Results for 'Quality of Life Research'

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  1.  31
    Can They Suffer? The Ethical Priority of Quality of Life Research in Disorders of Consciousness.L. Syd M. Johnson - 2013 - Bioethica Forum 6 (4):129-136.
    There is ongoing ethical and legal debate about withdrawing life sup- port for patients with disorders of consciousness (DOCs). Frequently fu- eling the debate are implicit assumptions about the value of life in a state of impaired consciousness, and persistent uncertainty about the quality of life (QoL) of these persons. Yet there are no validated methods for assessing QoL in this population, and a significant obstacle to doing so is their inability to communicate. Recent neuroscientific discoveries (...)
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  2.  37
    Towards Self-Determination in Quality of Life Research: A Dialogic Approach.Leah McClimans - 2010 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 13 (1):67-76.
    Health-related quality of life measures aim to assess patients’ subjective experience in order to gauge an increasingly wide variety of health care issues such as patient needs; satisfaction; side effects; quality of care; disease progression and cost effectiveness. Their popularity is undoubtedly due to a larger initiative to provide patient-centered care. The use of patient perspectives to guide health care improvements and spending is rooted in the idea that we must respect patients as self-determining agents. In this (...)
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  3.  40
    Consciousness and Quality of Life Research.Shepherd Joshua - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 7 (1):54-55.
  4.  5
    Public Views About Quality of Life and Treatment Withdrawal in Infants: Limitations and Directions for Future Research.Ryan H. Nelson - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (1):20-21.
    Work done within the realm of what is sometimes called ‘descriptive ethics’ brings two questions readily to mind: How can empirical findings, in general, inform normative debates? and How can these empirical findings, in particular, inform the normative debate at hand? Brick et al 1 confront these questions in their novel investigation of public views about lives worth living and the permissibility of withdrawing life-sustaining treatment from critically ill infants. Mindful of the is-ought gap, the authors suggest modestly that (...)
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  5.  16
    Research Letter: What Are Quality of Life Improvements Measuring and Do They Last? An Explanatory Model.Michael J. Long - 1999 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 5 (3):355-359.
  6. Quality of Life - Three Competing Views.Peter Sondøe - 1999 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 2 (1):11-23.
    The aim of the present paper is to describe three different attempts, which have been made by philosophers, to define what quality of life is; and to spell out some of the difficulties that faces each definition. One, Perfectionism, focuses on the capacities that human beings possess: capacities for friendship, knowledge and creative activity, for instance. It says that the good life consists in the development and use of these capacities. Another account, the Preference Theory, urges that (...)
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  7.  51
    Quality of Life is a Process Not an Outcome.Leah McClimans & John P. Browne - 2012 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (4):279-292.
    Quality improvement mechanisms increasingly use outcome measures to evaluate health care providers. This move toward outcome measures is a radical departure from the traditional focus on process measures. More radical still is the proposal to shift from relatively simple and proximal measures of outcome, such as mortality, to complex outcomes, such as quality of life. While the practical, scientific, and ethical issues associated with the use of outcomes such as mortality and morbidity to compare health care providers (...)
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  8.  32
    The Impossibility and the Necessity of Quality of Life Research.E. Haavi Morreim - 1992 - Bioethics 6 (3):219–232.
  9.  30
    Felicitometric Hermeneutics: Interpreting Quality of Life Measurements.Charles J. Kowalski, Jan L. Bernheim, Nancy Adair Birk & Peter Theuns - 2012 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (3):207-220.
    The use of quality of life (QOL) outcomes in clinical trials is increasing as a number of practical, ethical, methodological, and regulatory reasons for their use have become apparent. It is important, then, that QOL measurements and differences between QOL scores be readily interpretable. We study interpretation in two contexts: when determining QOL and when basing decisions on QOL differences. We consider both clinical situations involving individual patients and research contexts, e.g., randomized clinical trials, involving groups of (...)
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  10.  4
    The Impossibility and the Necessity of Quality of Life Research.E. Haavi Morreim - 1992 - Bioethics 6 (3):219-232.
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  11.  36
    Principles and Problems in the Assessment of Quality of Life in Health Care.Ray Fitzpatrick - 1999 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 2 (1):37-46.
