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  1. added 2020-01-04
    Etică și integritate academică.Emanuel Socaciu, Constantin Vica, Emilian Mihailov, Toni Gibea, Valentin Muresan & Mihaela Constantinescu - 2018 - Bucharest: Editura Universității din București.
  2. added 2019-12-06
    Examining Pharmaceutical Exceptionalism: Intellectual Property, Practical Expediency, and Global Health.Govind Persad - 2019 - Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law, and Ethics 18:157-90.
    Advocates, activists, and academics have criticized pharmaceutical intellectual property ("pharma IP") rights as obstacles to access to medicines for the global poor. These criticisms of pharma IP holders are frequently exceptionalist: they focus on pharma IP holders while ignoring whether others also bear obligations to assist patients in need. These others include holders of other lucrative IP rights, such as music copyrights or technology patents; firms, such as energy companies and banks, that do not rely on IP; and wealthy private (...)
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  3. added 2019-01-23
    Universitatea şi problema proprietăţii intelectuale.Lavinia Marin - 2014 - In Constantin Stoenescu (ed.), Etica cercetării şi proprietatea intelectuală. Editura Universitatii din Bucuresti. pp. 125-152.
    În studiul Laviniei Marin, Universitatea şi problema proprietăţii intelectuale, este discutată problema actuală a tipului de universitate pe care îl presupune noua economie a cunoaşterii. Pornind de la interesul pentru cuantificarea performanţelor universităţilor şi stabilirea de ierarhii, autoarea ajunge la unele teme epistemologice privind reportul dintre cunoaşterea teoretică şi cunoaşterea practică şi cel dintre cunoaşterea explicită şi cunoaşterea tacită într-o societate în care însăşi cunoaşterea devine un capital, iar inovarea este modul în care se realizează performanţă.
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  4. added 2019-01-22
    The Bigger Picture: A Commentary on the Forcehimes–Karjiker Debate.Ali Pirhayati - 2019 - Think 18 (51):101-105.
    Forcehimes poses a parity between libraries and downloading books online and concludes that the im/permissibility of one of them entails the im/permissibility of the other and vice versa. Karjiker rejects this parity arguing that the magnitudes of these two are vastly different and while libraries do not lead to a considerable market failure, downloading e-books does. In this article, I try to clarify some points, show a kind of parochialism in Karjiker’s arguments, propose a thought experiment to neutralize the magnitude (...)
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  5. added 2018-10-23
    The Libertarian Case Against Intellectual Property Rights.Roderick Long - 2011 - In Gary Chartier and Charles W. Johnson (ed.), Markets Not Capitalism: Individualist Anarchism Against Bosses, Inequality, Corporate Power, and Structural Poverty. London, UK: pp. 187-198.
  6. added 2018-10-10
    Geistiges Eigentum und Originalität. Zur Spannung zwischen freier Verfügbarkeit und Anerkennung individueller Leistungen.Odin Kroeger, Günther Friesinger, Paul Lohberger & Eberhard Ortland - 2011 - In Odin Kroeger, Günther Friesinger, Paul Lohberger & Eberhard Ortland (eds.), Geistiges Eigentum und Originalität: Zur Politik der Wissens- und Kulturproduktion. Vienna, Austria: pp. 9–15.
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  7. added 2018-06-11
    Lockean Justifications of Intellectual Property.Daniel Attas - 2008 - In Gosseries Axel, Marciano A. & Strowel A. (eds.), Intellectual Property and Theories of Justice. Basingstoke & N.Y.: Palgrave Mcmillan. pp. 29--56.
    This paper explores the possibility of extending Locke’s theory with respect to tangible property so that it might offer a feasible theoretical basis for intellectual property too. The main conclusion is that such an attempt must fail. Locke’s theory comes in three parts: a general justification of property which serves to explain why assets ought to be under the exclusive control of individuals; a positive method of private appropriation whereby an individual acquires a prima facie exclusive claim to previously commonly (...)
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  8. added 2018-03-05
    Mind the Gap! How the Digital Turn Upsets Intellectual Property.Constantin Vică & Emanuel-Mihail Socaciu - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (1):247-264.
