Search results for 'Vitalism' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Sebastian Normandin & Charles T. Wolfe (2013). Vitalism and the Scientific Image: An Introduction. In Sebastian Normandin & Charles T. Wolfe (eds.), Vitalism and the scientific image, 1800-2010. Springer
    Introduction to edited volume on vitalism and/in the life sciences, 1800-2010.
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  2.  21
    Charles T. Wolfe & Motoichi Terada (2008). The Animal Economy as Object and Program in Montpellier Vitalism. Science in Context 21 (4):537.
    Our aim in this paper is to bring to light the importance of the notion of économie animale in Montpellier vitalism, as a hybrid concept which brings together the structural and functional dimensions of the living body – dimensions which hitherto had primarily been studied according to a mechanistic model, or were discussed within the framework of Stahlian animism. The celebrated image of the bee-swarm expresses this structural-functional understanding of living bodies quite well: “One sees them press against each (...)
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  3.  5
    Thomas Osborne (forthcoming). Vitalism as Pathos. Biosemiotics:1-21.
    This paper addresses the remarkable longevity of the idea of vitalism in the biological sciences and beyond. If there is to be a renewed vitalism today, however, we need to ask – on what kind of original conception of life should it be based? This paper argues that recent invocations of a generalized, processual variety of vitalism in the social sciences and humanities above all, however exciting in their scope, miss much of the basic originality – and (...)
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  4. Charles T. Wolfe, The Return of Vitalism: Canguilhem and French Biophilosophy in the 1960s.
    The eminent French biologist and historian of biology, François Jacob, once notoriously declared “On n’interroge plus la vie dans les laboratoires”: laboratory research no longer inquires into the notion of ‘Life’. Nowadays, as David Hull puts it, “both scientists and philosophers take ontological reduction for granted… Organisms are ‘nothing but’ atoms, and that is that.” In the mid-twentieth century, from the immediate post-war period to the late 1960s, French philosophers of science such as Georges Canguilhem, Raymond Ruyer and Gilbert Simondon (...)
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  5.  46
    Charles T. Wolfe (2011). From Substantival to Functional Vitalism and Beyond. Eidos: Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad Del Norte 14:212-235.
    I distinguish between ‘substantival’ and ‘functional’ forms of vitalism in the eighteenth century. Substantival vitalism presupposes the existence of a (substantive) vital force which either plays a causal role in the natural world as studied scientifically, or remains an immaterial, extra-causal entity. Functional vitalism tends to operate ‘post facto’, from the existence of living bodies to the search for explanatory models that will account for their uniquely ‘vital’ properties better than fully mechanistic models can. I discuss representative (...)
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  6. Charles T. Wolfe (2008). Vitalism Without Metaphysics? Medical Vitalism in the Enlightenment. Science in Context 21 (4):461-463.
    This is the introduction to a special issue of 'Science in Context' on vitalism that I edited. The contents are: 1. Guido Giglioni — “What Ever Happened to Francis Glisson? Albrecht Haller and the Fate of Eighteenth-Century Irritability” 2. Dominique Boury— “Irritability and Sensibility: Two Key Concepts in Assessing the Medical Doctrines of Haller and Bordeu” 3. Tobias Cheung — “Regulating Agents, Functional Interactions, and Stimulus-Reaction-Schemes: The Concept of “Organism” in the Organic System Theories of Stahl, Bordeu and Barthez” (...)
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  7.  83
    Bijoy Mukherjee (2012). Experiments and Research Programmes. Revisiting Vitalism/Non-Vitalism Debate in Early Twentieth Century. ARGUMENT 2 (1):171-197.
    Debates in the philosophy of science typically take place around issues such as realism and theory change. Recently, the debate has been reformulated to bring in the role of experiments in the context of theory change. As regards realism, Ian Hacking’s contribution has been to introduce ‘intervention’ as the basis of realism. He also proposed, following Imre Lakatos, to replace the issue of truth with progress and rationality. In this context we examine the case of the vitalism — reductionism (...)