    A remarkable surge in efforts to assess the quality of life of patients has occurred in recent years in medical research. Philosophical discussions of these developments have focused, on the one hand, on epistemological reservations about the plausibility of measuring quality of life and, on the other hand, on moral and ethical qualms about the meaning of life conveyed in such assessments. Whilst providing an important note of caution, such critiques fail to recognise two (...)
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  12.  11
    Philosophical Aspects of Social Indicators and Quality of Life Research - Some Tentative Conclusions.Werner Callebaut - 1980 - Philosophica 26.
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  13. Perspectives on Quality of Life.Peter Draper - 1997 - Routledge.
    One of the fundamental aims of nursing is to safeguard or promote patients' "quality of life." Perspectives on Quality of Life examines existing ways of defining the concept and argues that nurses need to adopt a fresh approach, which more accurately reflects patients' concerns and helps them to develop practical ways of promoting the well-being of people in their care. Part One provides an analysis of statistical approaches to quality of life, including social indicators, (...)
     
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  14. Encyclopedia of Quality of Life Research.Alex Michalos (ed.) - forthcoming - Springer.
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  15.  54
    End of Life Pediatric Research: What About the Ethics? [REVIEW]Danielle Laudy - 2009 - Journal of Academic Ethics 7 (1-2):87-91.
    Clinical trials are required in order to develop new treatments and improve both patient life expectancy and quality of life. In this respect the last 10 years proved their efficiency. However clinical research shows one of the most difficult dilemmas from an ethical point of view. Patients included in clinical trials are submitted to known and unknown risks and hazards, but rarely benefit from the results. This is even more evident when clinical trials use children who (...)
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  16. Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research.Alex C. Michalos (ed.) - 2014 - Springer.
     
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  17. Research Associate McGill University, Quality of Working Life Unit 1001 Sherbrooke St. West Montreal, Quebec Canada H3A 1G5. [REVIEW]Joan Y. Kahn - forthcoming - Semiotics.
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  18.  94
    Utilitarianism and the Measurement and Aggregation of Quality €“ Adjusted Life Years.Paul Dolan - 2001 - Health Care Analysis 9 (1):65-76.
    It is widely accepted that one of the main objectives of government expenditure on health care is to generate health. Since health is a function of both length of life and quality of life, the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) has been developed in an attempt to combine the value of these attributes into a single index number. The QALY approach - and particularly the decision rule that healthcare resources should be allocated so as to maximise the (...)
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  19. The Ableism of Quality of Life Judgments in Disorders of Consciousness: Who Bears Epistemic Responsibility?Joel Michael Reynolds - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 7 (1):59-61.
    In this peer commentary on L. Syd M. Johnson’s “Inference and Inductive Risk in Disorders of Consciousness,” I argue for the necessity of disability education as an integral component of decision-making processes concerning patients with DOC and, mutatis mutandis, all patients with disabilities. The sole qualification Johnson places on such decision-making is that stakeholders are educated about and “understand the uncertainties of diagnosis and prognosis.” Drawing upon research in philosophy of disability, social epistemology, and health psychology, I argue that (...)
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  20.  39
    Creation Ethics: Reproduction, Genetics, and Quality of Life.David DeGrazia - 2012 - Oup Usa.
    The overarching aim of this book is to illuminate a broad array of issues connected with reproduction and ethics through the lens of moral philosophy. With novel frameworks for understanding prenatal moral status and human identity, DeGrazia sheds new light on the ethics of abortion and embryo research, genetic enhancement and prenatal genetic interventions, procreation and parenting, and decisions that affect the quality of life of future generations.
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  21.  7
    The Strength of an Accounting Firm’s Ethical Environment and the Quality of Auditors’ Judgments.Nonna Martinov-Bennie & Gary Pflugrath - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 87 (2):237-253.
    This study examines the impact of the strength of an accounting firm's ethical environment on the quality of auditor judgment, across different levels of audit expertise. Using a 2 × 2 full factorial 'between subjects' experimental design, with audit managers and audit seniors, the impact of different levels of strength of the ethical environment on auditor judgments was assessed with a realistic audit scenario, requiring participants to make judgments in respect of an inventory writedown. Based on prior research, (...)