    Intellectual property is one of the highly divisive issues in contemporary philosophical and political debates. The main objective of this paper is to explore some sources of tension between the formal rules of intellectual property (particularly copyright and patents) and the emerging informal norms of file sharing and open access in online environments. We look into the file sharing phenomena not only to illustrate the deepening gap between the two sets of norms, but to cast some doubt on the current (...)
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  9. added 2018-02-03
    Mag ik uw genen even patenteren?Henk van den Belt - 2004 - Krisis 2004 (2):22-37.
    In Het kapitaal beschreef Karl Marx in uiterst schrille kleuren de voorgeschiedenis van de kapitalistische productiewijze. Het was een langdurig proces dat zich over eeuwen uitstrekte en waarbij kleine boeren op gewelddadige wijze van hun primaire productiemiddel, de grond, werden gescheiden en aldus in 'vrije' loonarbeiders veranderd. De kern van dit proces was de privatisering van de meent of commons, de traditioneel voor gemeenschappelijk gebruik bestemde grond.
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  10. added 2017-12-21
    Are Copyrights Compatible with Human Rights ?Radu Uszkai - 2014 - Romanian Journal of Analytic Philosophy 8 (1):5-20.
    The purpose of the following study is that of providing a critical anal‑ ysis of Intellectual Property (IP), with a closer look on copyright, in the context of human rights. My main conjecture is the following : the legal infrastructure stemming from the implications of copyrights which states created has nega‑ tive consequences if we have a closer look at some human rights specified by The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). For example, copyrights are, in my view, incompatible with (...)
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  11. added 2017-12-12
    Ideation and Appropriation: Wittgenstein on Intellectual Property.Julian Friedland - 2001 - Law and Critique 12 (2):185-199.
    This paper provides a critique of the contemporary notion of intellectual property based on the consequences of Wittgenstein's “private language argument”. The reticence commonly felt toward recent applications of patent law, e.g., sports moves, is held to expose erroneous metaphysical assumptions inherent in the spirit of current IP legislation. It is argued that the modern conception of intellectual property as a kind of natural right, stems from the mistaken internalist or Augustinian picture of language that Wittgenstein attempted to diffuse. This (...)
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  12. added 2017-12-02
    Life and Ownership: Intellectual Property Limits, From Genes to Synthetic Biology.Constantin Vica - 2015 - Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine: An International Journal 6 (1-2):139-149.
    The purpose of this analysis is to widen and clarify the debate which arose during the last years around granting patents (and other ownership rights) upon different methods and mechanisms of manipulating and engineering life. In doing so, I draw a limited, prima facie argument against many sorts of entitlements or granting rights to those capable of manipulating life at its core level. The general tendency nowadays is to put pressure on the institutional setting in order to accept and promote (...)
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  13. added 2017-09-26
    Privacy as an Asset.Jarek Gryz - 2017 - In Marcellus Mindel, Kelly Lyons & Joe Wigglesworth (eds.), Proceedings of the 27th CASCON Conference. Markham, Canada: IBM/ACM. pp. 266-271.
    Many attempts to define privacy have been made over the last century. Early definitions and theories of privacy had little to do with the concept of information and, when they did, only in an informal sense. With the advent of information technology, the question of a precise and universally acceptable definition of privacy in this new domain became an urgent issue as legal and business problems regarding privacy started to accrue. In this paper, I propose a definition of informational privacy (...)
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  14. added 2017-09-23
    ¿Es éticamente aceptable la propiedad intelectual de los derechos de autor?Miguel Angel Quintana Paz - 2008 - Procesos de Mercado. Revista Europea de Economía Política 5 (1):91-130.
    We intend to analyze the plausibility of the two kind of ethical justifications that are most commonly used in order to defend the concept of an “intellectual property” of copyrights. Firstly, we will examine justifications of property based on natural law, like the one originally provided by John Locke. We will argue, with the help of authors like Lysander Spooner, that the same arguments that Locke uses for property in general are entirely applicable to intellectual property, although this is certainly (...)
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  15. added 2017-08-26
    GMOs: Non-Health Issues.Daniel Hicks & Roberta L. Millstein - 2016 - In Paul B. Thompson & David Kaplan (eds.), Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics (Second Edition). Springer. pp. 1-11.
