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  1. Karl Ameriks (2004). Kant i problem motywacji moralnej. Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 52 (4):167-182.
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  2. Marcia Baron (1984). The Alleged Moral Repugnance of Acting From Duty. Journal of Philosophy 81 (4):197-220.
    Friends as well as foes of Kant have long been uneasy over his emphasis on duty, but lately the view that there is something morally repugnant about acting from duty seems to be gaining in popularity. More and more philosophers indicate their readiness to jettison duty and the moral 'ought' and to conceive of the perfectly moral person as someone who has all the right desires and acts accordingly without any notion that (s)he ought to act in this way. Elsewhere' (...)
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  3. Anne Margaret Baxley (2010). The Aesthetics of Morality: Schiller's Critique of Kantian Rationalism. Philosophy Compass 5 (12):1084-1095.
  4. Anne Margaret Baxley (2007). Kantian Virtue. Philosophy Compass 2 (3):396–410.
  5. Mavis Biss (forthcoming). Kantian Moral Striving. Kantian Review.
    In this paper I argue that a dominant strand of Kant’s approach to moral striving in the Doctrine of Virtue does not fit familiar models of striving in that Kant makes it very difficult to conceptualize a fit between the end of moral perfection and the means that could be taken to pursue “strengthened” maxims. I outline a revised account of moral contemplation that addresses my worry regarding means-end fit. My account corrects notable deficiencies in existing approaches to Kantian moral (...)
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  6. Maria Borges (2008). Physiology and the Controlling of Affects in Kant's Philosophy. Kantian Review 13 (2):46-66.
  7. Samuel V. Bruton (2003). Review: Stratton-Lake, Kant, Duty and Moral Worth. Utilitas 15 (02):248-.
  8. Paul Carus (1908). Mr. Spencer's Hedonism and Kant's Ethics of Duty. The Monist 18 (2):306-315.
  9. Kelly Coble (2007). How Compatibilists Can Account for the Moral Motive: Autonomy and Metaphysical Internalism. Kant-Studien 98 (3):329-350.
  10. Sr Mary Bernard Curran (2009). What is Pure, What is Good? Disinterestedness in Fénelon and Kant. Heythrop Journal 50 (2):195-205.
  11. Lara Denis (2000). Kant's Cold Sage and the Sublimity of Apathy. Kantian Review 4:48-73.
    Some Kantian ethicists, myself included, have been trying to show how, contrary to popular belief, Kant makes an important place in his moral theory for emotions–especially love and sympathy. This paper confronts claims of Kant that seem to endorse an absence of sympathetic emotions. I analyze Kant’s accounts of different sorts of emotions (“affects,” “passions,” and “feelings”), and different sorts of emotional coolness (“apathy,” “self-mastery,” and “cold-bloodedness”). I focus on the particular way that Kant praises apathy, as “sublime,” in order (...)
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  12. Heiner F. Klemme Dieter Schönecker & Manfred Kuehn (eds.) (2006). “Practical Reason and Motivational Scepticism”, in Heiner F. Klemme, Manfred Kuehn, Dieter Schönecker, Eds., Moralische Motivation. Kant Und Die Alternativen. Kant-Forschungen. [REVIEW] Felix Meiner Verlag.
  13. Paul Dietrichson (1962). What Does Kant Mean by 'Acting From Duty'? Kant-Studien 53 (1-4):277-288.
  14. Corey W. Dyck (2009). Review: Guyer, Knowledge, Reason, and Taste: Kant's Response to Hume. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Social Criticism 35 (5):613-619.
  15. R. Z. Friedman (1984). The Importance and Function of Kant's Highest Good. Journal of the History of Philosophy 22 (3):325-342.
  16. Patrick Frierson, Kant's Empirical Psychology.
    This book offers a detailed explanation and analysis of Kant’s empirical psychology and applies that analysis to thinking through several particular issues in Kant’s philosophy more generally. Kant is one of the most important and widely discussed philosophers today and Oxford has a long tradition of publishing excellent monographs on Kant's philosophy (including, for example, recent books such as Robert Hanna’s Kant, Science, and Human Nature and Robert Louden’s Kant's Impure Ethics).
