Results for 'intellectual property'

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  1. Intellectual Property and Pharmaceutical Drugs: An Ethical Analysis.of Intellectual Property - 2008 - In Tom L. Beauchamp, Norman E. Bowie & Denis Gordon Arnold (eds.), Ethical Theory and Business. Pearson/Prentice Hall.
     
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  2.  77
    The Feasibility of Alternative Dispute Resolution to Resolve Intellectual Property Disputes in Jordan.Bashar H. Malkawi - 2013 - Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice 8:146-153.
    The purpose of this article is to examine the feasibility and working of the conciliatory means for settlement of intellectual property disputes in Jordan. Arbitration is the principal mechanism used.
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  3.  73
    The Intellectual Property Provisions of the United States-Jordan Free Trade Agreement: Template or Not Template.Bashar H. Malkawi - 2006 - Journal of World Intellectual Property 9:213-229.
    The objective of this article is to examine the implications of the intellectual property provisions in the US–Jordan Free Trade Agreement (US–JO FTA) and whether they serve as a template for other Arab countries who will be concluding free trade agreements with the USA. My claim in this article is that the intellectual property part of the US–JO FTA goes beyond the World Trade Organization Agreement and cannot form the right template for the proposed US–Middle East (...)
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  4. Intellectual Property and the Prisoner's Dilemma: A Game Theory Justification of Copyrights, Patents, and Trade Secrets.Adam Moore - 2018 - Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal 28.
    Setting aside various foundational moral entanglements, I will offer an argument for the protection of intellectual property based on individual self-interest and prudence. In large part, this argument will parallel considerations that arise in a prisoner’s dilemma game. After sketching the salient features of a prisoner’s dilemma, I will briefly examine the nature of intellectual property and how one can view content creation, exclusion, and access as a prisoner’s dilemma. In brief, allowing content to be unprotected (...)
     
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  5. Intellectual Property and the Pharmaceutical Industry: A Moral Crossroads Between Health and Property.Rivka Amado & Nevin M. Gewertz - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 55 (3):295-308.
    The moral justification of intellectual property is often called into question when placed in the context of pharmaceutical patents and global health concerns. The theoretical accounts of both John Rawls and Robert Nozick provide an excellent ethical framework from which such questions can be clarified. While Nozick upholds an individuals right to intellectual property, based upon its conformation with Lockean notions of property and Nozicks ideas of just acquisition and transfer, Rawls emphasizes the importance of (...)
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  6. Labor as the Basis for Intellectual Property Rights.Bryan Cwik - 2014 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (4):681-695.
    In debates about the moral foundations of intellectual property, one very popular strand concerns the role of labor as a moral basis for intellectual property rights. This idea has a great deal of intuitive plausibility; but is there a way to make it philosophically precise? That is, does labor provide strong reasons to grant intellectual property rights to intellectual laborers? In this paper, I argue that the answer to that question is “yes”. I (...)
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  7. Intellectual Property, Globalization, and Left-Libertarianism.Constantin Vică - 2015 - Symposion: Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 2 (3):323–345.
    Intellectual property has become the apple of discord in today’s moral and political debates. Although it has been approached from many different perspectives, a final conclusion has not been reached. In this paper I will offer a new way of thinking about intellectual property rights (IPRs), from a left-libertarian perspective. My thesis is that IPRs are not (natural) original rights, aprioric rights, as it is usually argued. They are derived rights hence any claim for intellectual (...)
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  8.  49
    Intellectual Property and Global Health: From Corporate Social Responsibility to the Access to Knowledge Movement.Cristian Timmermann & Henk van den Belt - 2013 - Liverpool Law Review 34 (1):47-73.
    Any system for the protection of intellectual property rights (IPRs) has three main kinds of distributive effects. It will determine or influence: (a) the types of objects that will be developed and for which IPRs will be sought; (b) the differential access various people will have to these objects; and (c) the distribution of the IPRs themselves among various actors. What this means to the area of pharmaceutical research is that many urgently needed medicines will not be developed (...)