    The controversy over genetically modified [GM] organisms is often framed in terms of possible hazards for human health. Articles in a previous volume of this *Encyclopedia* give a general overview of GM crops [@Mulvaney2014] and specifically examine human health [@Nordgard2014] and labeling [@Bruton2014] issues surrounding GM organisms. This article explores several other aspects of the controversy: environmental concerns, political and legal disputes, and the aim of "feeding the world" and promoting food security. Rather than discussing abstract, hypothetical GM organisms, this (...)
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  16. added 2017-06-27
    Sharing is Caring Vs. Stealing is Wrong: A Moral Argument for Limiting Copyright Protection.Julian Hauser - 2017 - International Journal of Technology Policy and Law 3 (1):68-85.
    Copyright is at the centre of both popular and academic debate. That emotions are running high is hardly surprising – copyright influences who contributes what to culture, how culture is used, and even the kind of persons we are and come to be. Consequentialist, Lockean, and personality interest accounts are generally advanced in the literature to morally justify copyright law. I argue that these approaches fail to ground extensive authorial rights in intellectual creations and that only a small subset of (...)
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  17. added 2017-06-07
    Intellectual Property, the Non-Aggression Principle, and Pre-Propertarian Liberty: New-Paradigm Libertarian Replies to Some Rothbardian Criticisms.J. C. Lester - 2016 - In Arguments for Liberty: A Libertarian Miscellany. Buckingham, England: The University of Buckingham Press. pp. 160-183.
    Andy Curzon replied (often quoting from the opening sections of Lester 2014, chapter 10) in an ongoing debate with Lee Waaks, which Mr Waaks forwarded (with approval) to the Libertarian Alliance Forum (27 February 2015). This response replies to the criticisms after directly quoting them (the indented text; except where Lester is occasionally quoted, as indicated). A few cuts have been made to avoid some repetition and irrelevance. However, just as Mr Curzon sometimes repeats his main points in slightly different (...)
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  18. added 2017-05-26
    Registro de variedades según el modelo de creative commons.Cristian Timmermann - 2017 - la Jornada Ecológica 212:18-19.
    Hoy en día, el fuerte consagramiento y la expansión de la propiedad privada ha llevado al olvido a muchos métodos de gobernar recursos que no están basados en la exclusividad. Frecuentemente se escucha hablar de la propiedad como un derecho de dominio absoluto, algo inviolable que no conlleva obligaciones. Sin embargo, desde los inicios de la historia jurídica podemos observar que los derechos de propiedad han estado habitualmente acompañados de obligaciones y limitaciones, además de un mandato moral solicitando que el (...)
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  19. added 2017-05-17
    Harvesting the Uncollected Fruits of Other People’s Intellectual Labour.Cristian Timmermann - 2017 - Acta Bioethica 23 (2):259-269.
    Intellectual property regimes necessarily create artificial scarcity leading to wastage, both by blocking follow-up research and hindering access to those who are only able to pay less then the actual retail price. After revising the traditional arguments to hinder access to people’s intellectual labour we will examine why we should be more open to allow free-riding of inventive efforts, especially in cases where innovators have not secured the widest access to the fruits of their research and failed to cooperate with (...)
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  20. added 2017-01-05
    Intellectual Property, Globalization, and Left-Libertarianism.Constantin Vică - 2015 - Symposion: Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 2 (3):323–345.
    Intellectual property has become the apple of discord in today’s moral and political debates. Although it has been approached from many different perspectives, a final conclusion has not been reached. In this paper I will offer a new way of thinking about intellectual property rights (IPRs), from a left-libertarian perspective. My thesis is that IPRs are not (natural) original rights, aprioric rights, as it is usually argued. They are derived rights hence any claim for intellectual property is weaker than the (...)
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  21. added 2016-11-08
    Is the Non-Rivalrousness of Intellectual Objects a Problem for the Moral Justification of Economic Rights to Intellectual Property?Jukka Varelius - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (4):895-906.
    It is often argued that the fact that intellectual objects—objects like ideas, inventions, concepts, and melodies—can be used by several people simultaneously makes intellectual property rights impossible or particularly difficult to morally justify. In this article, I assess the line of criticism of intellectual ownership in connection with a central category of intellectual property rights, economic rights to intellectual property. I maintain that it is unconvincing.
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  22. added 2016-11-08
    Do Patents and Copyrights Give Their Holders Excessive Control Over the Material Property of Others?Jukka Varelius - 2014 - Ethics and Information Technology 16 (4):299-305.
