Ayub Khan Era played a significant role in Pakistan political and constitutional history. He introduced Elective Bodies Disqualification Order and Public Offices Disqualification Order to contain the corruption and nepotism. He also introduced basic democracy system to transfer of power at grass root level. The main objective this study is to evaluate regime of Ayub Khan and impact of Pakistani society. He introduced the Basic Democratic System the purpose of this form of government were to elect the president (...) and the member of parliament through electoral system. In 1964 the presidential election were held by the government unfortunately conspiracy against Muhtarma Fatima Jinnah was not won and she lost the seat. The era of Gen. Ayub Khan confronts the Indo-Pak war in 1965 which ends thorough the declaration of Tashkent, a peace agreement on 10th January 1966. The regime of Ayub Khan in was known as golden economic era because his economic growth, prosperity and the growing status of Pakistan on superior level on world's stage in his regime although politically he faced failure due to the inferiority of Eastern Pakistan, sheikh Mujeeb-ur-Rehman presented six points which was formal as a conspiracy to break the country. In Agar Tala conspiracy case Mujeeb-ur-Rehman was arrested and put in prison, due to the situation in East Pakistan got worse and finally, General Ayub Khan said good bye and instead of handing over to the public representatives, it. (shrink)
The expropriation of marginalized women’s labor is a key issue in business ethics in these times of global outsourcing and informal work arrangements. This has led to a transnational advocacy movement for securing the labor rights of homeworkers, who are poor women working on piece-rate contracts out of their homes. Drawing on materialist feminism, our paper critically explores the homeworker network in Pakistan, that was set up as part of a global push by international institutions and networks to localize the (...) issue across geographies. Our focus is the national women’s NGO that leads advocacy efforts on the issue in the country and its relationship with other actors. Through fieldwork spanning 3 years we find that the network employs a top-down ‘us versus them’ approach in advocacy and mobilization. The race-to-the-bottom between the network’s national and district-level actors for donor funding further undermines prospects for developing indigenous narratives of resistance. The network, while mission bound to enhance the collective agency of its constituency, has depoliticized what should have been a class-based feminist struggle. From a materialist perspective, we conclude that the NGOized network rests upon and feeds off of its constituency, creating an additional layer of primitive accumulation over the workers it represents. (shrink)
This paper attempts to address a very sensitive social issue that concerns the status of a widow in the society of the Sub-Continents. The purpose of this paper relates to the period of undivided India. However, the theme takes into its fold the widows also of the present time. Keeping in view the status of women, widows still face many problems as they suffered at classical epic period. The social norms and practices in those days are not much different about (...) widows. In some societies, remarriage of the widow did not allow once their husbands die. This situation is a highly sensitive social issue concerning the rest of the life of the widow who is in many cases is young and has usually many years to live ahead. The social practices and traditions refuse to allow her to live another wedded life which leaves her in a prolonged misery till her death. A widow is generally looked down upon by even her own relations and in-laws. For this reason, Altaf Hussain Hali is found to be the most prominent among the scholar and poet worked for women reforms and had realized the rights of women, especially their right to acquire education. Hali’s prominence is that he wrote a poem ‘Manajaat-e-Bewah’ and described the pains and grief a young widow has to go through after the sudden death of her husband. The qualitative method was applied and discourse analysis approach was also used to understand the women’s experiences. This paper analyses the prominent role of Hali on this important social issue which remained ignored for centuries and which needs to be addressed forcefully even in present times. (shrink)
The W/S test under neutrosophic statistics is proposed in this paper. The Monte Carlo simulation under the neutrosophic statistical interval method is proposed and applied to study the sensitivity of various neutrosophic statistical distributions. The power of test curves for neutrosophic distributions is presented. The efficiency of the proposed W/S test under neutrosophic statistics is compared with that of the W/S test under classical statistics. The proposed test is explained with the aid of an example.
In recent years, there have been a number of moral panics in Western societies about the existence of religious courts and tribunals in general and Shariah law in particular. In England and Wales, these concerns came to the fore following the 2008 lecture by the then Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams, on ‘Civil Law and Religious Law in England’. In that lecture, Williams drew upon the work of the Canadian scholar Ayelet Shachar endorsing her concept of ‘transformative accommodation’. In (...) this article, we return to the work of Shachar in the light of our recent empirical study which examined the divorce jurisdiction of three religious tribunals in detail: a Jewish Beth Din; a matrimonial tribunal of the Roman Catholic Church; and a Muslim Shariah Council. We suggest that the focus upon Shachar’s concept of ‘transformative accommodation’ by Williams and subsequent commentators is unfortunate given that Shachar actually proposes ‘transformative accommodation’ as just one variant of what she refers to as ‘joint governance’ (albeit her preferred variant). We propose that the umbrella concept of ‘joint governance’ and its other variants can be developed in a way that could prove to be more useful than ‘transformative accommodation’. (shrink)
In an attempt to re-envision economics, the paper analyses Robert Heilbroner’s philosophy of economics through the lens of Max Weber’s philosophy of science. Specifically, Heilbroner’s position on vision, ideology and value-freedom is examined by contextualising it within a framework of … More ›.