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  9. Reflections on the International Networking Conference “Ethical and Social Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights – Agrifood and Health”, Brussels, September 2011.Michiel Korthals & Cristian Timmermann - 2011 - Synesis 3 (1):G66-73.
    Public goods, as well as commercial commodities, are affected by exclusive arrangements secured by intellectual property (IP) rights. These rights serve as an incentive to invest human and material capital in research and development. Particularly in the life sciences, IP rights regulate objects such as food and medicines that are key to securing human rights, especially the right to adequate food and the right to health. Consequently, IP serves private (economic) and public interests. Part of this charge claims (...)
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  10. Locke, Intellectual Property Rights, and the Information Commons.Herman T. Tavani - 2005 - Ethics and Information Technology 7 (2):87-97.
    This paper examines the question whether, and to what extent, John Locke’s classic theory of property can be applied to the current debate involving intellectual property rights (IPRs) and the information commons. Organized into four main sections, Section 1 includes a brief exposition of Locke’s arguments for the just appropriation of physical objects and tangible property. In Section 2, I consider some challenges involved in extending Locke’s labor theory of property to the debate about IPRs (...)
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  11.  51
    Natural Intellectual Property Rights and the Public Domain.Hugh Breakey - 2010 - Modern Law Review 73 (2):208-239.
    No natural rights theory justifies strong intellectual property rights. More specifically, no theory within the entire domain of natural rights thinking – encompassing classical liberalism, libertarianism and left-libertarianism, in all their innumerable variants – coherently supports strengthening current intellectual property rights. Despite their many important differences, all these natural rights theories endorse some set of members of a common family of basic ethical precepts. These commitments include non-interference, fairness, non-worsening, consistency, universalisability, prior consent, self-ownership, self-governance, and (...)
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  12.  58
    P2p Networks and the Verizon V. RIAA Case: Implications for Personal Privacy and Intellectual Property[REVIEW]Frances S. Grodzinsky & Herman T. Tavani - 2005 - Ethics and Information Technology 7 (4):243-250.
    In this paper, we examine some ethical implications of a controversial court decision in the United States involving Verizon (an Internet Service Provider or ISP) and the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). In particular, we analyze the impacts this decision has for personal privacy and intellectual property. We begin with a brief description of the controversies and rulings in this case. This is followed by a look at some of the challenges that peer-to-peer (P2P) systems, used to (...)
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  13.  17
    Digital Art as ‘Monetised Graphics’: Enforcing Intellectual Property on the Blockchain.Martin Zeilinger - unknown - Philosophy and Technology 31 (1):15-41.
    In a global economic landscape of hyper-commodification and financialisation, efforts to assimilate digital art into the high-stakes commercial art market have so far been rather unsuccessful, presumably because digital artworks cannot easily assume the status of precious object worthy of collection. This essay explores the use of blockchain technologies in attempts to create proprietary digital art markets in which uncommodifiable digital artworks are financialised as artificially scarce commodities. Using the decentralisation techniques and distributed database protocols underlying current cryptocurrency technologies, such (...)
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  14.  88
    Against Against Intellectual Property: A Short Refutation of Meme Communism.J. C. Lester - 2016 - In Arguments for Liberty: A Libertarian Miscellany. Buckingham, England: The University of Buckingham Press. pp. 148-154.
    This essay is intended to be a refutation of the main thesis in Against Intellectual Property, Kinsella 2008 (hereafter, K8). Points of agreement, relatively trivial disagreement, and irrelevant issues will largely be ignored, as will much repetition of errors in K8. Otherwise, the procedure is to go through K8 quoting various significantly erroneous parts as they arise and explaining the errors involved. It will not be necessary to respond at the same length as K8 itself.
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  15.  45
    Intellectual Property Rights and Chinese Tradition Section: Philosophical Foundations.John Alan Lehman - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 69 (1):1-9.