    The moral acceptability of intellectual property rights is often assessed by comparing them to central instances of rights to material property. Critics of intellectual ownership claim to have found significant differences. One of the dissimilarities pertains to the extent of the control intellectual property rights bestow on their holders over the material property of others. The main idea of the criticism of intellectual ownership built around that dissimilarity is that, in light of the comparison with material property rights, the power (...)
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  23. added 2016-11-08
    Is the Expiration of Intellectual Property Rights a Problem for Non-Consequentialist Theories of Intellectual Property?Jukka Varelius - 2014 - Res Publica 20 (4):345-357.
    The expiration of intellectual property rights has been seen to amount to a problem for non-consequentialist theories of intellectual property. In this article, I assess whether the difficulty is real. I maintain that, as things are at least, there is no sufficient reason to believe that the termination of intellectual property rights is an insurmountable problem for non-consequentialist theories of intellectual property rights.
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  24. added 2016-10-23
    Climate Change, Intellectual Property, and Global Justice.Monica Ştefănescu & Constantin Vică - 2012 - Public Reason 4 (1-2):197-209.
    The current situation of climate change at a global level clearly requires policy changes at local levels. Global efforts to reach a consensus regarding the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have so far been focused on developing Climate-Friendly Technologies (CFTs). The problem is that in order for these efforts to have an actual impact at a global level we need to be concerned with more than just promotion and info-dissemination on the already existing CFTs, but also with costs, implementation and (...)
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  25. added 2016-10-23
    How to Assess the Emergence of the European Pirate Parties. Towards a Research Agenda.Radu Uszkai & Constantin Vică - 2012 - Sfera Politicii (169):46-55.
    The purpose of this paper is to assess the emergence of the pirate movements in the European Union. Our goal is to sketch the steps towards a research agenda for this grassroots political movement which gained momentum since 2009. To attain our goal we showed the re-signification of the concept of piracy in the debate around intellectual property and its institutional settlement. Afterwards we analysed the big political themes of several European Pirate Parties and their struggle to follow the preferences (...)
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  26. added 2016-07-18
    Etica cercetării şi proprietatea intelectuală.Constantin Stoenescu (ed.) - 2014 - Editura Universitatii din Bucuresti.
    Volumul îşi propune să aducă în discuţie un domeniu de probleme de actualitate aflat în discuţie publică. Studiile abordează aspecte cu încărcătură teoretică diferită, dar toate converg tematic spre aceeaşi problemă generală a relaţiei dintre etica cercetării şi competiţia pentru recunoaşterea meritelor prin asigurarea şi reglementarea dreptului la proprietate intelectuală.
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  27. added 2016-05-15
    Análisis ético e implicaciones de la prolongación de los derechos de exclusividad sobre las invenciones farmacéuticas.Iván Vargas-Chaves - 2014 - Revista Jurídicas 11 (2):129-147.
    El presente artículo tiene como objetivo destacar la problemática de las prácticas de extensión o prolongación de los derechos de exclusividad sobre los medicamentos, llevadas a cabo por la industria farmacéutica, una vez el término de protección vía patente está por finalizar. A través de tres escenarios se pone de manifiesto las implicaciones de este fenómeno, destacándose la necesidad de involucrar activamente al Estado para garantizar así unas condiciones equitativas de acceso a los medicamentos.
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  28. added 2016-03-20
    Intellectual Property is Common Property.Andreas Von Gunten - 2015 - buch & netz.
    Defenders of intellectual property rights argue that these rights are justified because creators and inventors deserve compensation for their labour, because their ideas and expressions are their personal property and because the total amount of creative work and innovation increases when inventors and creators have a prospect of generating high income through the exploitation of their monopoly rights. This view is not only widely accepted by the general public, but also enforced through a very effective international legal framework. And it (...)
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  29. added 2016-03-15
    A Philosophical Analysis of Intellectual Property: In Defense of Instrumentalism.Michael A. Kanning - unknown
    This thesis argues in favor of an instrumental approach to Intellectual Property. I begin by reviewing justifications for IP that have been offered in recent literature, including Lockean labor theory, Hegelian personality theory, Kantian property theory and utilitarianism. Upon a close and careful analysis, I argue that none of these justifications suffice to ground contemporary IP practice. I review some recent works that offer `pluralist' justifications for IP, which draw from multiple theories in order to account for the diverse field (...)
