress on prototype implementations of some of the software resources, and the results of initial evaluations of the platform. The work is partially based on results from earlier European Union-funded research projects in the area. (shrink)
In India, non-communicable diseases accounted for nearly 62% of all deaths in 2016. Four NCDs – high blood pressure, diabetes, asthma and heart disease – together accounted for over 34% of these deaths. Using data from two rounds of the India Human Development Surveys, levels and changes in the prevalence rates of the four NCDs among adults aged 15–69 years in India between 2004–05 and 2011–12 were examined by socioeconomic and demographic factors and for five broad occupation categories. The socioeconomic (...) and demographic risk factors for each of these NCDs were determined using multiple linear logistic regression analysis of pooled data from two rounds of the IHDS. The results showed that while urban residence, age, female sex and education were associated with higher odds of high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease, household economic status was associated with higher odds for all four NCDs. Furthermore, increased higher odds of high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease were found for the legislator/senior official/professional occupation group compared with non-workers. Skilled agricultural/elementary workers had lower odds of high blood pressure, diabetes, asthma and heart disease. Craft/machine-related trade workers had higher odds of high blood pressure and diabetes, and reduced odds of asthma and heart disease. Compared with non-workers, the odds ratios for asthma were lower for all other occupational categories. During the two study decades, the Government of India implemented several programmes designed to improve the health and well-being of its people. However, more focused attention on the adult population is needed, and special attention should be paid to the issue of the occupational health of the working population through the strict implementation of work place safety protocols and the removal of potential health hazards. (shrink)
This study examined the relationship between the total fertility rate and under-five child sex ratio to understand the role of fertility in the phenomenon of missing girls in India. Using data from the last four decennial censuses for the fifteen major states of India and their districts, covering more than 90% of the population of India, the study showed that there was a major decline in the female to male child sex ratio from 1981 to 2011 in most of the (...) major Indian states and their districts. The panel regression model showed that the total fertility rate was significantly associated with the under-five child sex ratio at the district level for the 30-year period from 1981 to 2011 in India, even after controlling for other factors and any other unobserved heterogeneity. This indicates that areas of India with the highest fertility had the higher female to male child sex ratio, while low-fertility districts had a more male-biased sex ratio. (shrink)
This paper presents students’ views about honest and dishonest actions within the pharmacy and medical learning environments. Students also offered their views on solutions to ameliorating dishonest action. Three research questions were posed in this paper: (1) what reasons would students articulate in reference to engaging in dishonest behaviours? (2) What reasons would students articulate in reference to maintaining high levels of integrity? (3) What strategies would students suggest to decrease engagement in dishonest behaviours and/or promote honest behaviours? The design (...) of the study incorporated an initial descriptive analysis to interpret students’ responses to an 18-item questionnaire about justifications for dishonest action. This was followed by a qualitative analysis of students’ commentaries in reference to why students would engage in either honest or dishonest action. Finally a qualitative analysis was conducted on students’ views regarding solutions to dishonest action. The quantitative results showed that students were more likely to use time management and seriousness justifications for dishonest actions. The qualitative findings found that students’ actions (honest or dishonest) were guided by family and friends, the need to do well, issues of morality and institutional guidelines. Students suggested that dishonest action could be ameliorated by external agencies and polarised views between punitive and rewards-based mechanisms were offered. These results suggest that these students engaged in dishonest action for various reasons and solutions addressing dishonest action need to consider diverse mechanisms that likely extend beyond the educational institution. (shrink)
We sought to evaluate whether health care professionals’ viewpoints differed on the role of ethics committees and hospitals in the resolution of clinical ethical dilemmas based on practice location. We conducted a survey study from December 21, 2013 to March 15, 2014 of health care professionals at six hospitals. The survey consisted of eight clinical ethics cases followed by statements on whether there was a role for the ethics committee or hospital in their resolution, what that role might be and (...) case specific queries. Respondents used a 5-point Likert scale to express their degree of agreement with the premises posed. We used the ANOVA test to evaluate whether respondent views significantly varied based on practice location. 240 health care professionals completed the survey. Only three individual queries of 32 showed any significant response variations across practice locations. Overall, viewpoints did not vary across practice locations within question categories on whether the ethics committee or hospital had a role in case resolution, what that role might be and case specific queries. In this multicenter survey study, the viewpoints of health care professionals on the role of ethics committees or hospitals in the resolution of clinical ethics cases varied little based on practice location. (shrink)
At the end of life, pain management is commonly a fundamental part of the treatment plan for patients where curative measures are no longer possible. However, the increased recognition of opioid diversion for secondary gain coupled with efforts to treat patients in the home environment towards the end of life creates the potential for ethical dilemmas in the palliative care management of terminal patients in need of continuous pain management. We present the case of an end-stage patient with rectal cancer (...) who required a continuous residential narcotic infusion of fentanyl for pain control due to metastatic disease. His functional status was such that he had poor oral intake and ability to perform other activities of daily living, but was able to live at home with health agency nursing care. The patient presented to this institution with a highly suspect history of having lost his fentanyl infusion in a residential accident and asking for a refill to continue home therapy. The treating physicians had concerns of diversion of the infusion medication by caregivers and were reluctant to continue the therapeutic relationship with the patient. This case exemplifies the tension that can exist between wanting to continue with palliative care management of an end-stage patient and the fear of providers when confronted by evidence of potential diversion of opioid analgesic medications. We elucidate how an ethical framework based on a combination of virtue and narrative/relationship theories with reference to proportionality can guide physicians to a pragmatic resolution of these difficult situations. (shrink)
The current research explores the women participation in SMEs business by using Probit model. The rapid absorption of women into the labor market has been influenced by several factors. The rapid economic growth was due largely to important growth in the SMEs business, where substantial and proportionally larger increase of female workers has been registered. Among all sectors of the economy, the SMEs have recorded the highest growth rate during the last decade. The increase in the female labor force participation (...) in SMES business may also be attributable to improving economic incentives in employment and policies favoring the employment of women. In addition, the combined effects of increased years of schooling, access to family planning services, improved maternal and child care, leading to arise in the average age at marriage, have allowed women to take advantage of the increased employment opportunities. Survey was conducted from 300 women in SMEs business in rural Sindh by using simple random technique from four districts, Shikarpur, Jacobabad, Kandhkot/Kashmore and Larkana Districts. Questionnaire was the basic tool to find out the major challenges of rural women as an entrepreneur business. It was revealed that there is great potential of rural women I doing the various entrepreneur business like in Kandhkot, Jacobabad, Rali, Ajrak and Sindhi caps they are very much unique and they were generating income from their families. It was further revealed that the rural women is less confident and their husbands were always given them hard time once they are exposing themselves to outside the boundaries of the house. The biggest challenges which they were facing they were doing all business in house, lack of marketing facilities, Karo Kari criminal activities and they were deprived from the basic rights. This study contributes and explores the Rural Women challenges in SMEs business and how these critical unethical problems we can overcome like KARO KARI, and other various social issues growth. (shrink)