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  22.  42
    Strategic Marketing Planning Guided by the Quality-of-Life (QOL) Concept.M. Joseph Sirgy - 1996 - Journal of Business Ethics 15 (3):241 - 259.
    An emerging ethical philosophy in marketing is developing. This philosophy is based on quality-of-life studies which are becoming an important topic of research in behavioral and social sciences (basic and applied research). This paper addresses the QOL orientation in marketing from a decision-making perspective. Specifically, this paper shows how marketers can engage in strategic marketing planning guided by the QOL concept.
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  23.  1
    Gender Differences In Resilience, Coping And Quality Of Life Of Oncology Nurses In Pakistan.Sajida Naz, Naima Saeed & Aazadi Fateh Muhammad - 2017 - Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies 14 (1):145-159.
    This research was carried out to explore the gender differences in resilience, coping and quality of life of oncology nurses. It is evidenced through the literature that oncology nurses face different stressors because of complexity involved in their profession. This research attempts to investigate the impact of resilience and coping strategies on quality of life of nurses along with identifying nature of gender differences in each domain. A total of 300 oncology nurses participated in (...)
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  24.  23
    Democracy and Quality of Life in Asian Societies.Shinya Sasaoka & Katsunori Seki - 2011 - Japanese Journal of Political Science 12 (3):343-357.
    This article examines whether democracy affects quality of life. Scholars have conducted surveys to investigate whether democracy is likely to lead to good quality of life. There are two contested views to the relationship: some suggest that democracy has a positive causal effect on quality of life, whereas others contend that democracy does not play such a role. Previous findings are supported by cross-national statistical analysis with aggregated survey data. However, aggregated survey data may (...)
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  25.  44
    Social Factors and Company Location Decisions: Technology, Quality of Life and Quality of Work Life Concerns. [REVIEW]Michael A. Hitt, Orley M. Amos & Larkin Warner - 1983 - Journal of Business Ethics 2 (2):89 - 98.
    A number of factors must be considered in facility location decisions. Recent research on job design suggests that the effects jobs may have on quality of work life and quality of life in general should be considered in facility location decisions in addition to other normal factors. The present study was designed to examine quality of work life and quality of life factors of residents in a low income and low education (...)
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  26. Gender Differences In Adjustment Issues, Quality Of Life And Psychological Resilience Among Hostel Students.Daniya Hasan, Umm E. Rubab Kazmi & Kanzal Jawahir - 2017 - Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies 15 (1):45-60.
    The present study explores gender differences in adjustment issues, quality of life and psychological resilience among hostel students. Purposive sampling was used and 400 hostel students were taken from public and private sector colleges/universities. Students from 1st year, BS and MS with 18-25 years were taken. The College Adjustment Test CAT was translated in Urdu language and administered on the students along with PR, Short form survey and demographic form. Results show that reliability of the scales was found (...)
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  27.  25
    Between Quality of Life and Hope. Attitudes and Beliefs of Muslim Women Toward Withholding and Withdrawing Life-Sustaining Treatments.Chaïma Ahaddour, Stef Van den Branden & Bert Broeckaert - 2018 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 21 (3):347-361.
    The technological advances in medicine, including prolongation of life, have constituted several dilemmas at the end of life. In the context of the Belgian debates on end-of-life care, the views of Muslim women remain understudied. The aim of this article is fourfold. First, we seek to describe the beliefs and attitudes of middle-aged and elderly Moroccan Muslim women toward withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatments. Second, we aim to identify whether differences are observable among middle-aged and elderly (...)
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  28.  36
    Quality of Ethical Guidelines and Ethical Content in Clinical Guidelines: The Example of End-of-Life Decision-Making.D. Strech & J. Schildmann - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (7):390-396.
    Background While there are many guidelines on how to make ethical decisions at the end of life, there is little evidence regarding the quality of this sort of ethical guidelines. Objectives First, this study aims to demonstrate the conceptual transferability of the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) instrument for the quality assessment of ethical guidelines. Second, it aims to illustrate the status quo of the quality of guidelines on end-of-life decision-making by (...)
