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  1. Sean Aas & David Wasserman (forthcoming). Brain–Computer Interfaces and Disability: Extending Embodiment, Reducing Stigma? Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2015-102807.
  2. Melinda Abelman, P. Pearl O'Rourke & Kai C. Sonntag (2012). Part-Human Animal Research: The Imperative to Move Beyond a Philosophical Debate. American Journal of Bioethics 12 (9):26-28.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 9, Page 26-28, September 2012.
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  3. Roger Achille, Christine Perakslis & Katina Michael (2012). Ethical Issues to Consider for Microchip Implants in Humans. Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine 3 (1-3):75-86.
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  4. Mike Adcock (2004). The Relationship Between IP and Biotechnology. Global Bioethics 17 (1):25-29.
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  5. Mike Adcock & Julian Kinderlerer (2004). The Detail of Law Relating to Modern Biotechnology. Global Bioethics 17 (1):113-117.
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  6. Ademola A. Adenle (2014). Stakeholders' Perceptions of GM Technology in West Africa: Assessing the Responses of Policymakers and Scientists in Ghana and Nigeria. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 27 (2):241-263.
    The perception of two key stakeholders such as policymakers and scientists on genetic modification (GM) technology was examined in Ghana and Nigeria using semi-structured interviews. A total sample of 20 policymakers (16 at ministries and 4 at parliament/cabinet) and 58 scientists (43 at research institutes and 15 at universities) participated at the interviews. This study revealed respondents perspectives on potential benefits and risks of GM technology, status and development of biosafety regulatory frameworks, role of science and technology innovation in agricultural (...)
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  7. New Zealand Advisory Committee on Assisted Reproductive Technology (2010). Committee Advice on Embryo Splitting. Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft Und Ethik 14 (1):313-318.
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  8. European Academies Science Advisory (2009). Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity in Europe. Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft Und Ethik 14 (1).
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  9. N. Agar (2015). Moral Bioenhancement is Dangerous. Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (4):343-345.
  10. N. Agar (2013). Why is It Possible to Enhance Moral Status and Why Doing so is Wrong? Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (2):67-74.
    This paper presents arguments for two claims. First, post-persons, beings with a moral status superior to that of mere persons, are possible. Second, it would be bad to create such beings. Actions that risk bringing them into existence should be avoided. According to Allen Buchanan, it is possible to enhance moral status up to the level of personhood. But attempts to improve status beyond that fail for want of a target - there is no category of moral status superior to (...)
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  11. N. Agar (2013). Still Afraid of Needy Post-Persons. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (2):81-83.
    I want to thank all of those who have commented on my article in the Journal of Medical Ethics.1 The commentaries address a wide cross-section of the issues raised in my article. I have organised my responses thematically.The state of playAllen Buchanan's scepticism2 about moral statuses higher than personhood derives, in part, from our apparent inability to describe them. We seem to have little difficulty in imagining what it might be to have scientific understanding far beyond that of any human (...)
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  12. N. Agar (2012). Why We Can't Really Say What Post-Persons Are. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (3):144-145.
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  13. Nicholas Agar (2015). Moral Bioenhancement and the Utilitarian Catastrophe. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 24 (1):37-47.
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  14. Nicholas Agar (2013). We Must Not Create Beings with Moral Standing Superior to Our Own. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (11):709-709.
    Ingmar Persson challenges1 an argument in my book Humanity's End: Why We Should Reject Radical Enhancement2 that harms predictably suffered by unenhanced humans justify banning radical enhancement. Here I understand radical enhancement as producing beings with mental and physical capacities that greatly exceed those of the most capable current human. I called these results of radical enhancement posthumans, though I think that Persson may be right that this is not the most felicitous name for them.The focus of my argument was (...)
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  15. Nicholas Agar (2011). Sport, Simulation, and EPO. In Gregory E. Kaebnick (ed.), The Ideal of Nature: Debates About Biotechnology and the Environment. Johns Hopkins University Press 149.
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  16. Nicholas Agar (2007). Embryonic Potential and Stem Cells. Bioethics 21 (4):198–207.
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  17. Nicholas Agar (2007). Human Vs. Posthuman-Reply. Hastings Center Report 37 (5):5-6.
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  18. Nicholas Agar (2007). Whereto Transhumanism? The Literature Reaches a Critical Mass. Hastings Center Report 37 (3):12-17.
  19. Nicholas Agar (2002). The Problem with Nature. Hastings Center Report 32 (6):39-40.
  20. Joseph Agassi (1978). Liberal Forensic Medicine. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 3 (3):226-241.
    The liberal approach to ethics quite naturally tends toward the classic individualistic theory of society, to reductionism or psychologism so-called, that is, to a reduction of all social action to individual action.2 For example, liberalism allows one to experiment with new medications on one's own body. By extension, liberalism allows one to experiment, it seems, on another person's body with new medication if one acts as the other person's agent, that is, if one has the other person's proper consent. We (...)
