Results for 'non-monotonic logic'

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  1.  6
    Non-Monotonic Logic I.Drew McDermott & Jon Doyle - 1980 - Artificial Intelligence 13 (1-2):41-72.
  2. Non-Monotonic Logic.G. Aldo Antonelli - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The term "non-monotonic logic" covers a family of formal frameworks devised to capture and represent defeasible inference , i.e., that kind of inference of everyday life in which reasoners draw conclusions tentatively, reserving the right to retract them in the light of further information. Such inferences are called "non-monotonic" because the set of conclusions warranted on the basis of a given knowledge base does not increase (in fact, it can shrink) with the size of the knowledge base (...)
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  3. Non-Monotonic Logic.Christian Strasser & G. Aldo Antonelli - 2018 - In Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.
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  4.  11
    Non-Monotonic Logic and the Compatibility of Science and Religion.Marcin Trepczyński - 2019 - Logica Universalis 13 (4):457-466.
    The article aims to show how the acceptance of non-monotonic logic enables arguments to be held between science and religion in a way that does not exclude either of these two spheres. The starting point of the analyses is the idea of the 13th century Danish philosopher, Boethius of Dacia, who states that it is both acceptable that: a natural scientist negates that the world had a beginning, and a Christian theologian asserts that the world had a beginning, (...)
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  5.  83
    Why Non-Monotonic Logic is Inadequate to Represent Balancing Arguments.Jan-R. Sieckmann - 2003 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 11 (2-3):211-219.
    This paper analyses the logical structure of the balancing of conflicting normative arguments, and asks whether non-monotonic logic is adequate to represent this type of legal or practical reasoning. Norm conflicts are often regarded as a field of application for non-monotonic logics. This paper argues, however, that the balancing of normative arguments consists of an act of judgement, not a logical inference, and that models of deductive as well as of defeasible reasoning do not give an adequate (...)
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  6.  37
    Reasoning Biases, Non‐Monotonic Logics and Belief Revision.Catarina Dutilh Novaes & Herman Veluwenkamp - 2017 - Theoria 83 (1):29-52.
    A range of formal models of human reasoning have been proposed in a number of fields such as philosophy, logic, artificial intelligence, computer science, psychology, cognitive science, etc.: various logics, probabilistic systems, belief revision systems, neural networks, among others. Now, it seems reasonable to require that formal models of human reasoning be empirically adequate if they are to be viewed as models of the phenomena in question. How are formal models of human reasoning typically put to empirical test? One (...)
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  7.  21
    Reasoning Biases, Non‐Monotonic Logics and Belief Revision.Catarina Dutilh Novaes & Herman Veluwenkamp - 2016 - Theoria 82 (4):29-52.
    A range of formal models of human reasoning have been proposed in a number of fields such as philosophy, logic, artificial intelligence, computer science, psychology, cognitive science, etc.: various logics, probabilistic systems, belief revision systems, neural networks, among others. Now, it seems reasonable to require that formal models of human reasoning be empirically adequate if they are to be viewed as models of the phenomena in question. How are formal models of human reasoning typically put to empirical test? One (...)
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  8. A Non-Monotonic Logic as a Pattern of Reasoning in the Unfavorable Conditions.Anna Wojtowicz & Marcin Trepczynski - 2011 - Filozofia Nauki 19 (2):99.
  9.  57
    Non-Monotonic Reasoning From an Evolution-Theoretic Perspective: Ontic, Logical and Cognitive Foundations.Gerhard Schurz - 2005 - Synthese 146 (1-2):37-51.
    In the first part I argue that normic laws are the phenomenological laws of evolutionary systems. If this is true, then intuitive human reasoning should be fit in reasoning from normic laws. In the second part I show that system P is a tool for reasoning with normic laws which satisfies two important evolutionary standards: it is probabilistically reliable, and it has rules of low complexity. In the third part I finally report results of an experimental study which demonstrate that (...)
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  10.  40
    Modeling Generalized Implicatures Using Non-Monotonic Logics.Jacques Wainer - 2007 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 16 (2):195-216.
    This paper reports on an approach to model generalized implicatures using nonmonotonic logics. The approach, called compositional, is based on the idea of compositional semantics, where the implicatures carried by a sentence are constructed from the implicatures carried by its constituents, but it also includes some aspects nonmonotonic logics in order to model the defeasibility of generalized implicatures.
