Search results for 'universal' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Lara Denis (2007). Abortion and Kant's Formula of Universal Law. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 37 (4):547-580.score: 24.0
    The formula of universal law (FUL) is a natural starting point for philosophers interested in a Kantian perspective on the morality of abortion. I argue, however, that FUL does not yield much in the way of promising or substantive conclusions regarding the morality of abortion. I first reveal how two philosophers' (Hare's and Gensler's) attempts to use Kantian considerations of universality and prescriptivity fail to provide analyses of abortion that are either compelling or true to Kant=s understanding of FUL. (...)
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  2. Stephen Crain & Paul M. Pietroski (2001). Nature, Nurture, and Universal Grammar. Linguistics and Philosophy 24 (2):139-186.score: 24.0
    In just a few years, children achieve a stable state of linguistic competence, making them effectively adults with respect to: understanding novel sentences, discerning relations of paraphrase and entailment, acceptability judgments, etc. One familiar account of the language acquisition process treats it as an induction problem of the sort that arises in any domain where the knowledge achieved is logically underdetermined by experience. This view highlights the cues that are available in the input to children, as well as childrens skills (...)
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  3. Mark S. Schwartz (2005). Universal Moral Values for Corporate Codes of Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 59 (1-2):27 - 44.score: 24.0
    How can one establish if a corporate code of ethics is ethical in terms of its content? One important first step might be the establishment of core universal moral values by which corporate codes of ethics can be ethically constructed and evaluated. Following a review of normative research on corporate codes of ethics, a set of universal moral values is generated by considering three sources: (1) corporate codes of ethics; (2) global codes of ethics; and (3) the business (...)
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  4. Glenn Hughes (2011). The Concept of Dignity in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Journal of Religious Ethics 39 (1):1-24.score: 24.0
    This essay examines the function of the concept of human dignity (both as an inherent feature of human existence and as an ideal achievement) in the United Nations's 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It explains why the key framers of the document affirmed an inherent human dignity in order to provide an explanatory basis for the validity of universal human rights while eschewing any religious or metaphysical justification for this affirmation. It argues that the key framers, while (...)
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  5. Christine Swanton (2010). A Challenge to Intellectual Virtue From Moral Virtue: The Case of Universal Love. Metaphilosophy 41 (1):152-171.score: 24.0
    Abstract: On the Aristotelian picture of virtue, moral virtue has at its core intellectual virtue. An interesting challenge for this orthodoxy is provided by the case of universal love and its associated virtues, such as the dispositions to exhibit grace, or to forgive, where appropriate. It is difficult to find a property in the object of such love, in virtue of which grace, for example, ought to be bestowed. Perhaps, then, love in general, including universal (...)
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  6. Ari Maunu (2008). Leibniz's Theory of Universal Expression Explicated. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 38 (2):247-267.score: 24.0
    According Leibniz's thesis of universal expression, each substance expresses the whole world, i.e. all other substances, or, as Leibniz frequently states, from any given complete individual notion (which includes, in internal terms, everything truly attributable to a substance) one can "deduce" or "infer" all truths about the whole world. On the other hand, in Leibniz's view each (created) substance is internally individuated, self-sufficient and independent of other (created) substances. What may be called Leibniz's expression problem is, how to reconcile (...)
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  7. Steffen Ducheyne (2009). Understanding (in) Newton's Argument for Universal Gravitation. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 40 (2):227 - 258.score: 24.0
    In this essay, I attempt to assess Henk de Regt and Dennis Dieks recent pragmatic and contextual account of scientific understanding on the basis of an important historical case-study: understanding in Newton’s theory of universal gravitation and Huygens’ reception of universal gravitation. It will be shown that de Regt and Dieks’ Criterion for the Intelligibility of a Theory (CIT), which stipulates that the appropriate combination of scientists’ skills and intelligibility-enhancing theoretical virtues is a condition for scientific understanding, is (...)