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  21. Emmanuel Agius (2011). Biotechnology and Human Dignity. Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 17 (2):155-184.
    The precise meaning of “human dignity” is increasingly being questioned in ethics and law. Is human dignity an adequate guide to policymaking in today’s biotechnological era? This article is an attempt to answer this thorny issue. The emergence of the concept of human dignity as a key point of reference for the regulation of modern science and technology in the European Union is evaluated. The main contribution of this article is to prove that in EU Directives and Recommendations, human dignity (...)
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  22. Jaime Ahlberg & Harry Brighouse (2011). An Argument Against Cloning. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 40 (4):539-566.
    It is technically possible to clone a human being. The result of the procedure would be a human being in its own right. Given the current level of cloning technology concerning other animals there is every reason to believe that early human clones will have shorter-than-average life-spans, and will be unusually prone to disease. In addition, they would be unusually at risk of genetic defects, though they would still, probably, have lives worth living. But with experimentation and experience, seriously unequal (...)
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  23. Fritz Allhoff, Patrick Lin & Jesse Steinberg (2011). Ethics of Human Enhancement: An Executive Summary. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (2):201-212.
    With multi-year funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), a team of researchers has just released a comprehensive report detailing ethical issues arising from human enhancement (Allhoff et al. 2009). While we direct the interested reader to that (much longer) report, we also thank the editors of this journal for the invitation to provide an executive summary thereof. This summary highlights key results from each section of that report and does so in a self-standing way; in other words, this (...)
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  24. Joseph S. Alper & Jon Beckwith (1998). Distinguishing Genetic From Nongenetic Medical Tests: Some Implications for Antidiscrimination Legislation. Science and Engineering Ethics 4 (2):141-150.
    Genetic discrimination is becoming an increasingly important problem in the United States. Information acquired from genetic tests has been used by insurance companies to reject applications for insurance policies and to refuse payment for the treatment of illnesses. Numerous states and the United States Congress have passed or are considering passage of laws that would forbid such use of genetic information by health insurance companies. Here we argue that much of this legislation is severely flawed because of the difficulty in (...)
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  25. Latifah Amin & Hasrizul Hashim (2015). Factors Influencing Stakeholders Attitudes Toward Genetically Modified Aedes Mosquito. Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (3):655-681.
    Dengue fever is a debilitating and infectious disease that could be life-threatening. It is caused by the dengue virus which affects millions of people in the tropical area. Currently, there is no cure for the disease as there is no vaccine available. Thus, prevention of the vector population using conventional methods is by far the main strategy but has been found ineffective. A genetically modified mosquito is among the favoured alternatives to curb dengue fever in Malaysia. Past studies have shown (...)
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  26. Ian Angell (2008). As I See It: Enclosing Identity. [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 1 (1):23-37.
    This article claims that an ‘enclosure of the commons’ is underway, which reaches far beyond intellectual property, to a point where, through profiling, ‘identity’ has itself become enclosed property that can be owned by another. With a detour through the natures of both money and innovation, this paper looks at the imperative driving ‘intellectual property rights.’ By introducing the notion of biopiracy, it shows how ‘invasion of privacy’ is justified, and ends with “a world of rapacious, state-aided ‘privatization’” of enclosed (...)
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  27. Jonny Anomaly (2012). Review of Allen Buchanan, Beyond Humanity? The Ethics of Biomedical Enhancement. [REVIEW] Bioethics 26 (7):391-392.
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  28. John B. Appleby (2015). The Ethical Challenges of the Clinical Introduction of Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 18 (4):501-514.
    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases are a group of neuromuscular diseases that often cause suffering and premature death. New mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs) may offer women with mtDNA diseases the opportunity to have healthy offspring to whom they are genetically related. MRTs will likely be ready to license for clinical use in the near future and a discussion of the ethics of the clinical introduction ofMRTs is needed. This paper begins by evaluating three concerns about the safety of MRTs for clinical (...)
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  29. D. Archard (forthcoming). Carole Ulanowsky, Ed., The Family in the Age of Biotechnology. Radical Philosophy.
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  30. David Archard (1996). The Family in the Age of Biotechnology. [REVIEW] Radical Philosophy 77.
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  31. Richard Arneson, Is Moral Theory Perplexed by New Genetic Technology?