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  17. Jeanine Grenberg (1999). Anthropology From a Metaphysical Point of View. Journal of the History of Philosophy 37 (1):91-115.
    I argue that there can be, on Kant's account, a significant motivational role for feeling in moral action. I first discuss and reject Andrews Reath's claim that Kant is forced to disallow a motivational role for feeling because of his rejection of moral sense theory. I then consider and reject the more general challenge that allowing a role for the influence of feeling on the faculty of desire undermines Kant's commitment to a morality free from anthropological considerations. I conclude by (...)
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  18. John Hare (2011). Kant, The Passions, and The Structure of Moral Motivation. Faith and Philosophy 28 (1):54-70.
    This paper is an account of Kant’s view of the passions, and their place in the structure of moral motivation. The paper lays out the relations Kant sees be­tween feelings, inclinations, affects and passions, by looking at texts in Metaphysics of Morals, Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason, Anthropology, and Lectures on Education. Then it discusses a famous passage in Groundwork about sympathetic inclination, and ends by proposing two ways in which Kant thinks feelings and inclinations enter into moral (...)
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  19. Larry Herrera (2000). Kant on the Moral Triebfeder. Kant-Studien 91 (4):395-410.
  20. Thomas E. Hill (2012). Virtue, Rules, and Justice: Kantian Aspirations. Oup Oxford.
    Thomas E. Hill, Jr., interprets and extends Kant's moral theory in a series of essays that highlight its relevance to contemporary ethics. He introduces the major themes of Kantian ethics and explores its practical application to questions about revolution, prison reform, and forcible interventions in other countries for humanitarian purposes.
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  21. Brad Hooker, Kant's Normative Ethics.
    One central moral idea is that your doing some act is morally permissible only if others’ doing that act would also be morally permissible. There are a number of different ways of developing this idea. One is the suggestion that, before deciding to do some act, you should ask yourself ‘What if everyone did that?’ Another central moral idea is that it is immoral to ‘use’ people.
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  22. Anja Jauernig (2013). Kant's Moral Metaphysics. Philosophical Review 122 (4):651-657.
  23. Andrew B. Johnson (2005). Kant's Empirical Hedonism. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 86 (1):50–63.
  24. Robert Johnson, Merit.
    A few pages into the Groundwork Kant claims that only actions from duty have moral worth.ii Even though as an aside he also says that a dutiful action from sympathy or honor, though lacking in moral worth, "deserves praise and encouragement", it is tempting not to take him very seriously. One suspects that he regards this praise as only a poor and morally insignificant cousin of the esteem reserved for actions from duty. In the end, it seems hard to avoid (...)
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  25. Robert Johnson (1998). Weakness Incorporated. History of Philosophy Quarterly 15 (3):349 - 367.
    Kant held that “an incentive can determine the will [Willkür] to action only so far as the individual has incorporated it into his maxim”, a view dubbed the “Incorporation Thesis” by Henry Allison (hereafter, “IT”). Although many see IT as basic to Kant’s views on agency, it also seems irreconcilable with the possibility of a kind of weakness, the kind exhibited by a person who acts on incentives that run contrary to principles she holds dear. The problem is this: According (...)
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  26. Christine M. Korsgaard, Natural Motives and the Motive of Duty: Hume and Kant on Our Duties to Others.
    In this paper I argue that the ground of this disagreement is different than philosophers have traditionally supposed. On the surface, the disagreement appears to be a matter of substantive moral judgment: Hume admires the sort of person who rushes to the aid of another from motives of sympathy or humanity, while Kant thinks that a person who helps with the thought that it is his duty is the better character. While a moral disagreement of this kind certainly follows from (...)
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  27. Béatrice Longuenesse (2012). Kant's 'I' in 'I Ought To' and Freud's Superego. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 86 (1):19-39.