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  30. added 2016-02-02
    Agrobiodiversität, das Gemeinschaftserbe-Prinzip und Marktanreize.Cristian Timmermann & Zoë Robaey - 2016 - In Barbara Brandl & Stephan Schleissing (eds.), Biopatente – Saatgut als Ware und als öffentliches Gut. Nomos. pp. 109-131.
    Die Diversität von Nahrungspflanzen, ein Ergebnis Jahrtausende langer Zuchtbemühungen, ist in den letzten Jahrzehnten dramatisch zurückgegangen. Schätzungen zufolge machen von den über 7000 Nahrungspflanzenarten ganze 103 Sorten 90% der Nahrungsmittelproduktion aus. Dieser Verlust könnte in Zukunft gewaltige negative Auswirkungen auf die Nahrungsmittelsicherheit haben, da die Biodiversität eine zentrale Rolle bei der Absorbierung biotischer und abiotischer Stressfaktoren spielt, die auf die Pflanzen wirken. Darüber hinaus stellt der Verlust eine bedeutende Verarmung nicht nur des Pools genetischer Ressourcen dar, die zukünftigen Generationen zur (...)
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  31. added 2016-01-25
    The Double Nature of DNA: Reevaluating the Common Heritage Idea.Matthieu Queloz - 2016 - Journal of Political Philosophy 24 (1):47-66.
    DNA possesses a double nature: it is both an analog chemical compound and a digital carrier of information. By distinguishing these two aspects, this paper aims to reevaluate the legally and politically influential idea that the human genome forms part of the common heritage of mankind, an idea which is thought to conflict with the practice of patenting DNA. The paper explores the lines of reasoning that lead to the common heritage idea, articulates and motivates what emerges as the most (...)
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  32. added 2016-01-23
    Agrobiodiversity Under Different Property Regimes.Cristian Timmermann & Zoë Robaey - 2016 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 29 (2):285-303.
    Having an adequate and extensively recognized resource governance system is essential for the conservation and sustainable use of crop genetic resources in a highly populated planet. Despite the widely accepted importance of agrobiodiversity for future plant breeding and thus food security, there is still pervasive disagreement at the individual level on who should own genetic resources. The aim of the article is to provide conceptual clarification on the following concepts and their relation to agrobiodiversity stewardship: open access, commons, private property, (...)
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  33. added 2015-11-27
    On Water Drinkers and Magical Springs: Challenging the Lockean Proviso as a Justification for Copyright.Maxime Lambrecht - 2015 - Ratio Juris 28 (4):504-520.
    Does intellectual property satisfy the requirements of the Lockean proviso, that the appropriator leave “enough and as good” or that he at least not “deprive others”? If an author's appropriation of a work he has just created is analogous to a drinker “taking a good draught” in the flow of an inexhaustible river, or to someone magically “causing springs of water to flow in the desert,” how could it not satisfy the Lockean proviso?
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  34. added 2015-09-03
    A Bundle of Software Rights and Duties.David M. Douglas - 2011 - Ethics and Information Technology 13 (3):185-197.
    Like the ownership of physical property, the issues computer software ownership raises can be understood as concerns over how various rights and duties over software are shared between owners and users. The powers of software owners are defined in software licenses, the legal agreements defining what users can and cannot do with a particular program. To help clarify how these licenses permit and restrict users’ actions, here I present a conceptual framework of software rights and duties that is inspired by (...)
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  35. added 2015-07-29
    Digital Rights and Freedoms: A Framework for Surveying Users and Analyzing Policies.Todd Davies - 2014 - In Luca Maria Aiello & Daniel McFarland (eds.), Social Informatics: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference (SocInfo 2014). Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 8851. pp. 428-443.
    Interest has been revived in the creation of a "bill of rights" for Internet users. This paper analyzes users' rights into ten broad principles, as a basis for assessing what users regard as important and for comparing different multi-issue Internet policy proposals. Stability of the principles is demonstrated in an experimental survey, which also shows that freedoms of users to participate in the design and coding of platforms appear to be viewed as inessential relative to other rights. An analysis of (...)