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  8. Paolo Rossi (2000). Logic and the Art of Memory: The Quest for a Universal Language. University of Chicago Press.score: 24.0
    The mnemonic arts and the idea of a universal language that would capture the essence of all things were originally associated with cryptology, mysticism, and other occult practices. And it is commonly held that these enigmatic efforts were abandoned with the development of formal logic in the seventeenth century and the beginning of the modern era. In his distinguished book, Logic and the Art of Memory Italian philosopher and historian Paolo Rossi argues that this view is belied by an (...)
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  9. Jianliang Xu (2009). The Universal Sentiment of Daoist Morality. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (4):524-536.score: 24.0
    Daoism has often been misunderstood as moral nihilism or anti-moralism, but the true Daoism indeed adopts a positive attitude towards morality. At the foundation of its universal sentiment is an affirmation of morality. Daoism takes all things as the starting point of its values in moral philosophy, and ziran 自然 (sponstaneously so) as the foundation of its philosophy with the universal commitment. Daoism hopes to use “ Dao to create the best environment for survival, and to fulfill individual (...)
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  10. Scott Forschler (2010). Willing Universal Law Vs. Universally Lawful Willing. Southwest Philosophy Review 26 (1):141-152.score: 24.0
    Kant's formula of universal law appears to fail in some cases, producing false negatives and false positives. Adding further qualifications to one's maxims can fix the first problem, but not all of the latter. In particular, there are maxims which generate no contradiction in will when practiced universally, but which are irrational to will that some agent follow in contexts where it is known that other agents are not following it. This reveals that Kant's conception of "universalization" is too (...)
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  11. Scott Forschler (2012). From Supervenience to “Universal Law”: How Kantian Ethics Become Heteronomous. In Dietmar Heidemann (ed.), Kant and Contemporary Moral Philosophy. De Gruyter.score: 24.0
    In his Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant’s desiderata for a supreme principle of practical reasoning and morality require that the subjective conditions under which some action is thought of as justified via some maxim be sufficient for judging the same action as justified by any agent in those conditions. This describes the kind of universalization conditions now known as moral supervenience. But when he specifies his “formula of universal law” (FUL) Kant replaces this condition with a quite (...)
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  12. Humphrey P. Polanen Van Petel (2006). Universal Grammar as a Theory of Notation. Axiomathes 16 (4):460-485.score: 24.0
    What is common to all languages is notation, so Universal Grammar can be understood as a system of notational types. Given that infants acquire language, it can be assumed to arise from some a priori mental structure. Viewing language as having the two layers of calculus and protocol, we can set aside the communicative habits of speakers. Accordingly, an analysis of notation results in the three types of Identifier, Modifier and Connective. Modifiers are further interpreted as Quantifiers and Qualifiers. (...)
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  13. Erwin Tegtmeier (2013). Exemplification and Universal Realism. Axiomathes 23 (2):261-267.score: 24.0
    The relation between universal and particular is considered to be the Achilles’ heel of universal realism. However, modern universal realism with facts does not have the difficulties which traditional Platonic universal realism had. Its exemplification relation connecting particulars and universals in atomic facts is very different from Platonic participation. Bradley’s regress argument against the exemplification relation can be refuted in two different ways. Nevertheless, there are good reasons to avoid the assumption of an exemplification relation and (...)
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  14. Brian R. Gaines (2010). Human Rationality Challenges Universal Logic. Logica Universalis 4 (2):163-205.score: 24.0
    Tarski’s conceptual analysis of the notion of logical consequence is one of the pinnacles of the process of defining the metamathematical foundations of mathematics in the tradition of his predecessors Euclid, Frege, Russell and Hilbert, and his contemporaries Carnap, Gödel, Gentzen and Turing. However, he also notes that in defining the concept of consequence “efforts were made to adhere to the common usage of the language of every day life.” This paper addresses the issue of what relationship Tarski’s analysis, and (...)