    There are striking structural similarities between Freud's ego and Kant's transcendental unity of apperception, which for Kant grounds our use of ‘I’ in ‘I think’. There are also striking similarities between Freud's superego and Kant's account of the mental structure that grounds our use of ‘I’ in the moral ‘I ought to’. The paper explores these similarities on three main points: the conflict of motivations internal to the mind, the relation between discursive and pre-discursive representation of moral motivation, and the (...)
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  28. Jacqueline Mariña (1999). Schleiermacher on the Philosopher’s Stone: The Shaping of Schleiermacher’s Early Ethics by the Kantian Legacy. Journal of Religion 79 (2):193-215.
    This article explores the early Schleiermacher's attempts to deal with difficult philosophical problems arising from Kant's ethics, specifically Kant's notion of transcendental freedom. How do we connect a transcendentally free act with the nature of the subject? Insofar as the act is transcendentally free, it cannot be understood in terms of causes, and this means that it cannot be connected with the previous state of the individual before he or she engaged in the act. I work through Schleiermacher's grappling with (...)
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  29. Richard McCarty (1994). Motivation and Moral Choice in Kant's Theory of Rational Agency. Kant-Studien 85 (1):15-31.
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  30. Lydia L. Moland (2008). Commitments of a Divided Self: Authenticity, Autonomy and Change in Korsgaard's Ethics. European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 4 (1):25-44.
    Christine Korsgaard attempts to reinterpret Kantian ethics in a way that might alleviate Bernard Williams’ famous worry that a man cannot save his drowning wife without determining impartially that he may do so. She does this by dividing a reflective self that chooses the commitments that make up an agent’s practical identity from a self defined as a jumble of desires. An agent, she then argues, must act on the commitments chosen by the reflective self on pain of disintegration. Using (...)
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  31. Lydia L. Moland (2003). The Importance of Being Committed. Southwest Philosophy Review 19 (1):215-220.
    A subject’s ethical agency is closely tied up with her particular commitments: her ethnic group, her family, her beliefs, her occupation. The question of how these specific commitments relate to the subject’s actions is therefore pivotal to describing moral agency. Christine Korsgaard has proposed a theory whereby a subject’s commitments are an essential part of her moral agency, namely her practical identity. According to this theory, having commitments is normative, a necessary component of an agent’s respect for her own humanity. (...)
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  32. James Bernard Murphy (2001). Practical Reason and Moral Psychology in Aristotle and Kant. Social Philosophy and Policy 18 (02):257-.
  33. Jeffrie G. Murphy (1967). Kant's Concept of a Right Action. The Monist 51 (4):574-598.
  34. Mark Packer (1983). The Highest Good In Kant's Psychology of Motivation. Idealistic Studies 13 (2):110-119.
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  35. Aguinaldo Pavão (2008). O papel das inclinações na filosofia moral de Kant. Veritas 53 (1).
    Kant’s moral philosophy can be criticized on the basis of the allegation that, requiring an austere disposition for attending to moral obligations, does not leave any room for inclinations. The focus of that reading is found in Groundwork I in which Kant refers to the charitable act of an insensible philanthropist. This passage seems to support the interpretation that morality in Kant requires the suppression of inclinations for an action to have moral value. Hence Schiller’s wellknown criticism of Kant’s rigorism. (...)
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  36. Andrews Reath (1989). Kant's Theory of Moral Sensibility. Respect for the Moral Law and the Influence of Inclination. Kant-Studien 80 (1-4):284-302.
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  37. Brigitte Sassen, Marc Zobrist, Chong-Fuk Lau, Michael Rohlf, Alexei N. Krouglov & Margit Ruffing (2008). Berichte und Diskussionen. Kant Studien 99 (1-4):387.
  38. Dieter Schönecker (2010). Kant über Menschenliebe als moralische Gemütsanlage. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 92 (2):133-175.
    In the Introduction of the Tugendlehre, Kant identifies love of human beings as one of the four moral predispositions that make us receptive to the moral law. We claim that this love is neither benevolence nor the aptitude of the inclination to beneficence in general (both are also called love of human beings); rather it is amor complacentiae, which Kant understands as the delight in moral striving for perfection. We also provide a detailed analysis of Kant's almost completely neglected theory (...)