    Western attempts to obtain Chinese compliance with intellectual property rights have a long history of failure. Most discussions of the problem focus on either legal comparisons or explanations arising from levels of economic development (based primarily on the example of U.S. disregard for such rights during the 18th and 19th centuries). After decades of heated negotiation, intellectual property rights is still one of the major issues of misunderstanding between the West and the various Chinese political entities. (...)
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  16.  93
    Ethical Issues Surrounding Intellectual Property Rights.Jorn Sonderholm - 2010 - Philosophy Compass 5 (12):1107-1115.
    Much of today’s international trade is conducted according to trade agreements that involve substantial and uniform protections of intellectual property rights. Intellectual property rights are a socio‐economic tool that create a temporary monopoly for inventor firms and enable such firms to charge prices for their innovations that are many times higher than the marginal cost of production of the innovations. This allows the inventor firms to salvage their research‐costs and secure a profit on their innovations. A (...)
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  17.  66
    Reflecting on the Common Discourse on Piracy and Intellectual Property Rights: A Divergent Perspective.Betty Yung - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 87 (1):45-57.
    The common discourse on intellectual property rights rests mainly on utilitarian ground, with implications on the question of justice as well as moral significance. It runs like this: Intellectual property rights are to reward the originators for his/her intellectual labour mainly in monetary terms, thereby providing incentives for originators to engage in future innovative labouring. Without such incentives, few, if not none, will engage in creative activities and the whole human community will, thereby, suffer because (...)
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  18. Are Intellectual Property Rights Compatible with Rawlsian Principles of Justice?Darryl J. Murphy - 2012 - Ethics and Information Technology 14 (2):109-121.
    This paper argues that intellectual property rights are incompatible with Rawls’s principles of justice. This conclusion is based upon an analysis of the social stratification that emerges as a result of the patent mechanism which defines a marginalized group and ensure that its members remain alienated from the rights, benefits, and freedoms afforded by the patent product. This stratification is further complicated, so I argue, by the copyright mechanism that restricts and redistributes those rights already distributed by means (...)
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  19.  50
    Growth Via Intellectual Property Rights Versus Gendered Inequity in Emerging Economies: An Ethical Dilemma for International Business.Pallab Paul & Kausiki Mukhopadhyay - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 91 (3):359-378.
    In this paper, we critique the emergent international normative framework of growth – the knowledge economy. We point out that the standardized character of knowledge economy's flagship – intellectual property rights (IPRs) – has an adverse impact on women in emerging economies, such as India. Conversely, this impact on women, a significant consumer segment, has a feedback effect in terms of market growth. Conceptually, we analyze the consequences of knowledge economy and standardized IPR through a feminist lens. We (...)
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  20.  20
    Data Management in Academic Settings: An Intellectual Property Perspective.Lisa Geller - 2010 - Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (4):769-775.
    Intellectual property can be an important asset for academic institutions. Good data management practices are important for capture, development and protection of intellectual property assets. Selected issues focused on the relationship between data management and intellectual property are reviewed and a thesis that academic institutions and scientists should honor their obligations to responsibly manage data.
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  21.  17
    The Right to Health and Medicines: The Case of Recent Multilateral Negotiations on Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property.German Velasquez - 2014 - Developing World Bioethics 14 (2):67-74.
    The negotiations of the intergovernmental group known as the ‘IGWG’, undertaken by the Member States of the WHO, were the result of a deadlock in the World Health Assembly held in 2006 where the Member States of the WHO were unable to reach an agreement on what to do with the 60 recommendations in the report on ‘Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property Rights submitted to the Assembly in the same year by a group of experts designated by (...)
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  22.  20
    Creativity or Coercion: Alternative Perspectives on Rights to Intellectual Property.Peter Lewin - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 71 (4):441-455.
    Part one of this paper considers the question of property rights in general and asks how such rights can be justified, contrasting Consequentialist with other approaches and concludes that it is impossible to avoid a broadly Consequentialist approach. Part two considers the question of intellectual property (IP) and asks how property rights justifications apply to it. The basic economics if IP is indispensable in this discussion. Finally, part three, considers IP in the light of modern technological (...)
