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  1. Annette Ruth Appell, Representing Children, Representing What?: Critical Reflections on Lawyering for Children.
    This article sets forth some critical observations about the role of children's attorneys in reinforcing and challenging sociolegal norms, particularly those norms that are not child-driven or child-centered. More concretely, it critically explores the role of children's lawyers in promoting the individual and systemic interests of their youthful constituents, most of whom receive lawyers because they are caught in systems that predominately serve poor children and children of color. The article first reflects on the indeterminacy and contingency of the category (...)
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  2. David Archard, Children's Rights. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Children are young human beings. Some children are very young human beings. As human beings children evidently have a certain moral status. There are things that should not be done to them for the simple reason that they are human. At the same time children are different from adult human beings and it seems reasonable to think that there are things children may not do that adults are permitted to do. In the majority of jurisdictions, for instance, children are not (...)
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  3. David Archard (2004). Children: Rights and Childhood. Routledge.
    Whether children have rights is a debate that in recent years has spilled over into all areas of public life. It has never been more topical than now as the assumed rights of parents over their children is challenged on an almost daily basis. David Archard offers the first serious and sustained philosophical examination of children and their rights. Archard reviews arguments for and against according children rights. He concludes that every child has at least the right to the best (...)
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  4. David Archard (1992). Rights, Moral Values and Natural Facts: A Reply to Mary Midgley on the Problem of Child-Abuse. Journal of Applied Philosophy 9 (1):99-104.
    Mary Midgley asserts that my argument concerning the problem of child-abuse was inappropriately framed in the language of rights, and neglected certain pertinent natural facts. I defend the view that the use of rights-talk was both apposite and did not misrepresent the moral problem in question. I assess the status and character of the natural facts Midgley adduces in criticism of my case, concluding that they do not obviously establish the conclusions she believes they do. Finally I briefly respond to (...)
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  5. David Archard & Colin Macleod (eds.) (2002). Children and Political Theory. Oxford University Press.
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  6. Andrew Bainham (2006). Birthrights? The Rights and Obligations Associated with the Birth of a Child. In John R. Spencer & Antje Du Bois-Pedain (eds.), Freedom and Responsibility in Reproductive Choice. Hart Pub.
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  7. Isaac D. Balbus (2002). Having and Raising Children: Unconventional Families, Hard Choices, Social Good (Review). Hypatia 17 (2):162-165.
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  8. Bertram Bandman (1977). Some Legal, Moral and Intellectual Rights of Children. Educational Theory 27 (3):169-178.
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  9. Ludvig Beckman (2001). Rights, Rights-Talk, and Children. Journal of Value Inquiry 35 (4):509-515.
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  10. Valarie Blake, Steve Joffe & Eric Kodish (2011). Harmonization of Ethics Policies in Pediatric Research. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 39 (1):70-78.
    The International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) was formed over 20 years ago with a goal of harmonizing research regulations among the European Union, United States, and Japan. Harmonization was intended to speed approval of pharmaceuticals, avoid unnecessary repetition of studies, and ensure protection of research participants. This paper examines United States, European Union, and ICH pediatric research regulations in five domains: parental permission, assent/dissent, payment, risk/benefit and inclusion of disabled children/wards (...)
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  11. Jeffery Blustein (1980). Parents, Paternalism, and Children's Rights. Journal of Critical Analysis 8 (3):89-98.
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  12. Richard Bourne, Eli H. Newberger & C. Sue White (forthcoming). Mandated Child Abuse Reporting. Ethics and Behavior.
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  13. Samantha Brennan & Jennifer Epp (forthcoming). Children’s Rights, Well-Being, and Sexual Agency. In Alexander Bagattini and Colin MacLeod (ed.), The Wellbeing of Children in Theory and Practice.
  14. Harry Brighouse (2009). Legitimate Parental Partiality. Philosophy and Public Affairs 37 (1):43-80.
    Some of the barriers to the realisation of equality reflect the value of respecting prerogatives people have to favour themselves. Even G.A. Cohen, whose egalitarianism is especially pervasive and demanding, says that.