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  39. D. Sussman (2002). Kant's Theory of Moral Motivation. Philosophical Review 111 (1):116-119.
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  40. Steve Sverdlik, The Availability of Motives.
    Two celebrated passages in Kant center on a problem that is sometimes called the ‘availability’ of motives. One concerns the naturally sympathetic man whose mind becomes “overclouded by sorrows of his own which extinguish all sympathy with the fate of others”. Kant argues that even in this state, when he has no “inclination” to help others, he can do so, since he can act “for the sake of duty alone”.1 The other passage states that the commandment to love our neighbor (...)
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  41. Sergio Tenenbaum (2003). Speculative Mistakes and Ordinary Temptations: Kant on Instrumentalist Conceptions of Practical Reason. History of Philosophy Quarterly 20 (2):203-223.
  42. Mark Timmons (2008). Review: Andrews Reath: Agency and Autonomy in Kant's Moral Theory. [REVIEW] Mind 117 (467):722-727.
  43. Mark Timmons (1985). Kant and the Possibility of Moral Motivation. Southern Journal of Philosophy 23 (3):377-398.
    This paper is divided into three major sections. In section 1, I explain why it is that kant's theory of moral motivation is crucial in developing a certain sort of moral theory in opposition to both the ethical empiricist and the rationalist--A theory of moral reasons I characterize as a "rationalist internalism." in section 2, I present some of the detail of kant's theory of moral motivation, And in particular, The reasons why kant was led to a special a priori (...)
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  44. Owen Ware (2014). Kant on Moral Sensibility and Moral Motivation. Journal of the History of Philosophy 52 (4):727-746.
    Despite Kant’s lasting influence on philosophical accounts of moral motivation, many details of his own position remain elusive. In the Critique of Practical Reason, for example, Kant argues that our recognition of the moral law’s authority must elicit both painful and pleasurable feelings in us. On reflection, however, it is unclear how these effects could motivate us to act from duty. As a result, Kant’s theory of moral sensibility comes under a skeptical threat: the possibility of a morally motivating feeling (...)
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  45. Jeffrey White, Autonomous Reboot: The Challenges of Artificial Moral Agency and the Ends of Machine Ethics.
    Ryan Tonkens (2009) has issued a seemingly impossible challenge, to articulate a comprehensive ethical framework within which artificial moral agents (AMAs) satisfy a Kantian inspired recipe - both "rational" and "free" - while also satisfying perceived prerogatives of Machine Ethics to create AMAs that are perfectly, not merely reliably, ethical. Challenges for machine ethicists have also been presented by Anthony Beavers and Wendell Wallach, who have pushed for the reinvention of traditional ethics in order to avoid "ethical nihilism" due to (...)
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  46. Victoria S. Wike (1993). Does Kant's Ethics Require That the Moral Law Be the Sole Determining Ground of the Will? Journal of Value Inquiry 27 (1):85-92.
  47. Xiaomei Yang (2006). Categorical Imperatives, Moral Requirements, and Moral Motivation. Metaphilosophy 37 (1):112–129.
    Kant has argued that moral requirements are categorical. Kant's claim has been challenged by some contemporary philosophers; this article defends Kant's doctrine. I argue that Kant's claim captures the unique feature of moral requirements. The main arguments against Kant's claim focus on one condition that a categorical imperative must meet: to be independent of desires. I argue that there is another important, but often ignored, condition that a categorical imperative must meet, and this second condition is crucial to understanding why (...)
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  48. Melissa Zinkin (2006). Respect for the Law and the Use of Dynamical Terms in Kant's Theory of Moral Motivation. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 88 (1):31-53.
    Kant's discussion of the feeling of respect presents a puzzle regarding both the precise nature of this feeling and its role in his moral theory as an incentive that motivates us to follow the moral law. If it is a feeling that motivates us to follow the law, this would contradict Kant's view that moral obligation is based on reason alone. I argue that Kant has an account of respect as feeling that is nevertheless not separate from the use of (...)
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  49. Marc Zobrist (2008). Kant's Doctrine of the Higest Good and the Question of Moral Motives. Kant-Studien 99 (3):285-311.
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