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  29.  3
    Quality of Life in Children Brought Up by Married and Cohabiting Couples.Miroslav Popper, Ivan Lukšík & Martin Kanovský - 2020 - Human Affairs 30 (1):47-59.
    Under the Second Demographic Transition, alternative forms of living arrangement are on the rise. The aim of this article is to compare quality of life in children living in married and cohabiting families. We present the results of representative research conducted in Slovakia in 2018. We tested whether children brought up in traditional married families had better material resources and healthcare, fewer behavioural problems, better peer relations and spent more leisure time with their parents than children brought (...)
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  30.  91
    The Concept of Quality of Life.Greg Bognar - 2005 - Social Theory and Practice 31 (4):561-580.
    Quality of life research aims to develop and apply indices for the measurement of human welfare. It is an increasingly important field within the social sciences and its results are an important resource for policy making and evaluation. This paper explores the conceptual background of quality of life research. It focuses on its single most important issue: the controversy between the use of ``objective social indicators'' and the use of people's ``subjective evaluations'' as proxies (...)
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  31.  5
    Quality of Life and Value Assessment in Health Care.Alicia Hall - 2020 - Health Care Analysis 28 (1):45-61.
    Proposals for health care cost containment emphasize high-value care as a way to control spending without compromising quality. When used in this context, ‘value’ refers to outcomes in relation to cost. To determine where health spending yields the most value, it is necessary to compare the benefits provided by different treatments. While many studies focus narrowly on health gains in assessing value, the notion of benefit is sometimes broadened to include overall quality of life. This paper explores (...)
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  32.  3
    Health Enhancing Coping as a Mediator in Relationships of Positive Emotionality and Cognitive Curiosity with Quality of Life Among Type 2 Diabetes Patients.Monika Pawłowska & Dorota Kalka - 2015 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 46 (3):362-375.
    The number of people suffering from type 2 diabetes has been growing recently. This chronic disease is connected with lower perceived quality of life and experiencing a lot of stressful situations. Some of these situations can be anticipated. Thus, it is possible to prepare oneself for future difficult situations by using proactive coping strategies. The aim of this research was to verify the level of satisfaction with various areas of life, the frequency of use of proactive (...)
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  33. Measuring the Quality of Life: Why, How and What?Matti Häyry - 1991 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 12 (2):17.
    In this paper three questions concerning quality of life in medicine and health care are analysed and discussed: the motives for measuring the quality of life, the methods used in assessing it, and the definition of the concept. The purposes of the study are to find an ethically acceptable motive for measuring the quality of life; to identify the methodological advantages and disadvantages of the most prevalent current methods of measurement; and to present an (...)
     
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  34.  36
    Quality of Life Assessment and Human Dignity: Against the Incompatibility-Assumption.Michael Quante - 2005 - Poiesis and Praxis 3 (3):168-180.
    Only in recent years have the German bioethical and biopolitical debates begun to decline due to rationalization concerning stem cell research or the pre-implantation diagnosis related to the ethical status of the beginning of human life. This is due to the fact that in these contexts we have to ask whether quality of life assessment is ethically acceptable in principle. A fundamental premise in the current debate is that quality of life assessment and human (...)
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  35.  4
    Quality of Life and Proactive Coping with Stress in a Group of Middle Adulthood Women with Type 2 Diabetes.Dorota Kalka - 2016 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 47 (3):327-337.
    In middle adulthood the intensity of stress is significantly higher than in the preceding developmental period. This stress is particularly significant in the case of chronically ill women, including those with type 2 diabetes. In this group, the disease-related stress intensifies the difficulties generated by the decrease of age-related organismic resources and in many instances impairs the quality of life. Therefore, an ability to cope with difficult situations is of crucial importance. The aim of the research was (...)
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  36.  14
    The Effectiveness of Business Codes: A Critical Examination of Existing Studies and the Development of an Integrated Research Model.Muel Kaptein & Mark S. Schwartz - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 77 (2):111-127.
    Business codes are a widely used management instrument. Research into the effectiveness of business codes has, however, produced conflicting results. The main reasons for the divergent findings are: varying definitions of key terms; deficiencies in the empirical data and methodologies used; and a lack of theory. In this paper, we propose an integrated research model and suggest directions for future research.