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  15. Dan W. Brock (2001). Children's Rights to Health Care. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (2):163 – 177.
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  16. Don S. Browning & John Witte (2011). Christianity's Mixed Contributions to Children's Rights. Zygon 46 (3):713-732.
    Abstract. In this paper, which was among Don Browning's last writings before he died, we review and evaluate the main arguments against the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (the “CRC”) that conservative American Christians in particular have opposed. While we take their objections seriously, we think that, on balance, the CRC is worthy of ratification, especially if it is read in light of the profamily ethic that informs the CRC and many earlier human rights instruments. More (...)
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  17. Allen Buchanan (2009). Moral Status and Human Enhancement. Philosophy and Public Affairs 37 (4):346-381.
  18. J. Burr & P. Reynolds (2008). Thinking Ethically About Genetic Inheritance: Liberal Rights, Communitarianism and the Right to Privacy for Parents of Donor Insemination Children. Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (4):281-284.
    The issue of genetic inheritance, and particularly the contradictory rights of donors, recipients and donor offspring as to the disclosure of donor identities, is ethically complicated. Donors, donor offspring and parents of donor offspring may appeal to individual rights for confidentiality or disclosure within legal systems based on liberal rights discourse. This paper explores the ethical issues of non-disclosure of genetic inheritance by contrasting two principle models used to articulate the problem—liberal and communitarian ethical models. It argues that whilst the (...)
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  19. A. G. M. Campbell (1985). Everybody's Ethics: What Future for Handicapped Babies? Journal of Medical Ethics 11 (3):165-166.
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  20. Louise Chawla (2009). Participation as Capacity-Building for Active Citizenship. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 4 (1):69-76.
    Within the framework of the “capability approach” to human rights, this paper argues that adults who facilitate participatory planning and design with children and youth have an ethical obliga- tion to foster young people’s capacities for active democratic citizenship. Practitioners often worry, justifiably, that if young people fail to see their ideas realized, they may become disillusioned and alienated from political life. Based on the experience of the Growing Up in Cities program of UNESCO, four rules of good practice are (...)
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  21. M. J. Cherry (2013). Ignoring the Data and Endangering Children: Why the Mature Minor Standard for Medical Decision Making Must Be Abandoned. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (3):315-331.
    In Roper v. Simmons (2005) the United States Supreme Court announced a paradigm shift in jurisprudence. Drawing specifically on mounting scientific evidence that adolescents are qualitatively different from adults in their decision-making capacities, the Supreme Court recognized that adolescents are not adults in all but age. The Court concluded that the overwhelming weight of the psychological and neurophysiological data regarding brain maturation supports the conclusion that adolescents are qualitatively different types of agents than adult persons. The Supreme Court further solidified (...)
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  22. Mhairi Cowden (2012). Capacity, Claims and Children's Rights. Contemporary Political Theory 11 (4):362-380.
    Children are often denied rights on the basis of their incompetence. A theory of rights for children is essential for consideration of the child's political status, yet the debate surrounding children's rights has been characterised by the divisive concept of ‘capacity’ typified in the two leading rights theory, Interest Theory and Will Theory. This article will provide a thorough analysis of the relationship between capacity, competence and rights. Although Interest Theory has successfully dealt with the competence requirement for being a (...)
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  23. Jurgen De Wispelaere & Daniel Weinstock (2012). Licensing Parents to Protect Our Children? Ethics and Social Welfare 6 (2):195-205.
    In this paper we re-examine Hugh LaFollette's proposal that the state carefully determine the eligibility and suitability of prospective parents before granting them a ?license to parent?. Assuming a prima facie case for licensing parents grounded in our duty to promote the welfare of the child, we offer several considerations that complicate LaFollette's radical proposal. We suggest that LaFollette can only escape these problems by revising his proposal in a way that renders the license effectively obsolete, a route he implicitly (...)
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  24. David Driskell & Neema Kudva (2009). Everyday Ethics: Framing Youth Participation in Organizational Practice. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 4 (1):77-87.