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  8.  19
    Mariam Fraser, Sarah Kember & Celia Lury (eds.) (2006). Inventive Life: Approaches to the New Vitalism. Sage.
    This book demonstrates how and why vitalism—the idea that life cannot be explained by the principles of mechanism—matters now. Vitalism resists closure and reductionism in the life sciences while simultaneously addressing the object of life itself. The aim of this collection is to consider the questions that vitalism makes it possible to ask: questions about the role and status of life across the sciences, social sciences, and humanities and questions about contingency, indeterminacy, relationality and change. All have (...)
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  9.  28
    Charles Wolfe (2013). Vitalism and the Resistance to Experimentation on Life in the Eighteenth Century. Journal of the History of Biology 46 (2):255-282.
    There is a familiar opposition between a ‘Scientific Revolution’ ethos and practice of experimentation, including experimentation on life, and a ‘vitalist’ reaction to this outlook. The former is often allied with different forms of mechanism – if all of Nature obeys mechanical laws, including living bodies, ‘iatromechanism’ should encounter no obstructions in investigating the particularities of animal-machines – or with more chimiatric theories of life and matter, as in the ‘Oxford Physiologists’. The latter reaction also comes in different, perhaps irreducibly (...)
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  10.  46
    Charles T. Wolfe, The Return of Vitalism.
    The eminent French biologist and historian of biology, François Jacob, once notoriously declared "On n‘interroge plus la vie dans les laboratoires": laboratory research no longer inquires into the notion of Life‘. Nowadays, as David Hull puts it, "both scientists and philosophers take ontological reduction for granted… Organisms are ‗nothing but‘ atoms, and that is that." In the mid-twentieth century, from the immediate post-war period to the late 1960s, French philosophers of science such as Georges Canguilhem, Raymond Ruyer and Gilbert Simondon (...)
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  11.  52
    Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino (2011). Ontological Tensions in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Chemistry: Between Mechanism and Vitalism. Foundations of Chemistry 13 (3):173-186.
    The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries marks a period of transition between the vitalistic ontology that had dominated Renaissance natural philosophy and the Early Modern mechanistic paradigm endorsed by, among others, the Cartesians and Newtonians. This paper will focus on how the tensions between vitalism and mechanism played themselves out in the context of sixteenth and seventeenth century chemistry and chemical philosophy, particularly in the works of Paracelsus, Jan Baptista Van Helmont, Robert Fludd, and Robert Boyle. Rather than argue that (...)
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  12.  3
    Charles T. Wolfe (2008). Introduction: Vitalism Without Metaphysics? Medical Vitalism in the Enlightenment. Science in Context 21 (4):461.
    my introduction to special issue of Science in Context on 18c vitalism.
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  13.  2
    Steindór J. Erlingsson (2002). From Haeckelian Monist to Anti-Haeckelian Vitalist: The Transformation of the Icelandic Naturalist Thorvaldur Thoroddsen (1855-1921). [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 35 (3):443 - 470.
    Iceland has not been known as a contributor to the history of science. This small nation in the North-Atlantic has only in recent decades made its mark on international science. But the Icelandic naturalist Thorvaldur Thoroddsen (1855-1921) is an exception to this generalisation, for he was well known at the turn of the 20th century in Europe and America for his research on the geography and geology of Iceland. Though Thoroddsen's contribution to these sciences is of great interest there is (...)
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  14. Frederick Burwick & Paul Douglass (eds.) (1992). The Crisis in Modernism: Bergson and the Vitalist Controversy. Cambridge University Press.
    The modernist movement has been regarded as representing a crisis point in Western thought. This volume looks at that crisis in terms of its reinterpretation of ideas concerning vitalism: the animation of the universe, whether spiritual or based in physical energies) of the universe. Beginning with vitalism's historical background in the enlightenment and the nineteenth century, and moving through scientific, philosophical and literary disciplines, the contributors chart the progress of vitalism and its influence on modernist thought. The (...)