    Richard J. Arneson From Choice to Chance: Genes and the Just Society1 intelligently addresses difficult issues at the intersection of medical ethics and the theory of justice. The authors, Dan Brock, Allen Buchanan, Norman Daniels, and Daniel Wikler, repeatedly emphasize their opinion that advances in genetic technology force upon us entirely new ethical questions which previous moral theories lack the resources to resolve.2 The claims that new scientific discoveries render previous moral theories obsolete should be regarded with suspicion. The reader’s (...)
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  32. Andrew Askland (2003). Patenting Genes. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 17 (2):267-275.
    Patents have been issued in the United States for genes and gene sequences since 1980. Patent protection has provided incentives to aggressively probe the genome of humans and non-humans alike in search of profitable applications. Yet it is not clear that patent protection should have been afforded to genes and gene sequences and it is increasingly clear that patent protection, as currently formulated, is not an appropriate means to realize the full benefits of genetic research. As we stand on the (...)
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  33. Christoph Asmuth, Benedetta Bisol & Patrick Grüneberg (2010). Modelle und Grenzen der Leistungssteigerung im Sport: Enhancement, Doping, Therapie aus philosophischer Sicht. Leipziger Sportwissenschaftliche Beiträge 51 (2):8-43.
    Enhancement is a basic principle of modern sport. Their increase of achievement is usually attributed to the sportsmen’s natural assessment, their health, their training methods and their employment. In contrast, increase in output by pharmacological means is outlawed. The modern medical techniques created a whole range, by which sportsmen are supported. Consequently, sometimes difficult decisions with concrete medications develop. It is not always clearly to be differentiated whether something is a pharmacological interference, which serves the therapy or leads however to (...)
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  34. Robin Attfield (2012). Synthetic Biology, Deontology and Synthetic Bioethics. Ethics, Policy and Environment 15 (1):29 - 32.
    Paul Thompson argues that current synthetic biology amounts to synthetic genomics, comprising a ?platform? technology, and that Christopher Preston's deontological objections based on its supposed rejection of the historical process of evolution miscarry. This makes it surprising that Thompson's normative ethic consists in a deontological appeal to Kantian duties of imperfect obligation. Construed as obligations subject to choice, such constraints risk being excessively malleable where the ethical objections to deployment of this technology concern land rights and/or exploitation. Thompson's advocacy of (...)
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  35. T. Z. Aziz & J. F. Stein (2004). Brain Stimulation. In R. L. Gregory (ed.), The Oxford Companion to the Mind. Oxford University Press 129--136.
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  36. Wendy Baldwin (2002). Conflict of Interest and its Significance in Science and Medicine Warsaw, Poland, 5–6 April, 2002. Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (3):469-475.
    This article summarizes the April 5–6, 2002 conference on Conflict of Interest and Its Significance in Science and Medicine. Several themes are identified and addressed, including the globalization of science, the widespread presence of conflicts, the increased interest and involvement in conflict of interest by a number of organizations, the difference between academic research and research conducted by industry, and the tension between science and medicine. At the heart of the matter lies objectivity in research and the need for transparency (...)
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  37. Rosangela Barcaro (2014). L'arte della vita: biotecnologie e bioetica [Bioart, biotechnology and bioethics]. Aisthema. International Journal, ISSN 2284-3515 1 (2):23-45.
    Bioart is an artistic experience that relates art, science and biotechnology by examining the concepts of life, evolution and nature from a new point of view. The revolutionary idea at the basis of this experience is the use of living organic matter as an expressive medium, handled with techniques which are made possible by the latest scientific and technological breakthroughs. Bioart aims at allowing a broader public the understanding and discussion of the problems related to activities that shape the relationship (...)
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  38. Lauren Bartlett, P. Aarne Vesilind & P. Aarne Vesilind (1998). Expediency and Human Health: The Regulation of Environmental Chromium. Science and Engineering Ethics 4 (2):191-201.
    The complexity of chromium chemistry makes it an ideal example of how the Principle of Expediency, first articulated by sanitary pioneer Earle Phelps, can be used in a standard setting. Expediency, defined by Phelps as “the attempt to reduce the numerical measure of probable harm, or the logical measure of existing hazard, to the lowest level that is practicable and feasible within the limitations of financial resources and engineering skill”, can take on negative connotations unless subject to ethical guidance. In (...)
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  39. John Basl (2010). State Neutrality and the Ethics of Human Enhancement Technologies. AJOB 1 (2):41-48.
    Robust technological enhancement of core cognitive capacities is now a realistic possibility. From the perspective of neutralism, the view that justifications for public policy should be neutral between reasonable conceptions of the good, only members of a subset of the ethical concerns serve as legitimate justifications for public policy regarding robust technological enhancement. This paper provides a framework for the legitimate use of ethical concerns in justifying public policy decisions regarding these enhancement technologies by evaluating the ethical concerns that arise (...)