Poet Qazi Nazrul Islam, as a poet always commanded a highly privileged position amongst the youth of Bengal in pre-partition India. The emergence of the women’s movement throughout the world, the work of the United Nations on women’s issues has an emancipation of over half of humankind from the oppression in which they have lived for centuries for over two millenniums. Although the United Nations has not succeeded in its goals, the very prospect of effecting such emancipation carries with it (...) the promise of bringing the greatest revolution in human history. The end of World War II, witnessed the global community, recognizing the importance of women’s right. Those attempts of recognition, due in part to the pressures that women had begun to put on their own governments, helped to force issues on women’s concerns for the global agenda. By 1995, four world conferences of the United Nations, on women and their right of equality with men. Qazi Nazrul Islam, long before the United Nations was created, talked about the issues that sought promoted equality for women. These issues, unlike those of the United Nations and some in the women’s movement, sought equality for women in the broader context of a total cultural change in the new world. So, one finds him advocating the political, economic, and social rights, which are generally associated with human rights regime, we must look beyond such a finding to the cultural focus of his poetic outpourings. (shrink)
A women’s career till middle of the 20th century was not more than a school teacher, a librarian, a social worker or a nurse. A woman really had to work hard to earn less pay for the same job where men are highly paid, in this male-dominating society. The birth of Computer age opens the door of a whole new type of career for women: programming; the process of enabling machines to do a certain task by writing a set of (...) instructions. Historically and conventionally, presence of women associated with field of engineering and science have been less prominent as compared to their counterpart. However, recent efforts initiated through various organizations, governmental and nongovernmental, attempting development of interest, promoting significance, increasing awareness and creating opportunities have improved statistics considerably. Globally, involvement of women with engineering and science has always been noticeably low. In this research article, we analyze the role of women in engineering and science, specially the science of information technology discipline and highlighting the causes of women’s experience and work role in a male dominating environment. (shrink)
The article focuses on Shakespeare’s play: Measure for Measure, with the aim of bringing to light the central problem of the play which is that of social reform and marriage in an early modern European society. It is a play that has been located against the background of seventeenth century society of London where it was first performed. However, it is symbolically set in the city of Vienna. Feminist and Historicist critics have been cited in the article in an interpretation (...) of the play which requires a consideration of the role of women and their status in the playworld. The issues of private and public marriages, and the ambiguity governing the laws on marriage, form the complex problem raised in the play. It is the contention of the article that Shakespeare emphasized the need to regulate the legal system with a view to promote greater representation and voice to women who were victimized by the corrupt legal institutions, both religious and official. Thus, the article suggests that the developments in the position of women, and the questions as to whether they were married or single, were the subject of public concern and debate in sixteenth and seventeenth century Europe. Marriage was, therefore, felt to be the most crucial issue in this regard and the aim of the dramatists and literary writers was to popularize the difficulties faced by women with a view to raising the consciousness of the public. (shrink)
Women’s legal rights are one of the most significant determinants of their status. In Bangladesh, a series of laws ensuring women’s rights have proven largely ineffective in promoting their positions. The prime reasons for this are: dirtier politics, the ineffective implementation of women rights laws, the traditional and cultural negative views about women’s rights, the absence of an accountable and transparent government, the expensive and time consuming judicial process, the lack of an efficient judiciary, and other socio-economic reasons. The core (...) theme of this essay concentrates on the ineffective enforcement of laws with the objective to promote protection of women’s rights by recommending remedies to flaws in prevailing laws in Bangladesh. Recommendations are made by reference to comparative and international practices. The primary arguments developed throughout this essay are: the protection of women’s rights is imperative to improve their status the legislative, administrative and judicial efforts dealing with women’s rights; and improvements in those effortsto better protect women’s rights. This study examines laws regarding women’s employment and political participation and the laws on dowry. It also explores the ways laws have been structured and enforced in Bangladesh, and how law can be an effective means of women’s pursuit of rights. (shrink)
