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  1. David Archard, Children's Rights. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Children are young human beings. Some children are very young human beings. As human beings children evidently have a certain moral status. There are things that should not be done to them for the simple reason that they are human. At the same time children are different from adult human beings and it seems reasonable to think that there are things children may not do that adults are permitted to do. In the majority of jurisdictions, for instance, children are not (...)
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  2. David Archard (2004). Children: Rights and Childhood. Routledge.
    Children: Rights and Childhood is widely regarded as the first book to offer a detailed philosophical examination of children's rights. Drawing on a wide variety of sources from law and literature to politics and psychology, David Archard provides a clear and accessible introduction to a topic that has assumed increasing relevance since the book's first publication. Divided clearly into three parts, Children: Rights and Childhood covers key topics such as: John Locke's writings on children Philippe Aries's Centuries of Childhood key (...)
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  3. David Archard (1992). Rights, Moral Values and Natural Facts: A Reply to Mary Midgley on the Problem of Child-Abuse. Journal of Applied Philosophy 9 (1):99-104.
    Mary Midgley asserts that my argument concerning the problem of child-abuse was inappropriately framed in the language of rights, and neglected certain pertinent natural facts. I defend the view that the use of rights-talk was both apposite and did not misrepresent the moral problem in question. I assess the status and character of the natural facts Midgley adduces in criticism of my case, concluding that they do not obviously establish the conclusions she believes they do. Finally I briefly respond to (...)
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  4. David Archard & Colin Macleod (eds.) (2002). Children and Political Theory. Oxford University Press.
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  5. Andrew Bainham (2006). Birthrights? The Rights and Obligations Associated with the Birth of a Child. In John R. Spencer & Antje Du Bois-Pedain (eds.), Freedom and Responsibility in Reproductive Choice. Hart Pub..
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  6. Isaac D. Balbus (2002). Having and Raising Children: Unconventional Families, Hard Choices, Social Good (Review). Hypatia 17 (2):162-165.
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  7. Bertram Bandman (1977). Some Legal, Moral and Intellectual Rights of Children. Educational Theory 27 (3):169-178.
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  8. Ludvig Beckman (2001). Rights, Rights-Talk, and Children. Journal of Value Inquiry 35 (4):509-515.
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  9. Valarie Blake, Steve Joffe & Eric Kodish (2011). Harmonization of Ethics Policies in Pediatric Research. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (1):70-78.
    The International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) was formed over 20 years ago with a goal of harmonizing research regulations among the European Union, United States, and Japan. Harmonization was intended to speed approval of pharmaceuticals, avoid unnecessary repetition of studies, and ensure protection of research participants. This paper examines United States, European Union, and ICH pediatric research regulations in five domains: parental permission, assent/dissent, payment, risk/benefit and inclusion of disabled children/wards (...)
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  10. Jeffery Blustein (1980). Parents, Paternalism, and Children's Rights. Journal of Critical Analysis 8 (3):89-98.
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  11. Richard Bourne, Eli H. Newberger & C. Sue White (forthcoming). Mandated Child Abuse Reporting. Ethics and Behavior.
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  12. Harry Brighouse (2009). Legitimate Parental Partiality. Philosophy and Public Affairs 37 (1):43-80.
    Some of the barriers to the realisation of equality reflect the value of respecting prerogatives people have to favour themselves. Even G.A. Cohen, whose egalitarianism is especially pervasive and demanding, says that.
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  13. Dan W. Brock (2001). Children's Rights to Health Care. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (2):163 – 177.
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  14. Don S. Browning & John Witte (2011). Christianity's Mixed Contributions to Children's Rights. Zygon 46 (3):713-732.
    Abstract. In this paper, which was among Don Browning's last writings before he died, we review and evaluate the main arguments against the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (the “CRC”) that conservative American Christians in particular have opposed. While we take their objections seriously, we think that, on balance, the CRC is worthy of ratification, especially if it is read in light of the profamily ethic that informs the CRC and many earlier human rights instruments. More (...)
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  15. Allen Buchanan (2009). Moral Status and Human Enhancement. Philosophy and Public Affairs 37 (4):346-381.
  16. J. Burr & P. Reynolds (2008). Thinking Ethically About Genetic Inheritance: Liberal Rights, Communitarianism and the Right to Privacy for Parents of Donor Insemination Children. Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (4):281-284.
  17. A. G. M. Campbell (1985). Everybody's Ethics: What Future for Handicapped Babies? Journal of Medical Ethics 11 (3):165-166.
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  18. M. J. Cherry (2013). Ignoring the Data and Endangering Children: Why the Mature Minor Standard for Medical Decision Making Must Be Abandoned. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (3):315-331.