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  11. A Non-Monotonic Description Logic for Reasoning About Typicality.L. Giordano, V. Gliozzi, N. Olivetti & G. L. Pozzato - 2013 - Artificial Intelligence 195:165-202.
  12.  17
    The Discovery/Justification Context Dichotomy Within Formal and Computational Models of Scientific Theories: A Weakening of the Distinction Based on the Perspective of Non-Monotonic Logics.Jorge A. Morales & Mauricio Molina Delgado - 2016 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 26 (4):315-335.
    The present paper analyses the topic of scientific discovery and the problem of the existence of a logical framework involved in such endeavour. We inquire how several non-monotonic logic frameworks and other formalisms can account for such a task. In the same vein, we analyse some key aspects of the historical and theoretical debate surrounding scientific discovery, in particular, the context of discovery and context of justification context distinction. We present an argument concerning the weakening of the discovery/justification (...)
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  13.  2
    Handling and Measuring Inconsistency in Non-Monotonic Logics.Markus Ulbricht, Matthias Thimm & Gerhard Brewka - 2020 - Artificial Intelligence 286:103344.
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  14.  20
    Algebraic Semantics for Modal and Superintuitionistic Non-Monotonic Logics.David Pearce & Levan Uridia - 2013 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 23 (1-2):147-158.
    The paper provides a preliminary study of algebraic semantics for modal and superintuitionistic non-monotonic logics. The main question answered is: how can non-monotonic inference be understood algebraically?
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  15.  9
    Inconsistency-Adaptive Logies and the Foundation of Non-Monotonic Logic.Diderik Batens - 1994 - Logique Et Analyse 145:57-94.
  16.  58
    Many-Valued Non-Monotonic Modal Logics.Melvin Fitting - unknown
    Among non-monotonic systems of reasoning, non-monotonic modal logics, and autoepistemic logic in particular, have had considerable success. The presence of explicit modal operators allows flexibility in the embedding of other approaches. Also several theoretical results of interest have been established concerning these logics. In this paper we introduce non-monotonic modal logics based on many-valued logics, rather than on classical logic. This extends earlier work of ours on many-valued modal logics. Intended applications are to situations involving (...)
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  17.  4
    On the Parameterized Complexity of Non-Monotonic Logics.Arne Meier, Irina Schindler, Johannes Schmidt, Michael Thomas & Heribert Vollmer - 2015 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 54 (5-6):685-710.
    We investigate the application of Courcelle’s theorem and the logspace version of Elberfeld et al. in the context of non-monotonic reasoning. Here we formalize the implication problem for propositional sets of formulas, the extension existence problem for default logic, the expansion existence problem for autoepistemic logic, the circumscriptive inference problem, as well as the abduction problem in monadic second order logic and thereby obtain fixed-parameter time and space efficient algorithms for these problems. On the other hand, (...)
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  18. Non-Monotonic Extensions of Logic Programming 2nd International Workshop, Nmelp '96, Bad Honnef, Germany, September 5-6, 1996 : Selected Papers'. [REVIEW]J. Dix, Luís Moniz Pereira & Teodor C. Przymusinski - 1997
     
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  19. The Preferential-Models Approach to Non-Monotonic Logics.Philippe Besnard & Pierre Siegel - 1988 - In Philippe Smets (ed.), Non-Standard Logics for Automated Reasoning. Academic Press. pp. 137--161.
     
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  20.  28
    Local Logics, Non-Monotonicity and Defeasible Argumentation.Gustavo A. Bodanza & Fernando A. Tohmé - 2004 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 14 (1):1-12.
    In this paper we present an embedding of abstract argumentation systems into the framework of Barwise and Seligmans logic of information flow. We show that, taking P.M. Dungs characterization of argument systems, a local logic over states of a deliberation may be constructed. In this structure, the key feature of non-monotonicity of commonsense reasoning obtains as the transition from one local logic to another, due to a change in certain background conditions. Each of Dungs extensions of argument (...)
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  21. Non-Monotonic Reasoning: Logical Architecture and Philosophical Applications.Yao-Hua Tan - 1992 - Amsterdam, Netherlands: Drukkerij Elinkwijk.
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  22. The Non-Monotonic NonFregean Logic.Anna Wojtowicz - 2011 - Filozofia Nauki 19 (2):105.