     
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  15.  8
    John E. Drabinski (2011). Donna V. Jones, The Racial Discourses of Life Philosophy: Négritude, Vitalism, and Modernity. Journal of French and Francophone Philosophy 19 (2):180-188.
    An extended discussion of Donna V. Jones, The Racial Discourses of Life Philosophy: Négritude, Vitalism, and Modernity (New York: Columbia University Press, 2010), 217 pp.
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  16.  80
    Charles T. Wolfe (2014). On the Role of Newtonian Analogies in Eighteenth-Century Life Science:Vitalism and Provisionally Inexplicable Explicative Devices. In Zvi Biener & Eric Schliesser (eds.), Newton and Empiricism. Oxford UP 223-261.
    Newton’s impact on Enlightenment natural philosophy has been studied at great length, in its experimental, methodological and ideological ramifications. One aspect that has received fairly little attention is the role Newtonian “analogies” played in the formulation of new conceptual schemes in physiology, medicine, and life science as a whole. So-called ‘medical Newtonians’ like Pitcairne and Keill have been studied; but they were engaged in a more literal project of directly transposing, or seeking to transpose, Newtonian laws into quantitative models of (...)
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  17. William P. Bechtel (1982). Taking Vitalism and Dualism Seriously: Towards a More Adequate Materialism. Nature and System 4 (March-June):23-44.
  18.  9
    Pedro Blas Gonzalez (2002). Biographical Life and Ratio-Vitalism in the Thought of Ortega y Gasset. Philosophy Today 46 (4):406-418.
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  19.  28
    Alessandro Cordelli (2008). Hedwig Conrad-Martius' Phenomenological Approach to Life Sciences and the Question of Vitalism. Axiomathes 18 (4):503-514.
    The philosophy of Hedwig Conrad-Martius represents a very important intersection point between phenomenological research and the natural sciences in the twentieth century. She tried to open a common pattern from the ontology of the physical being up to anthropology, passing from the biological sciences. An intersection point that, for the particular features of her thought, is rather a perspective point from which to observe, in an interesting and original way, both natural sciences and phenomenology. The 1923 essay entitled Real Ontology (...)
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  20. Hans Driesch (1914). The History & Theory of Vitalism. Authorised Translation by C.K. Ogden. Rev. And in Part Re-Written for the English Ed. By the Author. [REVIEW] Macmillan.
     
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  21. G. J. Goodfield (1975). The Growth of Scientific Physiology Physiological Method and the Mechanist-Vitalist Controversy, Illustrated by the Problems of Respiration and Animal Heat.
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  22. C. E. M. Joad (1928). The Future of Life a Theory of Vitalism. G. P. Putnam's Sons.
     
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  23. P. Chalmers Mitchell (1930). Materialism and Vitalism in Biology. Clarendon.
     
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  24.  3
    Sebastian Normandin & Charles T. Wolfe (eds.) (2013). Vitalism and the Scientific Image, 1800-2010. Springer.
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  25.  9
    Charles Wolfe & Andy Wong, The Return of Vitalism: Canguilhem, Bergson and the Project of Biophilosophy.
    The eminent French biologist and historian of biology François Jacob once notoriously declared, “On n’interroge plus la vie dans les laboratoires” : 20-25): laboratory research no longer inquires into the notion of ‘Life’. In the mid-twentieth century, from the immediate post-war period to the late 1960s, French philosophers of science such as Georges Canguilhem, Raymond Ruyer and Gilbert Simondon returned to Jacob’s statement with an odd kind of pathos: they were determined to reverse course. Not by imposing a different kind (...)
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  26. Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent (2009). Self-Assembly, Self-Organization: Nanotechnology and Vitalism. [REVIEW] NanoEthics 3 (1):31-42.
    Over the past decades, self-assembly has attracted a lot of research attention and transformed the relations between chemistry, materials science and biology. The paper explores the impact of the current interest in self-assembly techniques on the traditional debate over the nature of life. The first section describes three different research programs of self-assembly in nanotechnology in order to characterize their metaphysical implications: (1) Hybridization (using the building blocks of living systems for making devices and machines) ; (2) Biomimetics (making artifacts (...)