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  23.  21
    Let's Get Small: An Introduction to Transitional Issues in Nanotech and Intellectual Property[REVIEW]David Koepsell - 2009 - NanoEthics 3 (2):157-166.
    Much of the discussion regarding nanotechnology centers around perceived and prosphesied harms and risks. While there are real risks that could emerge from futuristic nanotechnology, there are other current risks involved with its development, not involving physical harms, that could prevent its full promise from being realized. Transitional forms of the technology, involving “microfab,” or localized, sometimes desk-top, manufacture, pose a good opportunity for case study. How can we develop legal and regulatory institutions, specifically centered around the problems of (...) property, that both stimulate innovation, and make the best possible use of what will eventually be a market in “types” rather than “tokens”? This paper argues that this is the most critical, current issues facing nanotechnology, and suggests a manner to approach it. (shrink)
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  24.  65
    Biodiversity, Biopiracy and Benefits: What Allegations of Biopiracy Tell Us About Intellectual Property.Chris Hamilton - 2006 - Developing World Bioethics 6 (3):158–173.
    ABSTRACTThis paper examines the concept of biopiracy, which initially emerged to challenge various aspects of the regime for intellectual property rights in living organisms, as well as related aspects pertaining to the ownership and apportioning of benefits from ‘genetic resources’ derived from the world’s biodiversity.This paper proposes that we take the allegation of biopiracy seriously due to the impact it has as an intervention which indexes a number of different, yet interrelated, problematizations of biodiversity, biotechnology and IPR. Using (...)
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  25.  35
    The Growing Complexity of International Policy in Intellectual Property.Francis Gurry - 2005 - Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (1):13-20.
    Intellectual property has historically been a self-contained policy at the international level. With the introduction of the TRIPs Agreement in 1994 and developments since the conclusion of the TRIPs Agreement, the relationship between intellectual property policy and other areas of public policy has become much more complex and interactive. This shift reflects the centrality of intellectual property in the knowledge economy, the rapid development of enabling technologies, notably the Internet and biotechnology, and the advent (...)
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  26.  33
    An Exploration of the Ideologies of Software Intellectual Property: The Impact on Ethical Decision Making.Matthew K. McGowan, Paul Stephens & Dexter Gruber - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 73 (4):409-424.
    This article helps to clarify and articulate the ideological, legal, and ethical attitudes regarding software as intellectual property (IP). Computer software can be viewed as IP from both ethical and legal perspectives. The size and growth of the software industry suggest that large profits are possible through the development and sale of software. The rapid growth of the open source movement, fueled by the development of the Linux operating system, suggests another model is possible. The large number of (...)
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  27.  23
    Mind the Gap! How the Digital Turn Upsets Intellectual Property.Constantin Vică & Emanuel-Mihail Socaciu - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (1):247-264.
    Intellectual property is one of the highly divisive issues in contemporary philosophical and political debates. The main objective of this paper is to explore some sources of tension between the formal rules of intellectual property (particularly copyright and patents) and the emerging informal norms of file sharing and open access in online environments. We look into the file sharing phenomena not only to illustrate the deepening gap between the two sets of norms, but to cast some (...)
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  28.  12
    The Intellectual Commons: Toward an Ecology of Intellectual Property.Henry C. Mitchell - 2005 - Lexington Books.
    The rapid emergence of digital media has created both new economic opportunities and new risks for authors, publishers, and users in regards to intellectual property. There is a theoretical conflict raging between those who believe "information should be free" and those attempting to protect intellectual property through surveillance and control of access. The Intellectual Commons works to develop a theory of intellectual property that is based on a theory of natural rights that assumes (...)
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  29.  32
    Intellectual Property Rights and Agricultural Biodiversity: Literature Addressing the Suitability of IPR for the Protection of Indigenous Resources. [REVIEW]Amanda B. King & Pablo B. Eyzaguirre - 1999 - Agriculture and Human Values 16 (1):41-49.