This research aims to critically analyze the role of Ideological State Apparatuses, defined by Louis Althusser, in identity formation of Zari Bano, the protagonist in the novel “The Holy Woman” written by Qaisra Shahraz. According to Althusser, ideology functions through ISAs which change individuals to ideological subjects within capitalist society. This study focuses on the influences of the cultural ISA, the political ISA and the family ISA on the character of Zari Bano. The study also analyzes the moments of ‘interpellation’ (...) by critically evaluating the text of the novel and reveals how the characters act in certain ways and blindly accept certain beliefs and ideologies. The findings of the research indicate that the ISAs play a crucial role in formation of individuals’ identities and the socio-cultural / political ideologies set double standards in a patriarchal society, particularly for women, which are difficult to challenge. The research is significant as it deals with the issue of passive discursive ideologies at work in setting up different norms and values in a patriarchal society and how these are given the status of natural laws of life to be followed blindly by the social subjects. This research study is limited to the analysis of interpellation and ISAs only on Zari Bano and the characters closely related to her within the first part of the novel. The study is replicable and may draw attention of the scholars to investigate the role of ISAs other than those in this paper and explain action and reactions of the characters involved. (shrink)
Present era can be categorized due to its speed of changes. Pakistani society got affected by worst kind of terrorism and extremism in last fifteen years. The root causes of prevailing security environment in Pakistan are multifaceted, complex and are derived from structural, as well as micro-level conditions. Objective of this research is to highlight the gaps in security doctrine of Pakistan. Both qualitative and quantitative methodology in the format of Knowledge Attitude and Practice is selected. Primary question of this (...) research was to find the gaps in national internal security policy of Pakistan. This primary question is further sub divided into ten sub questions. Implementation modalities and the impediments of National Internal Security Policy 2014 are also discussed. This research finds out that national internal security policy 2014 was a vibrant document and right step in the domain of policy formulation but demanded non-pragmatic results from security operators. Majority of its drawbacks are removed in in its later version of 2018-23. Survey and questionnaire based analysis is also made part of this article along with recommendations as submitted by respondents. (shrink)
In the aftermath of shocking workplace scandals, people are often baffled when individuals within the organization were aware of clear-cut wrongdoing yet did not inform authorities. The current research suggests that moral concern for the suffering that a transgressor might face if a crime were reported is an under-recognized, powerful force that shapes whistleblowing in organizations, particularly when transgressors are fellow members of a highly entitative group. Two experiments show that group entitativity heightens concern about possible consequences that the transgressor (...) would face if a crime were to be reported, and that this concern reduces the likelihood of reporting wrongdoing in organizations to authorities. Further, the studies identify a mechanism through which concern about the transgressor is heightened in highly entitative groups: potential reporters perceive that the transgressor felt remorse for their crime. Thus, when fellow members of highly entitative organizations commit crimes, people are more likely to imagine that these transgressors felt anxiety or guilt about their actions, and this prompts greater concern for transgressors in ways that encourage people to let them “off the hook.” We discuss the implications of these findings for how reporting to authorities can be encouraged within highly entitative organizations. (shrink)
This article deals with the complex personality and legacy of a mysterious saint known both as a Sufī (Ḥājji Ratan) and a Nāth Yogī (Ratannāth) and links his multiple identity as well as the religious movement originated from him, to the specific cultural context of the former North-West Indian provinces. The first part is devoted to Ratan in the Nāth Yogī tradition, the second to his many facets in the Muslim tradition, in connection with his dargāh in the Panjabi town (...) of Bhatinda. The third and main part explores a particular movement, the Har Śri Nāth tradition. Presently centered around a “ dargāh mandir ” in Delhi, this movement, with its two branches issued from Ratan and from his “son” Kāyānāth, was rooted in what is now Pakistan. The influence of location and history has led to many peculiarities which lead us to stress the blurred boundaries between Islam and Hinduism and the essential part played by charismatic figures in the construction of religious identities. (shrink)
Society is formed of various families and life partners are thought to be the foundation of this setup and they are reinforced together by the relationship of marriage. Their lovely life together raises an excellent generation resulting in the development of an ideal society. Be that as it may, because of the inherent contrasts of their tendency at times it gets to be troublesome for a spouse to live with his wife or the other way around, in these circumstances where (...) husband has a right to divorce his wife Islam has additionally allowed numerous choices to the wife too. She may persuade her husband to divorce her and might offer to relinquish her rights and pay some consideration in exchange of separation from her husband or approach the court of justice to award her freedom in the form of 'annulment of marriage' or 'separation', on the premise of few reasons which are very much characterized in the law. This privilege of the wife is termed as "Khula" in Islam. This article comprises of: literal and colloquial meaning of 'Khula', proof of "Khula" from Qur'an, Hadith and Ijmaa, components of 'Khula', expressions of 'Khula', order for seeking 'Khula' without any reason, details of consideration for 'Khula' and its quantity/amount, order for forfeit of rights for 'Khula', annulment of marriage and divorce, "iddat" of a woman after "Khula" and afull description of the conditions of 'Khula'. Further, we have additionally demonstrated that one of the conditions of "Khula" is that it is awarded with mutual consent of the spouses since it is plainly obvious from Qur'an and all the scholars of Islam, including Hanafi, Maliki, Shafai, Hanbiliand Zawahiri, has agreed that the husband must be prepared and willing for the 'Khula', he might be convinced however can't be compelled to settle on this choice. Possibility of the decree for "Khula" by the court is also covered in this article. All the scholars of Islamic statute have consistently conceded to the five grounds on which the Ruler or Judge is entitled to pass a decree for the dissolution of marriage. (shrink)
