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Parenthood

Edited by Anca Gheaus (University of Sheffield)
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  1. Terrence F. Ackerman (1980). Moral Duties of Parents and Nontherapeutic Clinical Research Procedures Involving Children. Bioethics Quarterly 2 (2):94-111.
    Shared views regarding the moral respect which is owed to children in family life are used as a guide in determining the moral permissibility of nontherapeutic clinical research procedures involving children. The comparison suggests that it is not appropriate to seek assent from the preadolescent child. The analogy with interventions used in family life is similarly employed to specify the permissible limit of risk to which children may be exposed in nontherapeutic research procedures. The analysis indicates that recent writers misconceive (...)
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  2. Abdallah A. Adlan & Henk Amj ten Have (2012). The Dilemma of Revealing Sensitive Information on Paternity Status in Arabian Social and Cultural Contexts. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (4):403-409.
    Telling the truth is one of the most respected virtues in medical history and one of the most emphasized in the code of medical ethics. Health care providers are frequently confronted with the dilemma as to whether or not to tell the truth. This dilemma deepens when both choices are critically vicious: The choice is no longer between “right and right” or “right and wrong,” it is between “wrong and wrong.” In the case presented and discussed in this paper, a (...)
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  3. R. Al-Mubak, R. D. Enright & P. Cardis (1995). Forgiveness Education with Parentally Love-Deprived College Students. Journal of Moral Education 14:427-444.
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  4. Robert Almeder & James Humber (eds.) (1996). Biomedical Ethics Reviews: Reproduction, Technology, and Rights.
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  5. Jami L. Anderson (2013). A Dash of Autism. In Jami L. Anderson Simon Cushing (ed.), The Philosophy of Autism. Rowman & Littlefield
    In this chapter, I describe my “post-diagnosis” experiences as the parent of an autistic child, those years in which I tried, but failed, to make sense of the overwhelming and often nonsensical information I received about autism. I argue that immediately after being given an autism diagnosis, parents are pressured into making what amounts to a life-long commitment to a therapy program that (they are told) will not only dramatically change their child, but their family’s financial situation and even their (...)
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  6. Judith Andre, Leonard M. Fleck & Thomas Tomlinson (2000). On Being Genetically "Irresponsible". Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 10 (2):129-146.
    : New genetic technologies continue to emerge that allow us to control the genetic endowment of future children. Increasingly the claim is made that it is morally "irresponsible" for parents to fail to use such technologies when they know their possible children are at risk for a serious genetic disorder. We believe such charges are often unwarranted. Our goal in this article is to offer a careful conceptual analysis of the language of irresponsibility in an effort to encourage more care (...)
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  7. David Archard & David Benatar (eds.) (2010). Procreation and Parenthood: The Ethics of Bearing and Rearing Children. Oxford University Press.
    Procreation and Parenthood offers new and original essays by leading philosophers on some of the main ethical issues raised by these activities.
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  8. Richard J. Arneson (1997). Egalitarianism and the Undeserving Poor. Journal of Political Philosophy 5 (4):327–350.
    Recently in the U.S. a near-consensus has formed around the idea that it would be desirable to "end welfare as we know it," in the words of President Bill Clinton.1 In this context, the term "welfare" does not refer to the entire panoply of welfare state provision including government sponsored old age pensions, government provided medical care for the elderly, unemployment benefits for workers who have lost their jobs without being fired for cause, or aid to the disabled. "Welfare" in (...)
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  9. Jane S. Attanucci * (2004). Questioning Honor: A Parent–Teacher Conflict Over Excellence and Diversity in a USA Urban High School. Journal of Moral Education 33 (1):57-69.
    Parent?teacher relations are often characterized as highly conflictual in the educational literature, with scant empirical evidence of how the disagreements occur in everyday talk. Close analysis of a teacher's account of an intense conflict with a student's mother over the National Honor Society grounds the abstract discourses of merit and difference in the worlds of parents, teachers and students. Narrating primarily through reported speech, in a ?she said, I said? fashion, the teacher recreates her conversations about the National Honor Society (...)