    Recent debate has focused on the use of intellectual property regimes for the protection of indigenous resources. Both domesticated crops and useful wild plants are shaped by indigenous knowledge and by their uses within indigenous cultures. This implies that the preservation of cultural systems is as important as the conservation of the associated biological resources. Intellectual property has been suggested as a means to protect indigenous resources from misappropriation, and to create increased investment in their conservation. (...)
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  30.  31
    Is the Non-Rivalrousness of Intellectual Objects a Problem for the Moral Justification of Economic Rights to Intellectual Property?Jukka Varelius - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (4):895-906.
    It is often argued that the fact that intellectual objects—objects like ideas, inventions, concepts, and melodies—can be used by several people simultaneously makes intellectual property rights impossible or particularly difficult to morally justify. In this article, I assess the line of criticism of intellectual ownership in connection with a central category of intellectual property rights, economic rights to intellectual property. I maintain that it is unconvincing.
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    Is the Expiration of Intellectual Property Rights a Problem for Non-Consequentialist Theories of Intellectual Property?Jukka Varelius - 2014 - Res Publica 20 (4):345-357.
    The expiration of intellectual property rights has been seen to amount to a problem for non-consequentialist theories of intellectual property. In this article, I assess whether the difficulty is real. I maintain that, as things are at least, there is no sufficient reason to believe that the termination of intellectual property rights is an insurmountable problem for non-consequentialist theories of intellectual property rights.
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  32.  27
    The Invisible Meets the Intangible: Culture’s Impact on Intellectual Property Protection. [REVIEW]Amanda Budde-Sung - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 117 (2):345-359.
    In the global marketplace of ideas, accusations are often made that certain countries refuse to protect intellectual property (IP). This accusation fails to account for cultural differences in the recognition of IP This paper considers the impact of cultural variables upon a nation’s level of (IP) protection. Cultural variables such as humane orientation and in-group collectivism have a negative impact upon IP protection, while uncertainty avoidance and future orientation have a positive impact upon IP protection. Managerial implications of (...)
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  33.  38
    Intellectual Property and the Commercialization of Research and Development.Vincent di Norcia - 2005 - Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (2):203-219.
    Concern about the commercialization of research is rising, notably in testing new drugs. The problem involves oversimplified, polarizing assumptions about research and development (R&D) and intellectual property (IP). To address this problem this paper sets forth a more complex three phase RT&D process, involving Scientific Research (R), Technological Innovation (T), and Commercial Product Development (D) or the RT&D process. Scientific research and innovation testing involve costly intellectual work and do not produce free goods, but rather require IP (...)
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  34.  16
    Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights in Lithuania: Situation After the Implementation of Directive 2004/48/EC on the Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights. [REVIEW]Ramūnas Birštonas & Virginijus Papirtis - 2011 - Jurisprudencija: Mokslo darbu žurnalas 18 (1):113-126.
    Article deals with the situation of enforcement of intellectual property rights in Lithuania after the implementation of 2004 Directive 2004/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the enforcement of intellectual property rights. First, the authors outline the importance of the proportionality principle which is embedded in the text of the directive, but sometimes may be overlooked because of the rhetoric openly orientated to right holders. Then, the legislative changes in (...)
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  35.  13
    Climate Change, Intellectual Property, and Global Justice.Monica Ştefănescu & Constantin Vică - 2012 - Public Reason 4 (1-2):197-209.
    The current situation of climate change at a global level clearly requires policy changes at local levels. Global efforts to reach a consensus regarding the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have so far been focused on developing Climate-Friendly Technologies (CFTs). The problem is that in order for these efforts to have an actual impact at a global level we need to be concerned with more than just promotion and info-dissemination on the already existing CFTs, but also with costs, implementation and (...)
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  36.  19
    Intellectual Property and the Commercialization of Research and Development.Vincent Norcia - 2005 - Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (2):203-219.