    In Roper v. Simmons (2005) the United States Supreme Court announced a paradigm shift in jurisprudence. Drawing specifically on mounting scientific evidence that adolescents are qualitatively different from adults in their decision-making capacities, the Supreme Court recognized that adolescents are not adults in all but age. The Court concluded that the overwhelming weight of the psychological and neurophysiological data regarding brain maturation supports the conclusion that adolescents are qualitatively different types of agents than adult persons. The Supreme Court further solidified (...)
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  19. Mhairi Cowden (2012). Capacity, Claims and Children's Rights. Contemporary Political Theory 11 (4):362-380.
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  20. Jurgen De Wispelaere & Daniel Weinstock (2012). Licensing Parents to Protect Our Children? Ethics and Social Welfare 6 (2):195-205.
    In this paper we re-examine Hugh LaFollette's proposal that the state carefully determine the eligibility and suitability of prospective parents before granting them a ?license to parent?. Assuming a prima facie case for licensing parents grounded in our duty to promote the welfare of the child, we offer several considerations that complicate LaFollette's radical proposal. We suggest that LaFollette can only escape these problems by revising his proposal in a way that renders the license effectively obsolete, a route he implicitly (...)
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  21. H. Tristram Engelhardt (1991). Fundamental Rights: Comments on Medical Discrimination Against Children with Disabilities, a Report of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, D.C.; 1989. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 3 (2):63-76.
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  22. Luara Ferracioli (forthcoming). The State’s Duty to Ensure Children Are Loved. Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    Do children have a right to be loved? An affirmative answer faces two immediate challenges: (i) a child's basic needs can be met without love, therefore a defence of such a right cannot appeal to the role of love in protecting children's most basic needs, and (ii) since love is non-voluntary, it seems that there cannot be a corresponding duty on the part of parents to love their child. In this essay, I defend an affirmative answer that overcomes both of (...)
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  23. Timothy Fowler (2013). Status of Child Citizens. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 13 (1):1470594-13483482.
    This paper considers the place of children within liberal-democratic society and its related political morality. The genesis of the paper is two considerations which are in tension with one another. First, that there must be some point at which children are divided from adults, with children denied the rights which go along with full membership of the liberal community. The justification for the difference in the statue between these two groups must be rooted in some notion of capacities, since these (...)
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  24. J. Lawrence French (2010). Children's Labor Market Involvement, Household Work, and Welfare: A Brazilian Case Study. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 92 (1):63 - 78.
    The large numbers of children working in developing countries continue to provoke calls for an end to such employment. However, many reformers argue that efforts should focus on ending the exploitation of children rather than depriving them of all opportunities to work. This posture reflects recognition of the multiplicity of needs children have and the diversity of situations in which they work. Unfortunately, research typically neglects these complexities and fails to distinguish between types of labor market jobs, dismisses household chores (...)
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  25. Patrick C. Friman (1995). Take Away Their Hammer: Logical and Ethical Problems in Range and Cotton's "Reports of Assent and Permission in Research with Children: Illustrations and Suggestions". Ethics and Behavior 5 (4):349 – 353.
    Range and Cotton (1995) showed that many of the articles reviewed in their study did not include a line specifying institutional review board-approved procurement of informed parental permission and child assent for child research. Range and Cotton stated that the absence of the line suggests a lack of sensitivity to permission/assent issues, implied that many authors of the articles did not obtain permission/assent, and said those who did but did not report it were camouflaging those who did not. In this (...)
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  26. R. J. Gelles (2007). Children's Rights and Parents' Responsibilities Martin Guggenheim, What's Wrong With Children's Rights. Criminal Justice Ethics 25 (2):40.
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  27. Richard Gelles (2006). Review Essay / Children's Rights and Parents' Responsibilities. Criminal Justice Ethics 25 (2):40-45.
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  28. Steven Gerencser (2003). The Moral and Political Status of Children. Contemporary Political Theory 2 (3):363-365.
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  29. Anca Gheaus & Ingrid Robeyns (2011). Equality-Promoting Parental Leave. Journal of Social Philosophy 42 (2):173-191.
  30. Li-Ming Gong, Wen-Jun Tu, Jian He, Xiao-Dong Shi, Xin-Yu Wang & Ying Li (2012). The Use of Newborn Screening Dried Blood Spots for Research. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (2):189-193.
    ObjectiveTo investigate the attitudes of Chinese parents regarding the storage of dried blood spots collected for newborn screening (NBS) and their use in research.MethodsWe conducted a hospital-based survey of parents and examined parental attitudes regarding (a) allowing NBS sample storage, (b) permitting use of children’s NBS samples for research with parental permission, and (c) permitting use of children’s NBS samples for research without parental permission.ResultsThe response rate was 52 percent. Of parents surveyed, 68 percent would permit their infant’s NBS sample (...)