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  10. Jane Attanucci (1991). Changing Subjects: Growing Up and Growing Older. Journal of Moral Education 20 (3):317-328.
    Abstract Following a review of the changing uses of narrative in moral development research, a personal narrative from an interview with a secondary teacher, who is also a parent of an adolescent is analyzed. Without standard question interruptions, the narrator crafts an ironic tale of contradictory feelings and actions. Trust is proposed as both an affective and evidential/proof dimension of the relationship between adolescents and adults, as well as among all concerned about moral development and education.
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  11. Michael W. Austin (2004). The Failure of Biological Accounts of Parenthood. Journal of Value Inquiry 38 (4):499-510.
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  12. M. B. (1957). The Challenge of Children. Review of Metaphysics 11 (1):170-170.
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  13. Isaac D. Balbus (2002). Having and Raising Children: Unconventional Families, Hard Choices, Social Good (Review). Hypatia 17 (2):162-165.
  14. Linda Barclay (2013). Liberal Daddy Quotas: Why Men Should Take Care of the Children, and How Liberals Can Get Them to Do It. Hypatia 28 (1):163-178.
    The gendered division of labor is the major cause of gender inequality with respect to the broad spectrum of resources, occupations, and roles. Although many feminists aspire to an equality of outcome where there are no significant patterns of gender difference across these dimensions, many have also argued that liberal theories of social justice do not have the conceptual tools to justify a direct attack on the gendered division of labor. Indeed, many critics argue that liberalism positively condones it, presuming (...)
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  15. Daniela Barni, Sonia Ranieri, Eugenia Scabini & Rosa Rosnati (2011). Value Transmission in the Family: Do Adolescents Accept the Values Their Parents Want to Transmit? Journal of Moral Education 40 (1):105-121.
    This study focused on value transmission in the family and assessed adolescents? acceptance of the values their parents want to transmit to them (socialisation values), identifying some factors that may affect the level of acceptance. Specifically, actual value agreement between parents, parental agreement as perceived by adolescents, parent?child closeness and promotion of child?s volitional functioning, were considered as predictors. Participants were 381 family triads (father, mother and adolescent child) from northern Italy; the adolescents (46.2% male) were all high?school students from (...)
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  16. Gary Bartlett (2010). An Argument Against Spanking. Public Affairs Quarterly 24 (1):65-78.
    I sketch a non-rights-based grounding for the impermissibility of spanking. Even if children have no right against being spanked, I contend that spanking can be seen to be impermissible without appeal to such a right. My approach is primarily consequentialist but also has affinities with virtue ethics, for it emphasizes the moral importance of avoiding bad habits in one’s behavior toward one’s children.
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  17. David Benatar (2006). Better Never to Have Been: The Harm of Coming Into Existence. New York ;Oxford University Press.
    Better Never to Have Been argues for a number of related, highly provocative, views: (1) Coming into existence is always a serious harm. (2) It is always wrong to have children. (3) It is wrong not to abort fetuses at the earlier stages of gestation. (4) It would be better if, as a result of there being no new people, humanity became extinct. These views may sound unbelievable--but anyone who reads Benatar will be obliged to take them seriously.
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  18. David Benatar (1999). The Unbearable Lightness of Bringing Into Being. Journal of Applied Philosophy 16 (2):173–180.
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  19. Miriam Ben‐Peretz & Lya Kremer (1982). Value Education as Perceived by Parents, Teachers and Pupils in Israel. Journal of Moral Education 11 (4):259-265.
    Abstract The perplexity that characterizes moral education was the motive for undertaking this study. A field selection of terminal and instrumental values served as its frame of reference. Two questions were posed by the investigators: Is there any difference in the degree of importance which parents, teachers and pupils attach to these values? Do different schools rate these values differently? A sample consisting of 531 pupils, 251 parents and 38 teachers, randomly selected from five Israeli high schools, were asked to (...)