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  37. The Quality of Life.Martha Nussbaum & Amartya Sen (eds.) - 1993 - Clarendon Press.
    This book addresses issues of defining and measuring the quality of life. Leading philosophers and economists examine recent developments in the philosophical definition of well-being and link them to practical issues such as the delivery of health care and the assessment of women's quality of life. The volume reflects the growing need for interdisciplinary work as economists become more aware of fundamental philosophical questions and philosophers of the importance of linking theoretical enquiries to an understanding of (...)
     
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  38.  48
    New Media and the Quality of Life.Philip Brey - 1997 - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 3 (1):4-18.
    In this paper I evaluate the implications of contemporary information and communication media for the quality of life, including both the new media from the digital revolution and the older media that remain in use. My evaluation of contemporary media proceeds in three parts. First I discuss the benefits of contemporary media, with special emphasis given to their immediate functional benefits. I then discuss four potential threats posed by contemporary media. In a final section I examine the future (...)
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  39.  9
    The Meaning of Trust. A Content Analysis on the Diverse Conceptualizations of Trust in Scholarly Research on Business Relationships.Sandro Castaldo, Katia Premazzi & Fabrizio Zerbini - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 96 (4):657-668.
    Scholarly research largely converges on the argument that trust is of paramount importance to drive economic agents toward mutually satisfactory, fair, and ethically compliant behaviors. There is, however, little agreement on the meaning of trust, whose conceptualizations differ with respect to actors, relationships, behaviors, and contexts. At present, we know much better what trust does than what trust is. In this article, we present an extensive review and analysis of the most prominent articles on trust in market relationships. Using (...)
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  40. Income and Quality of Life: Does the Love of Money Make a Difference?T. L. P. Tang - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 72 (4):375-393.
    This paper examines a model of income and quality of life that controls the love of money, job satisfaction, gender, and marital status and treats employment status (full-time versus part-time), income level, and gender as moderators. For the whole sample, income was not significantly related to quality of life when this path was examined alone. When all variables were controlled, income was negatively related to quality of life. When (1) the love of money was (...)
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  41.  12
    An Analysis of 10 Years of Business Ethics Research in Strategic Management Journal: 1996–2005.Christopher J. Robertson - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 80 (4):745-753.
    From a corporate governance perspective, one of the most important jobs of a firm's top management team is to create and maintain a positive moral environment. Business ethics has long been considered a cornerstone in the field of strategic management and a number of scholars have called for more research in this area over the years. In this paper 658 articles that appeared in "Strategic Management Journal" over the 10-year period between 1996 and 2005 are reviewed for business ethics (...)
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  42.  24
    Is ‘Seeking God’s Help’ Associated with Life Satisfaction and Disease-Specific Quality of Life in Cancer Patients? The HUNT Study.Torgeir Sørensen, Alv A. Dahl, Sophie D. Fosså, Jostein Holmen, Lars Lien & Lars J. Danbolt - 2012 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 34 (2):191-213.
    This study investigates the prevalence of ‘Seeking God’s Help’, its relation to time since diagnosis, and its association with Life Satisfaction for all cancer types. This study also investigates Disease-Specific Quality of Life for patients with breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. Data were obtained from the third wave of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study of Norway , with 2,086 cancer patients identified by the Cancer Registry of Norway and 6,258 cancer-free controls. Our results indicate a higher prevalence of (...)
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  43.  22
    ‘‘Is ‘Seeking God’s Help’ Associated with Life Satisfaction and Disease-Specific Quality of Life in Cancer Patients? The HUNT Study.Torgeir Sørensen, Jostein Holmen, Sophie D. Fosså, Lars J. Danbolt, Lars Lien & Alv A. Dahl - 2012 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 34 (2):191-213.
    This study investigates the prevalence of ‘Seeking God’s Help’, its relation to time since diagnosis, and its association with Life Satisfaction for all cancer types. This study also investigates Disease-Specific Quality of Life for patients with breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. Data were obtained from the third wave of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study of Norway , with 2,086 cancer patients identified by the Cancer Registry of Norway and 6,258 cancer-free controls. Our results indicate a higher prevalence of (...)