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  36. added 2015-07-29
    A Behavioral Perspective on Technology Evolution and Domain Name Regulation.Todd Davies - 2008 - Pacific McGeorge Global Business and Development Law Journal 21 (1):1-25.
    This paper argues that private property and rights assignment, especially as applied to communication infrastructure and information, should be informed by advances in both technology and our understanding of psychology. Current law in this area in the United States and many other jurisdictions is founded on assumptions about human behavior that have been shown not to hold empirically. A joint recognition of this fact, together with an understanding of what new technologies make possible, leads one to question basic assumptions about (...)
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  37. added 2015-04-06
    Copyrighting Facts.Michael Steven Green - manuscript
    This article is a limited defense of copyrights for the contents of factual compilations. The form of protection that I propose, under which the collective factual content of such compilations is protected, differs from an approach that protects individual facts and from the currently accepted approach (as articulated in Feist v. Rural Telephone), under which only selections and arrangements of individual facts are protected. Although I accept that there are sound economic justifications for refusing to copyright individual facts, my justifications (...)
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  38. added 2015-02-19
    Climate Change, Intellectual Property Rights and Global Justice.Cristian Timmermann & Henk van den Belt - 2012 - In Thomas Potthast & Simon Meisch (eds.), Climate Change and Sustainable Development: Ethical Perspectives on Land Use and Food Production. Wageningen Academic Publishers. pp. 75-79.
    International negotiations on anthropogenic climate change are far from running smoothly. Opinions are deeply divided on what are the respective responsibilities of developed and developing countries with regard to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and the alleviation of the negative effects of global warming. A major bone of contention concerns the role of intellectual property rights (especially patents) in the development and diffusion of climate-friendly technologies. While developing countries consider IPRs as a formidable barrier to the rapid transfer and (...)
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  39. added 2014-12-06
    An Assessment of Prominent Proposals to Amend Intellectual Property Regimes Using a Human Rights Framework.Cristian Timmermann - 2014 - la Propiedad Inmaterial 18:221-253.
    A wide range of proposals to alleviate the negative effects of intellectual property regimes is currently under discussion. This article offers a critical evaluation of six of these proposals: the Health Impact Fund, the Access to Knowledge movement, prize systems, open innovation models, compulsory licenses and South-South collaborations. An assessment on how these proposals target the human rights affected by intellectual property will be provided. The conflicting human rights that will be individually discussed are the rights: to benefit from one’s (...)
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  40. added 2014-11-19
    Pesticides and the Patent Bargain.Cristian Timmermann - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (1):1-19.
    In order to enlarge the pool of knowledge available in the public domain, temporary exclusive rights are granted to innovators who are willing to fully disclose the information needed to reproduce their invention. After the 20-year patent protection period elapses, society should be able to make free use of the publicly available knowledge described in the patent document, which is deemed useful. Resistance to pesticides destroys however the usefulness of information listed in patent documents over time. The invention, here pesticides, (...)
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  41. added 2014-11-19
    Limiting and Facilitating Access to Innovations in Medicine and Agriculture: A Brief Exposition of the Ethical Arguments.Cristian Timmermann - 2014 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 10 (1):1-20.
    Taking people’s longevity as a measure of good life, humankind can proudly say that the average person is living a much longer life than ever before. The AIDS epidemic has however for the first time in decades stalled and in some cases even reverted this trend in a number of countries. Climate change is increasingly becoming a major challenge for food security and we can anticipate that hunger caused by crop damages will become much more common. -/- Since many of (...)
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  42. added 2014-11-19
    Justifying Pro-Poor Innovation in the Life Sciences: A Brief Overview of the Ethical Landscape.Cristian Timmermann - 2013 - In Helena Röcklinsberg & Per Sandin (eds.), The Ethics of Consumption. Wageningen Academic Publishers. pp. 341-346.
    An idea is a public good. The use of an idea by one person does not hinder others to benefit from the same idea. However in order to generate new life-saving ideas, e.g. inventions in the life sciences, a huge amount of human and material resources are needed. Powerful, but highly criticized tools to speed up the rate of innovation are exclusive rights, most prominently the use of patents and plant breeders’ rights. Exclusive rights leave by nature a number of (...)
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  43. added 2014-11-19
    Reflections on the International Networking Conference “Ethical and Social Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights – Agrifood and Health”, Brussels, September 2011.Michiel Korthals & Cristian Timmermann - 2011 - Synesis 3 (1):G66-73.