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  20. Marvin Berkowitz & John Grych (1998). Fostering Goodness: Teaching Parents to Facilitate Children's Moral Development. Journal of Moral Education 27 (3):371-391.
    Although moral development of children has long been ascribed predominantly to the effects of parenting, there has been little systematic examination of the specific nature of this relation. In this paper, we identify four foundational components of children's moral development (social orientation, self?control, compliance, self?esteem) and four central aspects of moral functioning (empathy, conscience, moral reasoning, altruism). The parenting roots of each of these eight psychological characteristics are examined, and five core parenting processes (induction, nurturance, demandingness, modelling, democratic family process) (...)
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  21. Jeffrey Blustein (2012). Doing the Best for One's Child: Satisficing Versus Optimizing Parentalism. [REVIEW] Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (3):199-205.
    The maxim “parents should do what is in the best interests of their child” seems like an unassailable truth, and yet, as I argue here, there are serious problems with it when it is taken seriously. One problem concerns the sort of demands such a principle places on parents; the other concerns its larger social implications when conceived as part of a national policy for the rearing of children. The theory of parenting that creates these problems I call “optimizing parentalism.” (...)
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  22. Jeffrey Blustein (1988). Morality and Parenting: An Ethical Framework for Decisions About the Treatment of Imperiled Newborns. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 9 (1).
    This essay is written in the belief that questions relating to the treatment of impaired and imperiled newborns cannot be adequately resolved in the absence of a general moral theory of parent-child relations. The rationale for treatment decisions in these cases should be consistent with principles that ought to govern the normal work of parenting. The first section of this paper briefly examines the social contract theory elaborated by John Rawls in his renowned book A Theory of Justice and extracts (...)
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  23. Jeffrey Blustein (1985). Parents and Children: The Ethics of the Family. Journal of Philosophy 82 (6):330-332.
  24. Janet Boddy, Marjorie Smith & June Statham (2011). Understandings of Efficacy: Cross-National Perspectives on 'What Works' in Supporting Parents and Families. Ethics and Education 6 (2):181-196.
    The research literature on parenting support typically focuses on English-speaking countries, such as England, the United States and Australia. This article draws on a review, commissioned by the English government, which examined policies and services to support parenting in five European countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands, and considered the evidence for effectiveness. In exploring differences between the five countries, and with England, this article raises questions about the way in which understandings of ?what works? can inform the (...)
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  25. Lisa Bortolotti (2009). Do We Have an Obligation to Make Smarter Babies? In T. Takala, P. Herrisone-Kelly & S. Holm (eds.), Cutting Through the Surface. Philosophical Approaches to Bioethics. Rodopi
    In this paper I consider some issues concerning cognitive enhancements and the ethics of enhancing in reproduction and parenting. I argue that there are moral reasons to enhance the cognitive capacities of the children one has, or of the children one is going to have, and that these enhancements should not be seen as an alternative to pursuing important changes in society that might also improve one’s own and one’s children’s life. It has been argued that an emphasis on enhancing (...)
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  26. Lisa Bortolotti & Daniela Cutas (2009). Reproductive and Parental Autonomy: An Argument for Compulsory Parental Education. Reproductive Biomedicine Online 19 (ethics suppl.):5-14.
    In this paper we argue that society should make available reliable information about parenting to everybody from an early age. The reason why parental education is important (when offered in a comprehensive and systematic way) is that it can help young people understand better the responsibilities associated with reproduction, and the skills required for parenting. This would allow them to make more informed life-choices about reproduction and parenting, and exercise their autonomy with respect to these choices. We do not believe (...)
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  27. Andrew Botterell & Carolyn McLeod (2015). Licensing Parents in International Contract Pregnancies. Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (1):n/a-n/a.
    The Hague Conference on Private International Law currently has a Parentage/Surrogacy Project, which evaluates the legal status of children in cross-border situations, including situations involving international contract pregnancy. Should a convention focusing on international contract pregnancy emerge from this project, it will need to be consistent with the Hague convention on Intercountry Adoption. The latter convention prohibits adoptions unless, among other things, ‘the competent authorities of the receiving State have determined that the prospective adoptive parents are eligible and suited to (...)