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  27.  5
    M. Greco (2005). On the Vitality of Vitalism. Theory, Culture and Society 22 (1):15-27.
    The term ‘vitalism’ is most readily associated with a series of debates among 18th- and 19th-century biologists, and broadly with the claim that the explanation of living phenomena is not compatible with, or is not exhausted by, the principles of basic sciences like physics and chemistry. Scientists and philosophers have continued to address vitalism - mostly in order to reject it - well into the second half of the 20th century, in connection with classic concepts such as mechanism, (...)
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  28.  4
    Charles T. Wolfe, From Substantival to Functional Vitalism and Beyond, or From Stahlian Animas to Canguilhemian Attitudes.
    I distinguish between what I call ‘substantival’ and ‘functional’ forms of vitalism in the eighteenth century. Substantival vitalism presupposes the existence of something like a vital force which either plays a causal role in the natural world as studied by scientific means, or remains a kind of hovering, extra-causal entity. Functional vitalism tends to operate ‘post facto’, from the existence of living bodies to the desire to find explanatory models that will do justice to their uniquely ‘vital’ (...)
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  29. Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino, Ontological Tensions in 16th and 17th Century Chemistry: Between Mechanism and Vitalism.
    The 16th and 17th centuries marked a period of transition from the vitalistic ontology that had dominated Renaissance natural philosophy to the Early Modern mechanistic paradigm endorsed by, among others, the Cartesians and Newtonians. This paper focuses on how the tensions between vitalism and mechanism played themselves out in the context of 16th and 17th century chemistry and chemical philosophy. The paper argues that, within the fields of chemistry and chemical philosophy, the significant transition that culminated in the 18th (...)
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  30.  46
    Osamu Kanamori (2005). The Problem of Vitalism Revisited. Angelaki 10 (2):13 – 26.
    (2005). The Problem of Vitalism Revisited. Angelaki: Vol. 10, continental philosophy and the sciences the french tradition issue editor: andrew aitken, pp. 13-26.
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  31.  17
    Rolf Ahlers (2003). Vitalism and System. Idealistic Studies 33 (1):83-113.
    This paper thematizes the crucial agreement and point of departure between Jacobi and Fichte at the height of the “atheism controversy.” The argument on the proper relationship between philosophy and existence or speculation and life had far-reaching consequences in the history of thought after Jacobi and Fichte in German Idealism on the one hand, primarly advocated by Schelling and Hegel, and on the other hand by existentialism and vitalism. The essay focuses first on Jacobi’s philosophy of life, which centrally (...)
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  32.  60
    Brian Jonathan Garrett (2006). What the History of Vitalism Teaches Us About Consciousness and the "Hard Problem". Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 72 (3):576 - 588.
    Daniel Dennett has claimed that if Chalmers' argument for the irreducibility of consciousness were to succeed, an analogous argument would establish the truth of Vitalism. Chalmers denies that there is such an analogy. I argue that the analogy does have merit and that skepticism is called for.
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  33.  72
    Geert Jan M. Klerk (1979). Mechanism and Vitalism. A History of the Controversy. Acta Biotheoretica 28 (1).
    This is an attempt to interpret the history of mechanism vs. vitalism in relation to the changing framework of culture and to show the interrelation between both these views and experimental science. After the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century, causal mechanism of classical physics provided the framework for the study of nature. The teleological and holistic properties of life, however, which are incompatible with this theory yielded — as a result both of internal developments within biology and of (...)
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  34.  43
    John S. Ransom (1997). Forget Vitalism: Foucault and Lebensphilosophie. Philosophy and Social Criticism 23 (1):33-47.
    Recent interpretations of Michel Foucault's work have leaned heavily on a reading that can be traced back to the 'vital ist/mechanist' debate in the philosophy of science from earlier in this century. Friends (Gilles Deleuze) and enemies (Jürgen Habermas) both read Foucault as a kind of vitalist, championing repressed and unrealized life-forces against a burdensome facticity. This reading of Foucault, however, comes with a prohibitively high cost: the giving up of Foucault's most trenchant insights regarding the nature of power. In (...)