    Concern about the commercialization of research is rising, notably in testing new drugs. The problem involves oversimplified, polarizing assumptions about research and development (R&D) and intellectual property (IP). To address this problem this paper sets forth a more complex three phase RT&D process, involving Scientific Research (R), Technological Innovation (T), and Commercial Product Development (D) or the RT&D process. Scientific research and innovation testing involve costly intellectual work and do not produce free goods, but rather require IP (...)
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  37.  12
    Issues of Intellectual Property Law in the Jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania.Vytautas Mizaras - 2012 - Jurisprudencija: Mokslo darbu žurnalas 19 (3):1111-1130.
    This article focuses on the analysis of the main positions of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania in the cases of intellectual property law. In the article three judgments and the positions of the Constitutional Court extracted therefrom are analysed. The Constitutional Court has formed several important positions with reference to intellectual property law regarding usage of property protection norms for the protection of intellectual property, requirements of application of compensation as (...)
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  38. Intellectual Property and Theories of Justice.Axel Gosseries, Alain Marciano & Alain Strowel (eds.) - 2008 - Basingstoke & N.Y.: Palgrave McMillan.
    In this volume, fourteen philosophers, economists and legal scholars and one computer scientist address various facets of the same question: under which conditions (if any) can intellectual property rights be fair? This general question unfolds in a variety of others: What are the parallels and differences between intellectual and real property? Are libertarian theories especially sympathetic to IP rights? Should Rawlsian support copyright? How can a concern for incentives be taken into account by each of the (...)
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  39. New Frontiers in the Philosophy of Intellectual Property.Annabelle Lever - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    The new frontiers in the philosophy of intellectual property lie squarely in territories belonging to moral and political philosophy, as well as legal philosophy and philosophy of economics – or so this collection suggests. Those who wish to understand the nature and justification of intellectual property may now find themselves immersed in philosophical debates on the structure and relative merits of consequentialist and deontological moral theories, or disputes about the nature and value of privacy, or the (...)
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  40. Examining Pharmaceutical Exceptionalism: Intellectual Property, Practical Expediency, and Global Health.Govind Persad - 2019 - Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law, and Ethics 18:157-90.
    Advocates, activists, and academics have criticized pharmaceutical intellectual property ("pharma IP") rights as obstacles to access to medicines for the global poor. These criticisms of pharma IP holders are frequently exceptionalist: they focus on pharma IP holders while ignoring whether others also bear obligations to assist patients in need. These others include holders of other lucrative IP rights, such as music copyrights or technology patents; firms, such as energy companies and banks, that do not rely on IP; and (...)
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  41. The Future of Intellectual Property.Richard A. Spinello - 2003 - Ethics and Information Technology 5 (1):1-16.
    This paper uses two recentworks as a springboard for discussing theproper contours of intellectual propertyprotection. Professor Lessig devotes much ofThe Future of Ideas to demonstrating howthe expanding scope of intellectual propertyprotection threatens the Internet as aninnovation commons. Similarly, ProfessorLitman''s message in Digital Copyright isthat copyright law is both too complicated andtoo restrictive. Both authors contend that asa result of overprotecting individual rights,creativity is stifled and the vitality of theintellectual commons is in jeopardy. It isdifficult to evaluate the claims (...)
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  42. The Ontology of Cyberspace Philosophy, Law, and the Future of Intellectual Property.David R. Koepsell - 2000
     
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  43.  33
    Lockean Justifications of Intellectual Property.Daniel Attas - 2008 - In Gosseries Axel, Marciano A. & Strowel A. (eds.), Intellectual Property and Theories of Justice. Basingstoke & N.Y.: Palgrave Mcmillan. pp. 29--56.
    This paper explores the possibility of extending Locke’s theory with respect to tangible property so that it might offer a feasible theoretical basis for intellectual property too. The main conclusion is that such an attempt must fail. Locke’s theory comes in three parts: a general justification of property which serves to explain why assets ought to be under the exclusive control of individuals; a positive method of private appropriation whereby an individual acquires a prima facie exclusive (...)