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  28. C. Bourg (1999). Parents and Children in Assisted Procreation: Psychological Reflections Concerning a Medical Journey. Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 5 (1):3.
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  29. Paul Bou‐Habib & Serena Olsaretti (2013). Equality, Autonomy, and the Price of Parenting. Journal of Social Philosophy 44 (4):420-438.
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  30. Tomislav Bracanović (2012). Parental Licensing Meets Evolutionary Psychology. Ethical Perspectives 19 (2):207-233.
    Hugh LaFollette has proposed that in order to prevent statistically expected harm that many parents inflict on their children prospective parents should be licensed. This article evaluates his proposal by looking at various facts, statistical data and probability estimates related to sex differences in human mating and parenting behaviour provided by evolutionary psychology. It is suggested that these evolutionary considerations create a serious stalemate between certain basic moral principles to which LaFollette subscribes, thus rendering the entire proposal morally impracticable. It (...)
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  31. Elizabeth Brake (2005). Fatherhood and Child Support: Do Men Have a Right to Choose? Journal of Applied Philosophy 22 (1):55–73.
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  32. Elizabeth Brake & Joseph Millum, Procreation and Parenthood. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  33. Julia Brannen, Violetta Parutis, Ann Mooney & Valerie Wigfall (2011). Fathers and Intergenerational Transmission in Social Context. Ethics and Education 6 (2):155-170.
    This article takes an intergenerational lens to the study of fathers. It draws on evidence from two economic and social research council-funded intergenerational studies of fathers, one of which focused on four-generation British families and the other which included new migrant (Polish) fathers. The article suggests both patterns of change and continuity in fatherhood across the generations. It demonstrates how cultural forces and material conditions need to combine to facilitate change in fathers? exercise of agency and how social class and (...)
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  34. Andrea Mechanick Braverman (2012). Review of Christine Overall, Why Have Children: The Ethical Debate. [REVIEW] American Journal of Bioethics 12 (8):42 - 42.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 8, Page 42, August 2012.
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  35. Lynn Bridgers & John R. Snarey (2003). From Father to Son: Generative Care and Gradual Conversion in William James's Writing ofThe Varieties. Journal of Moral Education 32 (4):329-340.
    Using a historical and biographical, then developmental, approach, this article examines William James's spiritual family history by reviewing key events in the life of his father, Henry James, Sr. It pays particular attention to Henry Sr's tumultuous relationship with his own father, William James of Albany, and Henry Sr's subsequent conversion to the religious thought of Emmanuel Swedenborg. James's writing of The Varieties of Religious Experience can be seen as integral to his moral and religious development; that is, it functioned (...)
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  36. B. S. Brinchann (1999). When the Home Becomes a Prison: Living with a Severely Disabled Child. Nursing Ethics 6 (2):137-143.
    The aim of this study was to generate knowledge about how parents who have been part of an ethical decision-making process concerning a son or daughter in a neonatal unit experience life with a severely disabled child. A descriptive study design was chosen using 30 hours of field observations and seven in-depth interviews, carried out over a period of five months with parents who had been faced with ethical decisions concerning their own children in a neonatal unit. Strauss and Glaser’s (...)
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  37. Berit Brogaard (forthcoming). Parental Love and the Meaning of Life. In Leo Zaibert (ed.), special festschrift volume for Barry Smith edited by Leo Zaibert.
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  38. Jeanne Brooks-Gunn & Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus (1994). Rights to Privacy in Research: Adolescents Versus Parents. Ethics and Behavior 4 (2):109 – 121.
    Conducting research on adolescents raises a number of ethical issues not often confronted in research on younger children. In part, these differences are due to the fact that although assent is usually not an issue, given cognitive and social competencies, the life situations and behavior of youth make it more difficult to balance rights and privacy of the adolescents. In this article, the three ethical principles of beneficence, justice, and respect for persons are discussed in terms of their application to (...)
