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  1. Michael Albrecht (1994). Kants Maximenethik und ihre Begründung. Kant-Studien 85 (2):129-146.
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  2. Audrey L. Anton (2006). Duty and Inclination. Southwest Philosophy Review 22 (1):199-207.
  3. Mavis Biss (2015). Kantian Moral Striving. Kantian Review 20 (1):1-23.
    This paper focuses on a single question that highlights some of the most puzzling aspects of Kants disposition to duty, or strength of will? I argue that a dominant strand of Kant’s approach to moral striving does not fit familiar models of striving. I seek to address this problem in a way that avoids the flaws of synchronic and atomistic approaches to moral self-discipline by developing an account of Kantian moral striving as an ongoing contemplative activity complexly engaged with multiple (...)
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  4. Susanne Bobzien (2013). Kant's Categories of Freedom. In Kant - Analysen, Probleme, Kritik (English translation of 1988 article).
    ABSTRACT: A general interpretation and close textual analysis of Kant’s theory of the categories of freedom (or categories of practical reason) in his Critique of Practical Reason. My main concerns in the paper are the following: (1) I show that Kant’s categories of freedom have primarily three functions: as conditions of the possibility for actions (i) to be free, (ii) to be comprehensible as free and (iii) to be morally evaluated. (2) I show that for Kant actions, although qua theoretical (...)
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  5. Matthew Braham & Martin van Hees (2015). The Formula of Universal Law: A Reconstruction. Erkenntnis 80 (2):243-260.
    This paper provides a methodologically original construction of Kant’s “Formula of Universal Law” . A formal structure consisting of possible worlds and games—a “game frame”—is used to implement Kant’s concept of a maxim and to define the two tests FUL comprises: the “contradiction in conception” and “contradiction in the will” tests. The paper makes two contributions. Firstly, the model provides a formal account of the variables that are built into FUL: agents, maxims, intentions, actions, and outcomes. This establishes a clear (...)
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  6. Talbot Brewer (2001). Rethinking Our Maxims: Perceptual Salience and Practical Judgment in Kantian Ethics. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 4 (3):219-230.
    Some contemporary Kantians have argued that one could not be virtuous without having internalized certain patterns of awareness that permit one to identify and respond reliably to moral reasons for action. I agree, but I argue that this insight requires unrecognized, farreaching, and thoroughly welcome changes in the traditional Kantian understanding of maxims and virtues. In particular, it implies that one''s characteristic emotions and desires will partly determine one''s maxims, and hence the praiseworthiness of one''s actions. I try to show (...)
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  7. Paul Dietrichson (1964). When is a Maxim Fully Universalizable ? Kant-Studien 55 (1-4):143-170.
  8. Cristian Dimitriu (2013). The practical interpretation of the categorical imperative: A defense. Ideas Y Valores 62 (151):105-113.
    The article compares two different interpretations of Kant's categorical imperative −the practical and the logical one− and defends the practical one, arguing that it is superior because it rejects cases of free riding without necessarily rejecting cases of coordination or timing. The logical interpretation, on the other hand, leads to the undesirable outcome that it does not reject immoral cases of free riding, and to the desired outcome that it does not reject maxims of coordination/timing. Given that neither of them (...)
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  9. David Forman (2013). Appetimus Sub Ratione Boni: Kant’s Practical Principles Between Crusius and Leibniz. In Stefano Bacin, Alfredo Ferrarin, Claudio La Rocca & Margit Ruffing (eds.), Kant und die Philosophie in weltbürgerlicher Absicht. De Gruyter 323-334.
  10. David Forman (2012). Principled and Unprincipled Maxims. Kant-Studien 103 (3):318-336.
    Kant frequently speaks as if all voluntary actions arise from our maxims as the subjective principles of our practical reason. But, as Michael Albrecht has pointed out, Kant also occasionally speaks as if it is only the rare person of “character” who acts according to principles or maxims. I argue that Kant’s seemingly contradictory claims on this front result from the fact that there are two fundamentally different ways that maxims of action can figure in the deliberation of the agent: (...)
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  11. Richard Galvin (2011). Maxims and Practical Contradictions. History of Philosophy Quarterly 28 (4):407.