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  44.  3
    Japanese Bioethical Challenges Concerning Self-Management Support For Patients With Chronic Conditions: An Analysis of Quality of Life & Autonomy.Aya Enzo, Taketoshi Okita & Atsushi Asai - 2016 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 26 (5):175-179.
    Prevention and control of chronic conditions are global healthcare challenges. Patient self-management has been deemed essential for treating chronic conditions and improving the quality of patient life. However, the current Japanese system for supporting patient self-management of chronic conditions has received little ethical assessment. The first aim of this article is to provide an ethical analysis of current Japanese support for self-management of chronic conditions with reference to international discussions concerning self-management, developed mainly in western societies such as (...)
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  45.  27
    Some Methodological Issues in the Development of Quality of Life Measures for the Evaluation of Medical Interventions.Ronald C. Kessler & Daniel K. Mroczek - 1996 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2 (3):181-191.
    This paper discusses a series of important methodological issues in developing targeted health-related quality of life measures in studies of the effects of medical interventions. Such measures cannot be developed unless the evaluator understands the life domains that medical interventions affect. Qualitative discovery methods are needed to obtain this understanding. Once domains are targeted for measurement, careful and systematic laboratory pilot work should be used to select initial scale items. Psychometric evaluation of response patterns in subsequent field (...)
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  46.  13
    Developing a Normatively Grounded Research Agenda for Fair Trade: Examining the Case of Canada.Darryl Reed, Bob Thomson, Ian Hussey & Jean-Frédéric LeMay - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (S2):151-179.
    This paper examines two issues related to research of certified fair trade goods. The first is the question of how agendas for fair trade research should be developed. The second issue is the existence of major gaps in the fair trade literature, including the study of the particular features of fair trade practice in individual northern countries. In taking up the first of these issues, the paper proposes that normative analysis should provide the basis for developing research (...)
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  47.  11
    Transnational Governance of Workers’ Rights: Outlining a Research Agenda.Niklas Egels-Zandén - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 87 (2):169-188.
    In twentieth century Europe and the USA, industrial relations, labour, and workers' rights issues have been handled through collective bargaining and industrial agreements between firms and unions, with varying degrees of government intervention from country to country. This industrial relations landscape is currently undergoing fundamental change with the emergence of transnational industrial relations systems that complement existing national industrial relations systems. Despite the significance of this ongoing change, existing research has only started to explore the implications of this change (...)
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  48.  41
    The Goals of Health Work: Quality of Life, Health and Welfare. [REVIEW]Per-Anders Tengland - 2005 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 9 (2):155-167.
    Health-related quality of life is the ultimate general goal for medicine, health care and public health, including health promotion and health education. The other important general goal is health-related welfare. The aim of the paper is to explain what this means and what the consequences of these assumptions are for health work. This involves defining the central terms “health”, “quality of life” and “welfare” and showing what their conceptual relations are. Health-related quality of life (...)
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  49.  40
    The Ashley Treatment: Improving Quality of Life or Infringing Dignity and Rights?Caroline Harnacke - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (3):141-150.
    The ‘Ashley treatment’ has raised much ethical controversy. This article starts from the observation that this debate suffers from a lack of careful philosophical analysis which is essential for an ethical assessment. I focus on two central arguments in the debate, namely an argument defending the treatment based on quality of life and an argument against the treatment based on dignity and rights. My analysis raises doubts as to whether these arguments, as they stand in the debate, are (...)
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  50. Analysis Of Quality Of Life Of Dialysis Patients (Male And Female) With Kidney Disease.Aqeel Haider, Nasreen Aslam Shah & Muhammad Shahid - 2020 - Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies 20 (1):1-20.
    Focus of the investigation is to get some answers concerning the kidney illness and its effects on the everyday lives of the patients. Mostly patients don't think about the causes and how this illness is influencing and hauling them to finish their life step by step, so this examination will be useful to comprehend the Kidney sicknesses and financial and mental, effect of dialysis patients further to make sense of pretty much all that. Any harm which disturbs the roles (...)
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