    Much of the literature on ethical issues in child and youth participation has drawn on the epi- sodic experiences of participatory research efforts in which young people’s input has been sought, transcribed and represented. This literature focuses in particular on the power dynamics and ethi- cal dilemmas embedded in time-bound adult/child and outsider/insider relationships. While we agree that these issues are crucial and in need of further examination, it is equally important to examine the ethical issues embedded within the “everyday” (...)
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  25. H. Tristram Engelhardt (1991). Fundamental Rights: Comments on Medical Discrimination Against Children with Disabilities, a Report of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, D.C.; 1989. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 3 (2):63-76.
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  26. Luara Ferracioli (forthcoming). Why the Family? Law, Ethics and Philosophy.
    Among the most pressing philosophical questions occupying those interested in the ethics of the family is why should parents, as opposed to charity workers or state officials, raise children. In their recent Family Values, Brighouse and Swift have further articulated and strengthen their own justification of the parent-child relationship by appealing to its crucial role in enabling the child’s proper development and in allowing parents to play a valuable fiduciary role in the lives of children. In this paper, I argue (...)
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  27. Luara Ferracioli (2014). On the Value of Intimacy in Procreation. Journal of Value Inquiry 48 (3):349-369.
    She’ll get paid…we don’t need to see her. As long asshe’s healthy and delivers my babies healthily,she’s done a job for us.British woman referring to her Indian surrogate, in Poonam Taneja, “The couple having four babies by two surrogates,” BBC Asian Network (2013) at .IntroductionWhen two adults meet, fall in love, and commit themselves to a romantic relationship, a time will come when they must decide whether or not to have children. It is no exaggeration to say that this particular (...)
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  28. Luara Ferracioli (2014). The State’s Duty to Ensure Children Are Loved. Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 8 (2):1-19.
    Do children have a right to be loved? An affirmative answer faces two immediate challenges: (i) a child's basic needs can be met without love, therefore a defence of such a right cannot appeal to the role of love in protecting children's most basic needs, and (ii) since love is non-voluntary, it seems that there cannot be a corresponding duty on the part of parents to love their child. In this essay, I defend an affirmative answer that overcomes both of (...)
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  29. Timothy Fowler (2013). Status of Child Citizens. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 13 (1):1470594-13483482.
    This paper considers the place of children within liberal-democratic society and its related political morality. The genesis of the paper is two considerations which are in tension with one another. First, that there must be some point at which children are divided from adults, with children denied the rights which go along with full membership of the liberal community. The justification for the difference in the statue between these two groups must be rooted in some notion of capacities, since these (...)
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  30. J. Lawrence French (2010). Children's Labor Market Involvement, Household Work, and Welfare: A Brazilian Case Study. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 92 (1):63 - 78.
    The large numbers of children working in developing countries continue to provoke calls for an end to such employment. However, many reformers argue that efforts should focus on ending the exploitation of children rather than depriving them of all opportunities to work. This posture reflects recognition of the multiplicity of needs children have and the diversity of situations in which they work. Unfortunately, research typically neglects these complexities and fails to distinguish between types of labor market jobs, dismisses household chores (...)
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  31. Patrick C. Friman (1995). Take Away Their Hammer: Logical and Ethical Problems in Range and Cotton's "Reports of Assent and Permission in Research with Children: Illustrations and Suggestions". Ethics and Behavior 5 (4):349 – 353.
    Range and Cotton (1995) showed that many of the articles reviewed in their study did not include a line specifying institutional review board-approved procurement of informed parental permission and child assent for child research. Range and Cotton stated that the absence of the line suggests a lack of sensitivity to permission/assent issues, implied that many authors of the articles did not obtain permission/assent, and said those who did but did not report it were camouflaging those who did not. In this (...)
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  32. R. J. Gelles (2007). Children's Rights and Parents' Responsibilities Martin Guggenheim, What's Wrong With Children's Rights. Criminal Justice Ethics 25 (2):40.