  12. Rob Gressis (2010). Recent Work on Kantian Maxims I: Established Approaches. Philosophy Compass 5 (3):216-227.
    Maxims play a crucial role in Kant's ethical philosophy, but there is significant disagreement about what maxims are. In this two-part essay, I survey eight different views of Kantian maxims, presenting their strengths, and their weaknesses. Part I: Established Approaches, begins with Rüdiger Bubner's view that Kant took maxims to be what ordinary people of today take them to be, namely pithily expressed precepts of morality or prudence. Next comes the position, most associated with Rüdiger Bittner and Otfried Höffe, that (...)
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  13. Rob Gressis (2010). Recent Work on Kantian Maxims II. Philosophy Compass 5 (3):228-239.
    Maxims play a crucial role in Kant's ethical philosophy, but there is significant disagreement about what maxims are. In this two-part essay, I survey eight different views of Kantian maxims, presenting their strengths and their weaknesses. In Part II: New Approaches, I look at three more recent views in somewhat greater detail than I do the five treatments canvassed in 'Recent Works on Kantian Maxims I: Established Approaches'. First, there is Richard McCarty's Interpretation, which holds that Kant's understanding of maxims (...)
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  14. Otfried Höffe (2009). The Form of the Maxim as the Determining Ground of the Will (The Critique of Practical Reason: §§ 4–6, 27–30). In Karl Ameriks, Otfried Höffe & Nicolas Walker (eds.), Kant's Moral and Legal Philosophy. Cambridge University Press
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  15. Ryan Kemp (2011). The Contingency of Evil: Rethinking the Problem of Universal Evil in Kant's 'Religion'. In Oliver Thorndike (ed.), Rethinking Kant: Volume 3. Cambridge Scholars
    In this paper I explore how three seemingly incompatible Kantian theses–a libertarian notion of freedom, the inscrutability of one’s fundamental moral maxim, and the ubiquity of evil–can each be maintained without contradiction. I do this by arguing against the popular notion that in his 'Religion within the Bounds of Mere Reason,' Kant attributes 'radical evil' to all human beings.
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  16. Leroy E. Loemker (1973). The Metaphysical Status of Regulative Maxims in Leibniz and Kant. Southern Journal of Philosophy 11 (1-2):141-147.
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  17. Richard R. McCarty (2006). Maxims in Kant's Practical Philosophy. Journal of the History of Philosophy 44 (1):65-83.
    : A standard interpretation of Kantian "maxims" sees them as expressing reasons for action, implying that we cannot act without a maxim. But recent challenges to this interpretation claim that Kant viewed acting on maxims as optional. Kant's understanding of maxims derives from Christian Wolff, who regarded maxims as major premises of the practical syllogism. This supports the standard interpretation. Yet Kant also viewed commitments to maxims as essential for virtue and character development, which supports challenges to the standard interpretation, (...)
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  18. Ray Nichols (1996). Maxims, "Practical Wisdom," and the Language of Action: Beyond Grand Theory. Political Theory 24 (4):687-705.
    Only among barbarians is practice alone recognized in politics.Alexis de Tocqueville.
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  19. Sven Nyholm (forthcoming). Do We Always Act on Maxims? Kantian Review.
    It is commonly thought that on Kant’s view of action, ‘everyone always acts on maxims.’ Call this the ‘descriptive reading.’ This reading faces two important problems: first, the idea that people always act on maxims offends against common sense: it clashes with our ordinary ideas about human agency. Second, there are various passages in which Kant says that it is ‘rare’ and ‘admirable’ to firmly adhere to a set of basic principles that we adopt for ourselves. This article offers an (...)
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  20. Sven Nyholm (2015). Kant's Universal Law Formula Revisited. Metaphilosophy 46 (2):280-299.
    Kantians are increasingly deserting the universal law formula in favor of the humanity formula. The former, they argue, is open to various decisive objections; the two are not equivalent; and it is only by appealing to the humanity formula that Kant can reliably generate substantive implications from his theory of an acceptable sort. These assessments of the universal law formula, which clash starkly with Kant's own assessment of it, are based on various widely accepted interpretative assumptions. These assumptions, it is (...)
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  21. James R. O'Shea (1997). The Needs of Understanding: Kant on Empirical Laws and Regulative Ideals. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 5 (2):216 – 254.
    This article examines the relationship in Kant between transcendental laws and empirical laws (focusing on causal laws), and then brings a particular interpretation of that issue to bear on familiar puzzles concerning the status of the regulative maxims of reason and reflective judgment. It is argued that the 'indeterminate objective validity' possessed by the regulative maxims derives ultimately from strictly constitutive demands of understanding.