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  40. Fiorella Battaglia & Nikil Mukerji (2015). Technikethik. In Julian Nida-Rümelin, Irina Spiegel & Markus Tiedemann (eds.), Handbuch Philosophie und Ethik - Band 2: Disziplinen und Themen. UTB 288-295.
  41. Fiorella Battaglia, Nikil Mukerji & Julian Nida-Rümelin (2014). Science, Technology, and Responsibility. In Fiorella Battaglia, Nikil Mukerji & Julian Nida-Rümelin (eds.), Rethinking Responsibility in Science and Technology. Pisa University Press 7-11.
    The empirical circumstances in which human beings ascribe responsibility to one another are subject to change. Science and technology play a great part in this transformation process. Therefore, it is important for us to rethink the idea, the role and the normative standards behind responsibility in a world that is constantly changing under the influence of scientific and technological progress. This volume is a contribution to that joint societal effort.
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  42. Christoph Baumgartner (2006). Exclusion by Inclusion? On Difficulties with Regard to an Effective Ethical Assessment of Patenting in the Field of Agricultural Bio-Technology. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 19 (6):521-539.
    In order to take ethical considerations of patenting biological material into account, the so-called “ordre public or morality clause” was implemented as Article 6 in the EC directive on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions, 98/44/EC. At first glance, this seems to provide a significant advantage to the European patent system with respect to ethics. The thesis of this paper argues that the ordre public or morality clause does not provide sufficient protection against ethically problematic uses of the patent system (...)
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  43. James B. Beal (1974). 13 The New Biotechnology James B. Beal. In John Warren White (ed.), Frontiers of Consciousness: The Meeting Ground Between Inner and Outer Reality. Julian Press 213.
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  44. Tom L. Beauchamp (1987). Medical Ethics in the Age of Technology. In Hans Mark & W. Lawson Taitte (eds.), Traditional Moral Values in the Age of Technology. Distributed by the University of Texas Press
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  45. Volkert Beekman & Frans W. A. Brom (2007). Ethical Tools to Support Systematic Public Deliberations About the Ethical Aspects of Agricultural Biotechnologies. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 20 (1):3-12.
    This special issue of the Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics presents so-called ethical tools that are developed to support systematic public deliberations about the ethical aspects of agricultural biotechnologies. This paper firstly clarifies the intended connotations of the term “ethical tools” and argues that such tools can support liberal democracies to cope with the issues that are raised by the application of genetic modification and other modern biotechnologies in agriculture and food production. The paper secondly characterizes the societal discussion (...)
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  46. Steven Best (2006). Genetic Science, Animal Exploitation, and the Challenge for Democracy. AI and Society 20 (1):6-21.
    As the debates over cloning and stem cell research indicate, issues raised by biotechnology combine research into the genetic sciences, perspectives and contexts articulated by the social sciences, and the ethical and anthropological concerns of philosophy. Consequently, I argue that intervening in the debates over biotechnology requires supra-disciplinary critical philosophy and social theory to illuminate the problems and their stakes. In addition, debates over cloning and stem cell research raise exceptionally important challenges to bioethics and a democratic politics of communication.
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  47. Frederick R. Bieber (2006). Turning Base Hits Into Earned Runs: Improving the Effectiveness of Forensic DNA Data Bank Programs. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 34 (2):222-233.
    This manuscript provides an overview of forensic DNA data banks and their use, with some focus on existing programs established in the U.S., Canada, and the U.K. The intent is to provide a constructive analysis of both strengths and weaknesses in performance, and especially to suggest directions for improvement. Implementation of these suggestions will be crucial to allow DNA data banks to be most effective in advancing societal goals of enhancing public safety and collective security.
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  48. Public Acceptability of Agricultural Biotechnology (1995). Biotechnology: An Agricultural Revolution. In T. B. Mepham, G. A. Tucker & J. Wiseman (eds.), Issues in Agricultural Bioethics. Nottingham University Press
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  49. G. Bognar (2012). Human Enhancement, Edited by Julian Savulescu and Nick Bostrom. [REVIEW] Mind 121 (481):225-229.
  50. Nick Bostrom (forthcoming). Smart Policy: Cognitive Enhancement and the Public Interest. In Julian Savulescu, Ruud ter Muelen & Guy Kahane (eds.), Enhancing Human Capabilities. Wiley-Blackwell
    Cognitive enhancement may be defined as the amplification or extension of core capacities of the mind through improvement or augmentation of internal or external information processing systems. Cognition refers to the processes an organism uses to organize information. These include acquiring information (perception), selecting (attention), representing (understanding) and retaining (memory) information, and using it to guide behavior (reasoning and coordination of motor outputs). Interventions to improve cognitive function may be directed at any of these core faculties.
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