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  33. Richard Gelles (2006). Review Essay / Children's Rights and Parents' Responsibilities. Criminal Justice Ethics 25 (2):40-45.
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  34. Steven Gerencser (2003). The Moral and Political Status of Children. Contemporary Political Theory 2 (3):363-365.
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  35. Anca Gheaus & Ingrid Robeyns (2011). Equality-Promoting Parental Leave. Journal of Social Philosophy 42 (2):173-191.
  36. Li-Ming Gong, Wen-Jun Tu, Jian He, Xiao-Dong Shi, Xin-Yu Wang & Ying Li (2012). The Use of Newborn Screening Dried Blood Spots for Research. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (2):189-193.
    ObjectiveTo investigate the attitudes of Chinese parents regarding the storage of dried blood spots collected for newborn screening (NBS) and their use in research.MethodsWe conducted a hospital-based survey of parents and examined parental attitudes regarding (a) allowing NBS sample storage, (b) permitting use of children’s NBS samples for research with parental permission, and (c) permitting use of children’s NBS samples for research without parental permission.ResultsThe response rate was 52 percent. Of parents surveyed, 68 percent would permit their infant’s NBS sample (...)
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  37. Michael Grodin & Harlan Lane (1997). Ethical Issues in Cochlear Implant Surgery: An Exploration Into Disease, Disability, and the Best Interests of the Child. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 7 (3):231-251.
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  38. John Harris (2000). The Welfare of the Child. Health Care Analysis 8 (1):27-34.
    The interests or welfare of the child are rightly central to anydiscussion of the ethics of reproduction. The problematic nature of thislegitimate concern is seldom, if ever, noticed or if it is, it ismisunderstood. A prominent example of this sort of misunderstandingoccurs in the Department of Health's recent and important `SurrogacyReview' chaired by Margaret Brazier (The Brazier Report) and thesame misunderstanding makes nonsense of at least one provision of theHuman Fertilization and Embryology Act 1990. (The HFE Act).This paper explores and (...)
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  39. Carl Hedman (2000). Three Approaches to the Problem of Child Abuse and Neglect. Journal of Social Philosophy 31 (3):268–285.
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  40. Kimberly Hoagwood (1994). The Certificate of Confidentiality at the National Institute of Mental Health: Discretionary Considerations in its Applicability in Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders. Ethics and Behavior 4 (2):123 – 131.
    Child and adolescent researchers must balance increasingly complex sets of ethical, legal, and scientific standards when investigating child and adolescent mental disorders. Few guidelines are available. One mechanism that provides the investigator immunity from legally compelled disclosure of research records is described. However, discretion must be exercised in its use, especially with regard to abuse reporting, voluntary disclosure of abuse, and protection of research data. Examples of discretionary issues in the use of the certificate of confidentiality are provided.
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  41. Benjamin Kiesewetter (2009). Dürfen wir Kindern das Wahlrecht vorenthalten? Archiv für Rechts- Und Sozialphilosophie 95 (2):252-273.
    Up to a certain age, young people are denied the right to vote. In this paper, it is argued that this general exclusion from democratic participation is unjustified and should be abandoned. After a short survey of some of the pedagogic, legal, and political arguments that have been brought forward to support a liberalisation of electoral law in favour of children, the essay presents a basic moral argument against any age limit with respect to voting rights. First of all, it (...)
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  42. Kim Knowles-Yánez (2009). Asking Practical Ethical Questions About Youth Participation. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 4 (1):97-104.
    This paper is based on case study research conducted in an economically depressed, immigrant gateway neighborhood of Escondido, California. This study has been in progress since 2005 and involves working with children at the local middle school on rights-based community environ- mental action research projects in coordination with student facilitators in an upper-division uni- versity class titled “Children and the Environment.” This case study has suggested inquiry into the practical ethical dimensions of working with children, administrators, and university students on (...)
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  43. Hugh Lafollette (2010). Licensing Parents Revisited. Journal of Applied Philosophy 27 (4):327-343.