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  31. Michael Grodin & Harlan Lane (1997). Ethical Issues in Cochlear Implant Surgery: An Exploration Into Disease, Disability, and the Best Interests of the Child. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 7 (3):231-251.
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  32. John Harris (2000). The Welfare of the Child. Health Care Analysis 8 (1):27-34.
    The interests or welfare of the child are rightly central to anydiscussion of the ethics of reproduction. The problematic nature of thislegitimate concern is seldom, if ever, noticed or if it is, it ismisunderstood. A prominent example of this sort of misunderstandingoccurs in the Department of Health's recent and important `SurrogacyReview' chaired by Margaret Brazier (The Brazier Report) and thesame misunderstanding makes nonsense of at least one provision of theHuman Fertilization and Embryology Act 1990. (The HFE Act).This paper explores and (...)
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  33. Carl Hedman (2000). Three Approaches to the Problem of Child Abuse and Neglect. Journal of Social Philosophy 31 (3):268–285.
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  34. Kimberly Hoagwood (1994). The Certificate of Confidentiality at the National Institute of Mental Health: Discretionary Considerations in its Applicability in Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders. Ethics and Behavior 4 (2):123 – 131.
    Child and adolescent researchers must balance increasingly complex sets of ethical, legal, and scientific standards when investigating child and adolescent mental disorders. Few guidelines are available. One mechanism that provides the investigator immunity from legally compelled disclosure of research records is described. However, discretion must be exercised in its use, especially with regard to abuse reporting, voluntary disclosure of abuse, and protection of research data. Examples of discretionary issues in the use of the certificate of confidentiality are provided.
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  35. Benjamin Kiesewetter (2009). Dürfen wir Kindern das Wahlrecht vorenthalten? Archiv für Rechts- Und Sozialphilosophie 95 (2):252-273.
    Up to a certain age, young people are denied the right to vote. In this paper, it is argued that this general exclusion from democratic participation is unjustified and should be abandoned. After a short survey of some of the pedagogic, legal, and political arguments that have been brought forward to support a liberalisation of electoral law in favour of children, the essay presents a basic moral argument against any age limit with respect to voting rights. First of all, it (...)
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  36. Hugh Lafollette (2010). Licensing Parents Revisited. Journal of Applied Philosophy 27 (4):327-343.
    Although systems for licensing professionals are far from perfect, and their problems and costs should not be ignored, they are justified as a necessary means of protecting innocent people's vital interests. Licensing defends patients from inept doctors, pharmacists, and physical therapists; it protects clients from unqualified lawyers. We should protect people who are highly vulnerable to those who are supposed to serve them, those with whom they have a special relationship. Requiring professionals to be licensed is the most plausible way (...)
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  37. Hugh LaFollette (2004). The Moral and Political Status of Children. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 82 (4):658 – 660.
    Book Information The Moral and Political Status of Children. The Moral and Political Status of Children David Archard , Colin M. Macleod , eds. , Oxford and New York : Oxford University Press , 2002 , viii + 296 , US$60 (cloth). Edited by David Archard; , Colin M. Macleod; , eds.. Oxford University Press. Oxford and New York. Pp. viii + 296. US$60 (cloth).
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  38. Hugh LaFollette (1998). Circumscribed Autonomy: Children, Care, and Custody. In Uma Narayan & Julia Bartkowiak (eds.), Having and Raising Children. Penn State University Press.
    For many people the idea that children are autonomous agents whose autonomy the parents should respect and the state should protect is laughable. For them, such an idea is the offspring of idle academics who never had, or at least never seriously interacted with, children. Autonomy is the province of full fledged rational adults, not immature children. It is easy to see why many people embrace this view. Very young children do not have the experience or knowledge to make informed (...)
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  39. Hugh LaFollette (1996). Personal Relationships: Love, Identity and Morality. Blackwell.
    "This admirably clear and engaging work ... is broadly accessible... and is informed by social science research. Yet it is also thoroughly philosophical, delving into problems in ethics, epistemology, the philosophy of mind and the philosophy of language.... Let us hope that LaFollette continues to tackle these problems with the clarify and rigor he shows here.".
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  40. Hugh LaFollette (1995). Morality and Personal Relationships. In Personal Relationships: Love, Identity, and Morality. Blackwell.