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  39. M. J. Brueton (1988). Care of the Handicapped Newborn: Parental Responsibility and Medical Responsibility. Journal of Medical Ethics 14 (1):48-49.
  40. A. G. M. Campbell (1986). Should the Baby Live? The Problem of Handicapped Infants. Journal of Medical Ethics 12 (4):212-213.
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  41. Lisa Campo-Engelstein (2013). Offering Testicular Tissue Cryopreservation to Boys: The Increasing Importance of Biological Fatherhood. American Journal of Bioethics: 13 (3):39 - 40.
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  42. Jane Caputi (1994). Unthinkable Fathering: Connecting Incest and Nuclearism. Hypatia 9 (2):102 - 122.
    The examination of cultural productions with nuclear themes reveals the regular recurrence of the theme of incestuous fatherhood. Connections include a nuclear-father figure, one who threatens dependents while purportedly protecting them; the desecration of the future; the betrayal of trust; insidious long-term effects after initial harm; the shattering of safety; the cult of secrecy, aided by psychological defenses of denial, numbing, and splitting (in both survivor and perpetrator); the violation of life-preservative taboos; and survival.
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  43. L. Caronia (2001). Connecting Parents and Children: Internet as a Relationship Building Activity. Encyclopaideia 9.
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  44. Lisa Cassidy (2006). That Many of Us Should Not Parent. Hypatia 21 (4):40-57.
    : In liberal societies (where birth control is generally accepted and available), many people decide whether or not they wish to become parents. One key question in making this decision is, What kind of parent will I be? Parenting competence can be ranked from excellent to competent to poor. Cassidy argues that those who can foresee being poor parents, or even merely competent ones, should opt not to parent.
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  45. Wendy Chavkin, Vicki Breitbart & Paul H. Wise (1994). Finding Common Ground: The Necessity of an Integrated Agenda for Women's and Children's Health. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 22 (3):262-269.
  46. G. K. Chesterton (1990). A Denunciation of Parents. The Chesterton Review 16 (3/4):149-153.
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  47. Michael Cholbi & Jaime Ahlberg (eds.) (2016). Procreation, Parenthood, and Educational Rights: Ethical and Philosophical Issues. Routledge.
    _Procreation, Parenthood, and Educational Rights_ explores important issues at the nexus of two burgeoning areas within moral and social philosophy: procreative ethics and parental rights. Surprisingly, there has been comparatively little scholarly engagement across these subdisciplinary boundaries, despite the fact that parental rights are paradigmatically ascribed to individuals responsible for procreating particular children. This collection thus aims to bring expert practitioners from these literatures into fruitful and innovative dialogue around questions at the intersection of procreation and parenthood. Among these questions (...)
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  48. Michael Collingridge & Seumas Miller (1997). Filial Responsibility and the Care of the Aged. Journal of Applied Philosophy 14 (2):119–128.
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  49. Daniela Cutas & Lisa Bortolotti (2010). Natural Versus Assisted Reproduction. In Search of Fairness. Studies in Ethics, Law and Technology 4 (1).
    Whilst the choice of becoming a parent in the natural way is unregulated all over Europe (and proposals of regulation raise vehement objections), most European countries have (either legal or professional) regulations imposing criteria that people must satisfy if they wish to gain access to assisted reproduction and parenting. These criteria may include relationship status, age, sexual orientation, financial stability, health, and willingness to attend parenting classes. The existence of regulations in this area is largely accepted, and the objections raised (...)
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  50. Daniela Cutas & Sarah Chan (2012). Families – Beyond the Nuclear Ideal. Bloomsbury Academic.
    This book examines, through a multi-disciplinary lens, the possibilities offered by relationships and family forms that challenge the nuclear family ideal, and some of the arguments that recommend or disqualify these as legitimate units in our societies. That children should be conceived naturally, born to and raised by their two young, heterosexual, married to each other, genetic parents; that this relationship between parents is also the ideal relationship between romantic or sexual partners; and that romance and sexual intimacy ought to (...)
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