    Although systems for licensing professionals are far from perfect, and their problems and costs should not be ignored, they are justified as a necessary means of protecting innocent people's vital interests. Licensing defends patients from inept doctors, pharmacists, and physical therapists; it protects clients from unqualified lawyers. We should protect people who are highly vulnerable to those who are supposed to serve them, those with whom they have a special relationship. Requiring professionals to be licensed is the most plausible way (...)
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  44. Hugh LaFollette (2004). The Moral and Political Status of Children. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 82 (4):658 – 660.
    Book Information The Moral and Political Status of Children. The Moral and Political Status of Children David Archard , Colin M. Macleod , eds. , Oxford and New York : Oxford University Press , 2002 , viii + 296 , US$60 (cloth). Edited by David Archard; , Colin M. Macleod; , eds.. Oxford University Press. Oxford and New York. Pp. viii + 296. US$60 (cloth).
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  45. Hugh LaFollette (1998). Circumscribed Autonomy: Children, Care, and Custody. In Uma Narayan & Julia Bartkowiak (eds.), Having and Raising Children. Penn State University Press
    For many people the idea that children are autonomous agents whose autonomy the parents should respect and the state should protect is laughable. For them, such an idea is the offspring of idle academics who never had, or at least never seriously interacted with, children. Autonomy is the province of full fledged rational adults, not immature children. It is easy to see why many people embrace this view. Very young children do not have the experience or knowledge to make informed (...)
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  46. Hugh LaFollette (1996). Personal Relationships: Love, Identity and Morality. Blackwell.
    "This admirably clear and engaging work ... is broadly accessible... and is informed by social science research. Yet it is also thoroughly philosophical, delving into problems in ethics, epistemology, the philosophy of mind and the philosophy of language.... Let us hope that LaFollette continues to tackle these problems with the clarify and rigor he shows here.".
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  47. Hugh LaFollette (1995). Morality and Personal Relationships. In Personal Relationships: Love, Identity, and Morality. Blackwell
    Throughout this book, I made frequent reference to a wide range of moral issues: honesty, jealousy, sexual fidelity, commitment, paternalism, caring, etc. This suggests there is an intricate connection between morality and personal relationships. There is. Of course personal relationships do not always promote moral values, nor do people find all relationships salutary. Some friendships, marriages, and kin relationships are anything but healthy or valuable. We all know (and perhaps are in) some relationships which hinder personal growth, undermine moral values, (...)
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  48. Hugh LaFollette (1989). Freedom of Religion and Children. Public Affairs Quarterly (1):75-87.
    In a number of recent federal court cases parents have sought to have their children exempted from certain school activities on the grounds that the children's participation in those activities violates their (the parents') right to freedom of religion. In Mozert v. Hawkin's County Public Schools (827 F. 2nd 1058) fundamentalist parents of several Tennessee public school children brought civil action against the school board for violating their constitutional right of freedom of religion. These parents sought to prevent their children (...)
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  49. Bert Lambeir & Stefan Ramaekers (2007). The Terror of Explicitness: Philosophical Remarks on the Idea of a Parenting Contract. Ethics and Education 2 (2):95-107.
    The new idea of a 'parenting contract', explicitly taking as its point of reference the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, is meant primarily to protect children's rights, and specifically the right to a proper upbringing. The nature of the parent-child relationship is thus drawn into the discourse of rights and duties. Although there is much to be said for parents explicitly attending to their children's upbringing, something of the uniqueness of the parent-child relationship seems to be (...)
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  50. Kristi S. Lekies (2009). Youth Engagement in the Community: The Ethics of Inclusion and Exclusion. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 4 (1):156-164.
    This study focuses on the engagement of children and youth in their communities and the ways they are included in and excluded from community life. Using a content analysis of a small town United States newspaper over a one-year period, examples of engagement were identified and classified into 12 categories: programs, clubs and special events; fundraising and community ser- vice; business and community support; participation in community events; school events; athle- tic and other performances; employment; involvement in local planning and (...)
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