    Public goods, as well as commercial commodities, are affected by exclusive arrangements secured by intellectual property (IP) rights. These rights serve as an incentive to invest human and material capital in research and development. Particularly in the life sciences, IP rights regulate objects such as food and medicines that are key to securing human rights, especially the right to adequate food and the right to health. Consequently, IP serves private (economic) and public interests. Part of this charge claims that the (...)
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  44. added 2014-11-13
    A Transdisciplinary Ontology of Innovation Governance.Wendy Ann Adams - 2008 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 16 (2):147-174.
    Intellectual property law tends to be viewed as the only (or most significant) mechanism for achieving policy goals relating to innovation assets. Yet more creative and effective solutions are often available. When analysed from a transdisciplinary perspective, relying on the cooperative efforts of researchers from fields other than law, innovation governance is characterized not simply as the product of legal rules, but as a function of the interaction of legal rules, practices and institutions. When policy-makers seek to identify conditions under (...)
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  45. added 2014-09-10
    New Frontiers in the Philosophy of Intellectual Property.Annabelle Lever - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    The new frontiers in the philosophy of intellectual property lie squarely in territories belonging to moral and political philosophy, as well as legal philosophy and philosophy of economics – or so this collection suggests. Those who wish to understand the nature and justification of intellectual property may now find themselves immersed in philosophical debates on the structure and relative merits of consequentialist and deontological moral theories, or disputes about the nature and value of privacy, or the relationship between national and (...)
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  46. added 2014-09-10
    Is It Ethical To Patent Human Genes?Annabelle Lever - 2008 - In Gosseries Axel, Marciano A. & Strowel A. (eds.), Intellectual Property and Theories of Justice. Basingstoke & N.Y.: Palgrave Mcmillan. pp. 246--64.
    This paper examines the claims that moral objections to the patenting of human genes are misplaced and rest on confusions about what a patent is, or what is patented by a human gene patent. It shows that theese objections rest on too simple a conception of property rights, and the connections betwteen familiar moral objections to private property and moral objections to the patenting of human genes. Above all, the paper claims, objections to HGPs often reflect worries about the lack (...)
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  47. added 2014-09-10
    Ethics and the Patenting of Human Genes.Annabelle Lever - 2001 - Journal of Philosophy, Science and Law 1:31-46.
    Human gene patents are patents on human genes that have been removed from human bodies and scientifically isolated and manipulated in a laboratory. The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (the USPTO) has issued thousands of patents on such genes, and patents have also been granted by the European Patent Office, (the EPO). Legal and moral justification, however, are not identical, and it is possible for a legal decision to be immoral although consistent with legal precedent and procedure. So, it is (...)
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  48. added 2014-09-02
    Are Rawlsians Entitled to Monopoly Rights?Speranta Dumitru - 2008 - In A. Gosseries, A. Marciano & A. Strowel (eds.), Intelectual Property and Theories of Justice. Palgrave-MacMilan.
    Are intellectual property rights for talented people justified by Rawls’ criteria of justice? In this paper, I argue that Rawls’ theory of justice is ill-equipped to answer this question. Tailored for rival goods and, as a result, centred on the distribution of benefits, it tends to restate questions of justice about unequal rights as questions about economic inequalities. Therefore, it lacks the tools necessary to distinguish among different forms of incentives for talented people. Once social and economic inequalities observe equality (...)
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  49. added 2014-04-13
    Kant, Copyright and Communicative Freedom.Anne Barron - 2012 - Law and Philosophy 31 (1):1-48.
    The rapid recent expansion of copyright law worldwide has sparked efforts to defend the ‘public domain’ of non-propertized information, often on the ground that an expansive public domain is a condition of a ‘free culture’. Yet questions remain about why the public domain is worth defending, what exactly a free culture is, and what role (if any) authors’ rights might play in relation to it. From the standard liberal perspective shared by many critics of copyright expansionism, the protection of individual (...)
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  50. added 2014-04-13
    Patent Rights or Patent Wrongs? The Case of Patent Rights on AIDS Drugs.Samantha Byrne, Paul Davey, Kirsti McFarlane, John O'Brien & Craig Templeton - 2006 - Business Ethics 15 (3):299–305.
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