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  35.  3
    R. Ahlers (2003). Vitalism and System: Jacobi and Fichte on Philosophy and Life (Vol 33.1, Np, 2003). Idealistic Studies 33 (2-3):237-237.
    This paper thematizes the crucial agreement and point of departure between Jacobi and Fichte at the height of the “atheism controversy.” The argument on the proper relationship between philosophy and existence or speculation and life had far-reaching consequences in the history of thought after Jacobi and Fichte in German Idealism on the one hand, primarly advocated by Schelling and Hegel, and on the other hand by existentialism and vitalism. The essay focuses first on Jacobi’s philosophy of life, which centrally (...)
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  36.  7
    Devin Zane Shaw (2013). The Vitalist Senghor. Comparative and Continental Philosophy 5 (1):92-98.
    In this essay, I examine Diagne’s claim that the fundamental intuition of Léopold Sédar Senghor’s thought is this: African art is philosophy. Diagne argues that it is from an experience of African art and an encounter with Bergson’s philosophy that Senghor comes to formulate his philosophical thought, which is better understood as vitalist rather than essentialist. I conclude by arguing that Senghor’s vitalism is a philosophy of becoming which nevertheless lacks an account of radical political change.
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  37.  7
    Marc de Kesel (2009). A Small, Additonal, Added–on Life Speaking: Remarks on the Vitalism in Giorgio Agamben's Critical Theory. Filozofski Vestnik.
    Agamben’s thought gives us an interesting set of tools and references to critically analyse the logic of sovereignty haunting even the best intentions of Western biopolitics. As an alternative to the inherently disastrous logic of inclusive exclusion, he puts forward a strong vitalist, ontological way of thinking. This paper is an enquiry into whether that alternative is really valid. As far as his publications allow , the answer to this question must be negative. A careful reading of the passages on (...)
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  38.  2
    Ilkka Niiniluoto (2010). Kaila's Critique of Vitalism. Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 14:125-134.
    In the gloomy year of 1943, when Finland was fi ghting against the Soviet Union in the turmoil of World War II, Finnish philosopher Eino Kaila published a highly personal book Syvähenkinen elämä , with the subtitle Keskusteluja perimmäisistä kysymyksistä . An extended version in Swedish, Tankens oro appeared one year later.2 Kaila’s Syvähenkinen elämä mixes discussions on the meaning of life with considerations on philosophical topics that occupied its author as a proponent of logical empiricism. The main part of (...)
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  39.  1
    Charles T. Wolfe, The Discreet Charm of Eighteenth-Century Vitalism and its Avatars.
    The species of vitalism discussed here, to immediately rule out two possible misconceptions, is neither the feverish cosa mentale found in ruminations on ‘biopolitics’ and fascism – where it alternates quickly between being a form of evil and a form of resistance, with hardly any textual or conceptual material to discuss – nor the opaque, and less-known form in which it exists in the worlds of ‘Theory’ in the humanities, perhaps closely related to the cognate, ‘materiality’. Rather, vitalism (...)
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  40.  1
    Brian Garrett (2003). Vitalism and Teleology in the Natural Philosophy of Nehemiah Grew. British Journal for the History of Science 36 (1):63-81.
    This essay examines some aspects of the early history of the vitalism/mechanism controversies by examining the work of Nehemiah Grew in relation to that of Henry More , Francis Glisson and the more mechanistically inclined members of the Royal Society. I compliment and critically comment on John Henry's exploration of active principles in pre-Newtonian mechanist thought. The postulation of ‘active matter’ can be seen as an important support for the new experimental philosophy, but it has theological drawbacks, allowing for (...)
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  41. George Rousseau (1992). The Perpetual Crises of Modernism and the Traditions of Enlightenment Vitalism: With a Note on Mikhail Bakhtin. In Frederick Burwick & Paul Douglass (eds.), The Crisis in Modernism: Bergson and the Vitalist Controversy. Cambridge University Press 15--75.