Music, according to Sufi teaching, is really a small expression of the overwhelming and perfect harmony of the whole universe--and that is the secret of its amazing power to move us. The Indian Sufi master Hazrat Inayat Khan (1882-1927), the first teacher to bring the Islamic mystical tradition to the West, was an accomplished musician himself. His lucid exposition of music's divine nature has become a modern classic, beloved only by those interested in Sufism but by musicians of all (...) kinds. (shrink)
The phenomenological goal of grounding the content of conceptual thought in the background understanding of everyday, skillful coping was approached using evolutionary autonomous agent methodology. The behavior of an EAA evolved to perform a specified motor task was identified with skillful coping. Changes in the dynamics of the EAA controller occurred when the EAA encountered an unexpected obstacle with loss of longer time scale components in its hierarchical temporal organization. These temporal changes are consistent with the phenomenological changes which we (...) experience with breakdown during equipment use with our adoption of a more immediate, determinate stance. Since this latter experience is the basis of conceptual thought, the EAA paradigm goes some way in providing a naturalized explanation for the grounding of the content of conceptual thought in everyday, skillful coping in a manner that is physiologically plausible and phenomenologically accurate. (shrink)
Errors have been the concern of providers and consumers of health care services. However, consumers' perception of medical errors in developing countries is rarely explored. The aim of this study is to assess community members' perceptions about medical errors and to analyse the factors affecting this perception in one Middle East country, Oman.
South Asia is one of the most densely populated regions of the world, where despite a slow growth, agriculture remains the backbone of rural economy as it employs one half to over 90 percent of the labor force. Both extensive and intensive policy measures for agriculture development to feed the massive population of the region have resulted in land degradation and desertification, water scarcity, pollution from agrochemicals, and loss of agricultural biodiversity. The social and ethical aspects portray even a grimmer (...) picture of the region with growing poverty mainly, amongst small farmers, food scarcity, and overall poor quality of life. This article reviews the historical perspective of agriculture development in the region and gives a panoramic view of the policy initiatives and their environmental as well as social and ethical spin-offs. The aim is to explore the environmental and ethical dimensions of the agricultural development in South Asia and recommend a holistic approach in formulating plans and programs to combat environmental degradation, hunger, and poverty resulting from unsustainable agricultural practices. (shrink)
Agitation is one of the most common behavioural and psychological symptoms in people living with dementia. This behaviour can cause tremendous stress and anxiety on family caregivers and healthcare providers. Direct observation of PLwD is the traditional way to measure episodes of agitation. However, this method is subjective, bias-prone and timeconsuming. Importantly, it does not predict the onset of the agitation. Therefore, there is a need to develop a continuous monitoring system that can detect and/or predict the onset of agitation. (...) In this study, a multi-modal sensor platform with video cameras, motion and door sensors, wristbands and pressure mats were set up in a hospital-based dementia behavioural care unit to develop a predictive system to identify the onset of agitation. The research team faced several barriers in the development and initiation of the study, namely addressing concerns about the study ethics, logistics and costs of study activities, device design for PLwD and limitations of its use in the hospital. In this paper, the strategies and methodologies that were implemented to address these challenges are discussed for consideration by future researchers who will conduct similar studies in a hospital setting. (shrink)
There is evidence of continued food insecurity and malnutrition in Pakistan despite significant progress made in terms of food production in recent years. According to “Vision 2030” of the Planning Commission of Pakistan, about half of the population in the country suffers from absolute to moderate malnutrition, with the most vulnerable being children, women, and elderly among the lowest income group. The Government of Pakistan has been taking a series of policy initiatives and strategic measures to combat food insecurity issues. (...) These range from increasing production to food imports, implementation of poverty reduction strategies, nutritional improvement programs, as well as provision of social safety nets. The article aims to instill some fresh thinking into the debate regarding the challenges of food security. It underscores the limitations of hitherto policy response, and suggests crucial measures to improve the present grim scenario. Policy makers, planners, practitioners, and academicians in countries with comparable socio-political and economic setup can view this discussion as a case study and may apply the findings in their domain accordingly. (shrink)