  23.  6
    A Logic of Non-Monotonic Interactions.Giovanni Boniolo, Marcello DʼAgostino, Mario Piazza & Gabriele Pulcini - 2013 - Journal of Applied Logic 11 (1):52-62.
  24. A Note on Non-Monotonic Modal Logic.Robert Stalnaker - 1993 - Artificial Intelligence 64 (2):183-196.
  25.  50
    Non-Monotonic Set Theory as a Pragmatic Foundation of Mathematics.Peter Verdée - 2013 - Foundations of Science 18 (4):655-680.
    In this paper I propose a new approach to the foundation of mathematics: non-monotonic set theory. I present two completely different methods to develop set theories based on adaptive logics. For both theories there is a finitistic non-triviality proof and both theories contain (a subtle version of) the comprehension axiom schema. The first theory contains only a maximal selection of instances of the comprehension schema that do not lead to inconsistencies. The second allows for all the instances, also the (...)
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  26.  2
    Non-Monotonic Reasoning with Normative Conflicts in Multi-Agent Deontic Logic.M. Beirlaen & C. Strasser - 2013 - Journal of Logic and Computation 24 (6):1179–1207.
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  27. Logic Programming and Non-Monotonic Reasoning Proceedings of the First International Workshop.Wiktor Marek, Anil Nerode, V. S. Subrahmanian & Association for Logic Programming - 1991
     
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  28.  13
    Monotonic and Non-Monotonic Embeddings of Anselm’s Proof.Jacob Archambault - 2017 - Logica Universalis 11 (1):121-138.
    A consequence relation \ is monotonic iff for premise sets \ and conclusion \, if \, \, then \; and non-monotonic if this fails in some instance. More plainly, a consequence relation is monotonic when whatever is entailed by a premise set remains entailed by any of its supersets. From the High Middle Ages through the Early Modern period, consequence in theology is assumed to be monotonic. Concomitantly, to the degree the argument formulated by Anselm at (...)
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  29.  77
    Non-Monotonic Probability Theory and Photon Polarization.Fred Kronz - 2007 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 36 (4):449-472.
    A non-monotonic theory of probability is put forward and shown to have applicability in the quantum domain. It is obtained simply by replacing Kolmogorov's positivity axiom, which places the lower bound for probabilities at zero, with an axiom that reduces that lower bound to minus one. Kolmogorov's theory of probability is monotonic, meaning that the probability of A is less then or equal to that of B whenever A entails B. The new theory violates monotonicity, as its name (...)
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  30.  95
    Adams Conditionals and Non-Monotonic Probabilities.Richard Bradley - 2006 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 15 (1-2):65-81.
    Adams' famous thesis that the probabilities of conditionals are conditional probabilities is incompatible with standard probability theory. Indeed it is incompatible with any system of monotonic conditional probability satisfying the usual multiplication rule for conditional probabilities. This paper explores the possibility of accommodating Adams' thesis in systems of non-monotonic probability of varying strength. It shows that such systems impose many familiar lattice theoretic properties on their models as well as yielding interesting logics of conditionals, but that a standard (...)
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  31.  34
    Non Monotonic Reasoning and Belief Revision: Syntactic, Semantic, Foundational and Coherence Approaches.Alvaro del Val - 1997 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 7 (1-2):213-240.
    ABSTRACT The major approaches to belief revision and non monotonic reasoning proposed in the literature differ along a number of dimensions, including whether they are “syntax- based” or “semantic-based”, “foundational” or “coherentist”, “consistence-restoring” or “inconsistency-tolerant”. Our contribution towards clarifying the connections between these various approaches is threefold: •We show that the two main approaches to belief revision, the foundations and coherence theories, are mathematically equivalent, thus answering a question left open in [Gar90, Doy92], The distinction between syntax-based approaches to (...)
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  32.  59
    Non-Monotonic Inference.Keith Frankish - 2005 - In Alex Barber (ed.), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Elsevier.
    In most logical systems, inferences cannot be invalidated simply by the addition of new premises. If an inference can be drawn from a set of premises S, then it can also be drawn from any larger set incorporrating S. The truth of the original premises guarantees the truth of the inferred conclusion, and the addition of extra premises cannot undermine it. This property is known as monotonicity. Nonmonotonic inference lacks this property. The conclusions drawn are provisional, and new information may (...)