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  42.  1
    Matthew Kapstein (1989). ??Tarak $$\Underset{\Raise0.3em\Hbox{$\Smash{\Scriptscriptstyle\Cdot}$}}{s}$$ Ita on the Fallacies of Personalistic Vitalism. [REVIEW] Journal of Indian Philosophy 17 (1):43-59.
    What was the fate of personalistic vitalism in later Indian thought? That question is too large to be considered here, but it is certain that the doctrine did reemerge, and has remained influential. Nonetheless, there is some reason to believe that Śātarak $$\underset{\raise0.3em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle\cdot}$}}{s}$$ ita critique of personalistic vitalism did have an immediate impact on philosophers within the Nyāya tradition: Vācaspatimiśra, Uddyotakara's sub-commentator, whom we know to have been familiar with Śātarak $$\underset{\raise0.3em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle\cdot}$}}{s}$$ ita Tattvasa $$\underset{\raise0.3em\hbox{$\smash{\scriptscriptstyle\cdot}$}}{m}$$ graha simply passes over (...)
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  43. Joseph Chiari (1992). Vitalism and Contemporary Thought. In Frederick Burwick & Paul Douglass (eds.), The Crisis in Modernism: Bergson and the Vitalist Controversy. Cambridge University Press 245--273.
     
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  44. Donna V. Jones (2011). The Racial Discourses of Life Philosophy: Négritude, Vitalism, and Modernity. Cup.
    In the early twentieth century, the life philosophy of Henri Bergson summoned the _élan vital_, or vital force, as the source of creative evolution. Bergson also appealed to intuition, which focused on experience rather than discursive thought and scientific cognition. Particularly influential for the literary and political Négritude movement of the 1930s, which opposed French colonialism, Bergson's life philosophy formed an appealing alternative to Western modernity, decried as "mechanical," and set the stage for later developments in postcolonial theory and vitalist (...)
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  45. Wojciech Krysztofiak (2011). The vitalist-existentialist interpretation of Wittgenstein’s first philosophy. Diametros:50-70.
    The article presents five arguments in favor of a vitalist-existentialist interpretation of Wittgenstein's first philosophy. It points out the inter-textual links between the Treatise and the vitalist transcendental tradition developed in the nineteenth century by Dilthey and Royce. Attention is also drawn to the various types of interpretations of Wittgenstein's first philosophy. The vitalist-existentialist interpretation does not ignore the logical content of the Treatise.
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  46. Sanford Schwartz (1992). Bergson and the Politics of Vitalism. In Frederick Burwick & Paul Douglass (eds.), The Crisis in Modernism: Bergson and the Vitalist Controversy. Cambridge University Press 277--305.
     
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  47. Maria de Issekutz Wolsky, Alexander A. Wolsky, F. Burwick & P. Douglass (1992). Bergson's Vitalism in the Light of Modern Biology. In Frederick Burwick & Paul Douglass (eds.), The Crisis in Modernism: Bergson and the Vitalist Controversy. Cambridge University Press
     
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  48. Sam Whimster (1995). Review Article : Liberal Eugenics and the Vitalist Life Sciences: Incongruities in the German Human Sciences in the 19th Century Woodruff D. Smith, Politics and the Sciences of Culture in Germany, 1840-1920. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991. [REVIEW] History of the Human Sciences 8 (1):107-114.
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  49. Garland E. Allen (2005). Mechanism, Vitalism and Organicism in Late Nineteenth and Twentieth-Century Biology: The Importance of Historical Context. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 36 (2):261-283.
    The term ‘mechanism’ has been used in two quite different ways in the history of biology. Operative, or explanatory mechanism refers to the step-by-step description or explanation of how components in a system interact to yield a particular outcome . Philosophical Mechanism, on the other hand, refers to a broad view of organisms as material entities, functioning in ways similar to machines — that is, carrying out a variety of activities based on known chemical and physical processes. In the early (...)
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  50. Charles S. Myers (1900). Vitalism: A Brief Historical and Critical Review. Mind 9 (34):218-233.
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