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  22. Laura Papish (2007). The Cultivation of Sensibility in Kant's Moral Philosophy. Kantian Review 12 (2):128-146.
    In his later moral writings Kant claims that we have a duty to cultivate certain aspects of our sensuous nature. This claim is surprising for three reasons. First, given Kant’s ‘incorporation thesis’ − which states that the only sensible states capable of determining our actions are those that we willingly introduce and integrate into our maxims − it would seem that the content of our inclinations is morally irrelevant. Second, the exclusivity between the passivity that is characteristic of sensibility and (...)
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  23. Robert B. Pippin (2001). Review: Guyer, Kant on Freedom, Law, and Happiness; A Mandatory Reading of Kant's Ethics?. [REVIEW] Philosophical Quarterly 51 (204):386–393.
    Kant on Freedom, Law, and Happiness. BY PAUL GUYER. (Cambridge UP, 2000. Pp. xii + 440. Price £12.95 or $19.95.) At the beginning of his Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant claims that an ordinary view of morality would have it that moral experience is essentially the experience of obligation. There are clearly occasions, he notes, when our own and others’ interests would be greatly damaged were we to do what is morally required, and when no gain in satisfaction, (...)
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  24. Robert B. Pippin (2001). Review: Guyer, Kant on Freedom, Law, and Happiness; A Mandatory Reading of Kant's Ethics? [REVIEW] Philosophical Quarterly 51 (204):386 - 393.
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  25. Nelson Potter (1994). Maxims in Kant's Moral Philosophy. Philosophia 23 (1-4):59-90.
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  26. Nelson Thomas Potter (1969). Maxims and the Application of the Categorical Imperative. Dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University
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  27. Alexander R. Pruss, Kantian Maxims and Lying.
              Kant has claimed that lying is always wrong, even in response to a question from a murderer about the whereabouts of his intended victim. Christine Korsgaard has argued that although Kant’s second and third formulations in terms of respect for the humanity in persons and in terms of the Kingdom of Ends of the Categorical Imperative (CI) commit him to this claim, the first formulation in terms of universalizability does..
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  28. Tamar Schapiro (2011). Foregrounding Desire: A Defense of Kant's Incorporation Thesis. Journal of Ethics 15 (3):147-167.
    In this paper I defend Kant’s Incorporation Thesis, which holds that we must “incorporate” our incentives into our maxims if we are to act on them. I see this as a thesis about what is necessary for a human being to make the transition from ‘having a desire’ to ‘acting on it’. As such, I consider the widely held view that ‘having a desire’ involves being focused on the world, and not on ourselves or on the desire. I try to (...)
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  29. Jamsheed Siyar (2013). The Conditionality of Hypothetical Imperatives. Kantian Review 18 (3):439-460.
    Kant famously distinguishes between the categorical imperative (CI) and hypothetical imperatives (HIs), which are instrumental norms. On the standard reading, Kant subscribes to the of HIs, which takes HIs to be consistency requirements that bind agents in exactly the same way whether or not agents are subject to CI and whether or not they conform their choices to CI. I argue that this reading cannot be squared with Kant's account of an agent's disposition, in particular his claim that cognition of (...)
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  30. Jens Timmermann (2000). Kant's Puzzling Ethics of Maxims. The Harvard Review of Philosophy 8 (1):39-52.
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  31. Jonathan Webber (2012). A Law Unto Oneself. Philosophical Quarterly 62 (246):170-189.
    We should understand the concept of self-legislation that is central to Kant's moral philosophy not in terms of the enactment of statute, but in terms of the way in which judges make law, by setting down and refining precedent through particular judgements. This paper presents a descriptive model of agency based on self-legislation so understood, and argues that we can read Kant's normative ethics as based on this view of agency. It is intended to contribute to contemporary debates in moral (...)
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  32. Kenneth R. Westphal (2010). Practical Reason: Categorical Imperative, Maxims, Laws. In W. Dudley & K. Engelhard (eds.), Kant: Key Concepts. Acumen
    This chapter considers the centrality of principles in Kant’s moral philosophy, their distinctively ‘Kantian’ character, why Kant presents a ‘metaphysical’ system of moral principles and how these ‘formal’ principles are to be used in practice. These points are central to how Kant thinks pure reason can be practical. These features have often puzzled Anglophone readers, in part due to focusing on Kant’s Groundwork, to the neglect of his later works in moral philosophy, in which the theoretical preliminaries of that first (...)
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