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  33. Circumscription: Formalization of Non-Monotonic Reasoning in Second Order Logic.Michal Tyburski - 2009 - Filozofia Nauki 17 (1):107.
  34. Redundancy in Logic III: Non-Monotonic Reasoning.Paolo Liberatore - 2008 - Artificial Intelligence 172 (11):1317-1359.
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  35.  63
    Relevance Sensitive Non-Monotonic Inference on Belief Sequences.Samir Chopra, Konstantinos Georgatos & Rohit Parikh - 2001 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 11 (1-2):131-150.
    We present a method for relevance sensitive non-monotonic inference from belief sequences which incorporates insights pertaining to prioritized inference and relevance sensitive, inconsistency tolerant belief revision. Our model uses a finite, logically open sequence of propositional formulas as a representation for beliefs and defines a notion of inference from maxiconsistent subsets of formulas guided by two orderings: a temporal sequencing and an ordering based on relevance relations between the putative conclusion and formulas in the sequence. The relevance relations are (...)
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  36.  19
    Non Monotonic Reasoning and Belief Revision: Syntactic, Semantic, Foundational and Coherence Approaches.Alvaro del Val - 1997 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 7 (1-2):213-240.
    ABSTRACT The major approaches to belief revision and non monotonic reasoning proposed in the literature differ along a number of dimensions, including whether they are ?syntax- based? or ?semantic-based?, ?foundational? or ?coherentist?, ?consistence-restoring? or ?inconsistency-tolerant?. Our contribution towards clarifying the connections between these various approaches is threefold: ?We show that the two main approaches to belief revision, the foundations and coherence theories, are mathematically equivalent, thus answering a question left open in [Gar90, Doy92], The distinction between syntax-based approaches to (...)
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  37.  12
    Game Semantics for Non-Monotonic Intensional Logic Programming.Chrysida Galanaki, Christos Nomikos & Panos Rondogiannis - 2017 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 168 (2):234-253.
  38.  17
    A Non-Monotonic Intensional Framework for Framing Effects.Silvia Lerner - 2014 - Journal of Economic Methodology 21 (1):37-53.
    Expected Utility Theory (EUT) has anomalies when interpreted descriptively and tested empirically. Experiments show that the way in which options are formulated is, in most cases, relevant for decision-making. This kind of anomaly is directly related, however, not with a proper axiom of EUT but rather with the logical principle of extensionality and its decision theoretic version: the principle of invariance. This paper focuses on the phenomenon of framing effects (FE) and the associated failures of invariance. FE arise when different (...)
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  39.  25
    Non-Monotonicity and Informal Reasoning: Comment on Ferguson (2003).Mike Oaksford & Ulrike Hahn - 2006 - Argumentation 20 (2):245-251.
    In this paper, it is argued that Ferguson’s (2003, Argumentation 17, 335–346) recent proposal to reconcile monotonic logic with defeasibility has three counterintuitive consequences. First, the conclusions that can be derived from his new rule of inference are vacuous, a point that as already made against default logics when there are conflicting defaults. Second, his proposal requires a procedural “hack” to the break the symmetry between the disjuncts of the tautological conclusions to which his proposal leads. Third, Ferguson’s (...)
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  40.  4
    Logic of Non-Monotonic Interactive Proofs.Simon Kramer - 2013 - In Kamal Lodaya (ed.), Logic and its Applications. Springer. pp. 173--184.
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  41.  31
    Probabilistic Single Function Dual Process Theory and Logic Programming as Approaches to Non-Monotonicity in Human Vs. Artificial Reasoning.Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater - 2014 - Thinking and Reasoning 20 (2):269-295.
  42.  69
    Ancient Indian Logic as a Theory of Non-Monotonic Reasoning.Claus Oetke - 1996 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 24 (5):447-539.
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  43. Why Friedman's Non-Monotonic Reasoning Defies Hempel's Covering Law Model.M. C. W. Janssen & Y. -H. Tan - 1991 - Synthese 86 (2):255 - 284.
    In this paper we will show that Hempel's covering law model can't deal very well with explanations that are based on incomplete knowledge. In particular the symmetry thesis, which is an important aspect of the covering law model, turns out to be problematic for these explanations. We will discuss an example of an electric circuit, which clearly indicates that the symmetry of explanation and prediction does not always hold. It will be argued that an alternative logic for causal explanation (...)