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  44.  85
    Intellectual Property, the Non-Aggression Principle, and Pre-Propertarian Liberty: New-Paradigm Libertarian Replies to Some Rothbardian Criticisms.J. C. Lester - 2016 - In Arguments for Liberty: A Libertarian Miscellany. Buckingham, England: The University of Buckingham Press. pp. 160-183.
    Andy Curzon replied (often quoting from the opening sections of Lester 2014, chapter 10) in an ongoing debate with Lee Waaks, which Mr Waaks forwarded (with approval) to the Libertarian Alliance Forum (27 February 2015). This response replies to the criticisms after directly quoting them (the indented text; except where Lester is occasionally quoted, as indicated). A few cuts have been made to avoid some repetition and irrelevance. However, just as Mr Curzon sometimes repeats his main points in slightly different (...)
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  45.  20
    Justifying Legal Protection of Intellectual Property: The Interests Argument.K. E. Himma - 2008 - Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 38 (4):13-27.
  46.  40
    Is Policy Towards Intellectual Property Rights Addressing the Real Problems? The Case of Unauthorized Appropriation of Genetic Resources.Asterios Tsioumanis, Konstadinos Mattas & Elsa Tsioumani - 2003 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16 (6):605-616.
    Unauthorized appropriation of geneticresources has been described by the term``biopiracy.'' Technological breakthroughsincluding biotechnological applications canincrease considerably the instrumental value ofbiodiversity as new products or products withnew properties can be made. Nevertheless, itappears that, in most cases, the properties inquestion were already known to the indigenouspeople and used for centuries. The analysisdiscusses both from an economic and an ethicalperspective whether it is just that traditionalknowledge is rewarded. As the conflictintensifies over questions of ownership andcontrol of biological materials, IntellectualProperty Rights are at (...)
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  47. Global Indigenous Research Contexts for Bio-Prospecting: Sacred Collisions of Ethnobotany, Diversity Genetics, Intellectual Property Law, Sovereign Rights, and Public Interest Pharmaceuticals.Anne Waters - 2004 - American Philosophical Association Newsletter on Indigenous Philosophy.
    Waters aries that the demands of indigenous bio-prospecting programs need to be considered against the needs of indigenous communities. Issues of sovereignty and rights to self-determination need to be resolved in the context of negotiating bio-prospecting plans. By setting out clear guidelines and priorities, as determined through the eyes and values of indigenous peoples, indigenous communities may have an opportunity to participate in the global sharing of biomedical information and healing for all our relations. Before any projects get underway, however, (...)
     
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  48.  19
    Intellectual Capital – New Object Regulated by Property Law?Asta Jakutytė-Sungailienė - 2009 - Jurisprudencija: Mokslo darbu žurnalas 117 (3):339-355.
    The article attempts to present a thorough analysis of intelectual property, as main property of a modern company, from the perspective of private law. The article anlyzes the essence of the intangible resources that form the intellectual capital and discusses whether the modern institutes of law allow the universal protection of companies‘ intellectual capital. The first part of the article analizes the conception of intangible resources and provides their qlassification. The second part of the article discusses (...)
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  49.  13
    Life and Ownership: Intellectual Property Limits, From Genes to Synthetic Biology.Constantin Vica - 2015 - Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine: An International Journal 6 (1-2):139-149.
    The purpose of this analysis is to widen and clarify the debate which arose during the last years around granting patents (and other ownership rights) upon different methods and mechanisms of manipulating and engineering life. In doing so, I draw a limited, prima facie argument against many sorts of entitlements or granting rights to those capable of manipulating life at its core level. The general tendency nowadays is to put pressure on the institutional setting in order to accept and promote (...)
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  50.  31
    Observations on a Meeting on the Ethics of Intellectual Property Rights and Patents.Raymond E. Spier - 2005 - Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (1):151-158.
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