    Throughout this book, I made frequent reference to a wide range of moral issues: honesty, jealousy, sexual fidelity, commitment, paternalism, caring, etc. This suggests there is an intricate connection between morality and personal relationships. There is. Of course personal relationships do not always promote moral values, nor do people find all relationships salutary. Some friendships, marriages, and kin relationships are anything but healthy or valuable. We all know (and perhaps are in) some relationships which hinder personal growth, undermine moral values, (...)
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  41. Hugh LaFollette (1989). Freedom of Religion and Children. Public Affairs Quarterly (1):75-87.
    In a number of recent federal court cases parents have sought to have their children exempted from certain school activities on the grounds that the children's participation in those activities violates their (the parents') right to freedom of religion. In Mozert v. Hawkin's County Public Schools (827 F. 2nd 1058) fundamentalist parents of several Tennessee public school children brought civil action against the school board for violating their constitutional right of freedom of religion. These parents sought to prevent their children (...)
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  42. Bert Lambeir & Stefan Ramaekers (2007). The Terror of Explicitness: Philosophical Remarks on the Idea of a Parenting Contract. Ethics and Education 2 (2):95-107.
    The new idea of a 'parenting contract', explicitly taking as its point of reference the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, is meant primarily to protect children's rights, and specifically the right to a proper upbringing. The nature of the parent-child relationship is thus drawn into the discourse of rights and duties. Although there is much to be said for parents explicitly attending to their children's upbringing, something of the uniqueness of the parent-child relationship seems to be (...)
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  43. S. Matthew Liao (2012). Why Children Need to Be Loved. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 15 (3):347-358.
    I have argued elsewhere that children have a moral right to be loved. Mhairi Cowden challenges my arguments. Among other things, Cowden believes that children do not need to be loved. In this paper, I explain why Cowden?s arguments fail and offer additional evidence for why children need to be loved.
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  44. Mianna Lotz (2006). Feinberg, Mills, and the Child's Right to an Open Future. Journal of Social Philosophy 37 (4):537–551.
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  45. Mary Midgley (1991). Rights-Talk Will Not Sort Out Child-Abuse: Comment on Archard on Parental Rights. Journal of Applied Philosophy 8 (1):103-114.
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  46. Victoria A. Miller, William W. Reynolds & Robert M. Nelson (2008). Parent-Child Roles in Decision Making About Medical Research. Ethics and Behavior 18 (2 & 3):161 – 181.
    Our objective is to understand how parents and children perceive their roles in decision making about research participation. Forty-five children (ages 4-15 years) with or without a chronic condition and 21 parents were the participants. A semistructured interview assessed perceptions of up to 4 hypothetical research scenarios with varying levels of risk, benefit, and complexity. Children were also administered the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Third Edition, to assess verbal ability, as a proxy for the child's cognitive development. The audiotaped interviews (...)
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  47. Uma Narayan & Julia Bartkowiak (eds.) (1998). Having and Raising Children. Penn State University Press.
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  48. Olivia Newman (2012). No Child is an Island: Character Development and the Rights of Children. Educational Theory 62 (1):91-106.
    In this essay Olivia Newman critically examines two opposing rights claims: the liberal claim that children have a right to become liberal choosers and the fundamentalist claim that children have a right to not become liberal choosers. These positions reflect differing views regarding the value of critically choosing, rather than simply accepting, a way of life. Given their assumptions regarding preference formation, both of these rights appear untenable in light of recent scholarship in psychology: we can neither select a way (...)
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  49. Shelley M. Park (2005). Real (M)Othering: The Metaphysics of Maternity in Children's Literature. In Real (M)othering: The Metaphysics of Maternity in Children's Literature. In Sally Haslanger and Charlotte Witt, eds. Adoption Matters: Philosophical and Feminist Essays. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 171-194.
    This paper examines the complexity and fluidity of maternal identity through an examination of narratives about "real motherhood" found in children's literature. Focusing on the multiplicity of mothers in adoption, I question standard views of maternity in which gestational, genetic and social mothering all coincide in a single person. The shortcomings of traditional notions of motherhood are overcome by developing a fluid and inclusive conception of maternal reality as authored by a child's own perceptions.
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  50. Lillian M. Range & C. Randy Cotton (1995). Reports of Assent and Permission in Research with Children: Illustrations and Suggestions. Ethics and Behavior 5 (1):49 – 66.
    This study ascertained reports of assent (affirmative agreement) and permission (agreement by an adult fully capable of being informed) in 114 children's research articles in 1990 in Child Development (CD), Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (JCCP), Journal of Pediatric Psychology, and Journal of Clinical Child Psychology. Of the research projects, 43% failed to specify permission, and 68.5% failed to specify assent. JCCP reported assent significantly more than CD. Assent was reported significantly more in research with older children than with (...)
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