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  44.  73
    A Non Monotonic Reasoning Framework for Goal-Oriented Knowledge Adaptation.Antonio Lieto, Federico Perrone, Gian Luca Pozzato & Eleonora Chiodino - 2019 - In Paglieri (ed.), Proceedings of AISC 2019. Rome: Università degli Studi di Roma Tre. pp. 12-14.
    In this paper we present a framework for the dynamic and automatic generation of novel knowledge obtained through a process of commonsense reasoning based on typicality-based concept combination. We exploit a recently introduced extension of a Description Logic of typicality able to combine prototypical descriptions of concepts in order to generate new prototypical concepts and deal with problem like the PET FISH (Osherson and Smith, 1981; Lieto & Pozzato, 2019). Intuitively, in the context of our application of this (...), the overall pipeline of our system works as follows: given a goal expressed as a set of properties, if the knowledge base does not contain a concept able to fulfill all these properties, then our system looks for two concepts to recombine in order to extend the original knowledge based satisfy the goal. (shrink)
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  45.  17
    Modelling Reasoning Processes in Natural Agents: A Partial-Worlds-Based Logical Framework for Elemental Non-Monotonic Inferences and Learning.Christel Grimaud - 2016 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 26 (4):251-285.
    In this paper we address the modelling of reasoning processes in natural agents. We focus on a very basic kind of non-monotonic inference for which we identify a simple and plausible underlying process, and we develop a family of logical models that allow to match this process. Partial worlds models, as we call them, are a variant of Kraus, Lehmann and Magidor’s cumulative models. We show that the inference relations they induce form a strict subclass of cumulative relations and (...)
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  46.  37
    Non-Monotonic Formalisms.Richmond H. Thomason - unknown
    I will try to do three things in this paper. First, I want to situate certain problems in natural language semantics with respect to larger trends in logicism, including: (i) Attempts by positivist philosophers earlier in this century to provide a logical basis for the physical sciences; (ii) Attempts by linguists and logicians to develop a “natural language ontology” (and, presumably, a logical language that is related to this ontology by formally explicit rules) that would serve as a framework for (...)
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  47.  20
    Modal Logic Based Theory for Non-Monotonic Reasoning.Pierre Siegel & Camilla Schwind - 1993 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 3 (1):73-92.
    ABSTRACT This paper defines a new modal logic based theory for non-monotonic reasoning. This logic expresses notions about hypotheses and known information. These notions are defined in the framework of the modal system τ. A translation of default logic in terms of hypothesis theory is given with which it is possible to fully characterize default logic by giving a necessary and sufficient criterion for the existence and the non-existence of extensions. Moreover several problems relating to (...)
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  48. A Semantic Approach to Non-Monotonic Conditionals.James Hawthorne - 1988 - In J. F. Lemmer & L. N. Kanal (eds.), Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence 2. Elsevier.
    Any inferential system in which the addition of new premises can lead to the retraction of previous conclusions is a non-monotonic logic. Classical conditional probability provides the oldest and most widely respected example of non-monotonic inference. This paper presents a semantic theory for a unified approach to qualitative and quantitative non-monotonic logic. The qualitative logic is unlike most other non- monotonic logics developed for AI systems. It is closely related to classical (i.e., Bayesian) (...)
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  49.  9
    Why Friedman's Non-Monotonic Reasoning Defies Hempel's Covering Law Model.M. C. W. Janssen & Y. Tan - 1991 - Synthese 86 (2):255-284.
    In this paper we will show that Hempel's covering law model can't deal very well with explanations that are based on incomplete knowledge. In particular the symmetry thesis, which is an important aspect of the covering law model, turns out to be problematic for these explanations. We will discuss an example of an electric circuit, which clearly indicates that the symmetry of explanation and prediction does not always hold. It will be argued that an alternative logic for causal explanation (...)
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  50.  55
    Ordinal Analysis of Non-Monotone-Definable Inductive Definitions.Wolfram Pohlers - 2008 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 156 (1):160-169.
    Exploiting the fact that -definable non-monotone inductive definitions have the same closure ordinal as arbitrary arithmetically definable monotone inductive definitions, we show that the proof theoretic ordinal of an axiomatization of -definable non-monotone inductive definitions coincides with the proof theoretic ordinal of the theory of arithmetically definable monotone inductive definitions.
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