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  15. Steffen Ducheyne (2006). The Argument(s) for Universal Gravitation. Foundations of Science 11 (4):419-447.score: 24.0
    In this paper an analysis of Newton’s argument for universal gravitation is provided. In the past, the complexity of the argument has not been fully appreciated. Recent authors like George E. Smith and William L. Harper have done a far better job. Nevertheless, a thorough account of the argument is still lacking. Both authors seem to stress the importance of only one methodological component. Smith stresses the procedure of approximative deductions backed-up by the laws of motion. Harper stresses “systematic (...)
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  16. Menachem Kojman & Saharon Shelah (1992). Nonexistence of Universal Orders in Many Cardinals. Journal of Symbolic Logic 57 (3):875-891.score: 24.0
    Our theme is that not every interesting question in set theory is independent of ZFC. We give an example of a first order theory T with countable D(T) which cannot have a universal model at ℵ1 without CH; we prove in ZFC a covering theorem from the hypothesis of the existence of a universal model for some theory; and we prove--again in ZFC--that for a large class of cardinals there is no universal linear order (e.g. in every (...)
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  17. Samuel Kahn (2014). Can Positive Duties Be Derived From Kant's Formula of Universal Law? Kantian Review 19 (1):93-108.score: 24.0
    According to the standard reading of Kant's formula of universal law (FUL), positive duties can be derived from FUL. In this article, I argue that the standard reading does not work. In the first section, I articulate FUL and what I mean by a positive duty. In the second section, I set out an intuitive version of the standard reading of FUL and argue that it does not work. In the third section, I set out a more rigorous version (...)
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  18. George Cristian Maior (2013). Human Rights: Political Tool or Universal Ethics? Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 12 (36):9-21.score: 24.0
    Recent developments in the Arab world reopen one of the most fertile debate topics in international relations theory: the universal nature of the concept “fundamental human rights” and their content. The perspectives are different, being influenced by an ideological background, especially theological, apparently contradictory, affecting the positions of major international actors, stimulating the revival of controversies on major differences between Western world and the developing societies. Through a balanced analysis, specific to critical postmodernism, of the way each civilization (according (...)
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  19. Richard Shillcock (2014). The Concrete Universal and Cognitive Science. Axiomathes 24 (1):63-80.score: 24.0
    Cognitive science depends on abstractions made from the complex reality of human behaviour. Cognitive scientists typically wish the abstractions in their theories to be universals, but seldom attend to the ontology of universals. Two sorts of universal, resulting from Galilean abstraction and materialist abstraction respectively, are available in the philosophical literature: the abstract universal—the one-over-many universal—is the universal conventionally employed by cognitive scientists; in contrast, a concrete universal is a material entity that can appear within (...)
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  20. Marcel Jackson (2008). Flat Algebras and the Translation of Universal Horn Logic to Equational Logic. Journal of Symbolic Logic 73 (1):90-128.score: 24.0
    We describe which subdirectly irreducible flat algebras arise in the variety generated by an arbitrary class of flat algebras with absorbing bottom element. This is used to give an elementary translation of the universal Horn logic of algebras, and more generally still, partial structures into the equational logic of conventional algebras. A number of examples and corollaries follow. For example, the problem of deciding which finite algebras of some fixed type have a finite basis for their quasi-identities is shown (...)
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  21. Adèle Langlois (2008). The UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights: Perspectives From Kenya and South Africa. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 16 (1):39-51.score: 24.0
    In October 2005, UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) adopted the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. This was the culmination of nearly 2 years of deliberations and negotiations. As a non-binding instrument, the declaration must be incorporated by UNESCO’s member states into their national laws, regulations or policies in order to take effect. Based on documentary evidence and data from interviews, this paper compares the declaration’s universal principles with national bioethics guidelines and practice (...)
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  22. Bart Vandenabeele (2012). Beauty, Disinterested Pleasure, and Universal Communicability: Kant's Response to Burke. Kant-Studien 103 (2):207-233.score: 24.0
    Although Kant (wrongly) holds that the universal communicability of aesthetic judgments logically follows from the disinterested character of the pleasure upon which they are based, Kant's emphasis on the a priori validity of judgments of beauty can be viewed as a rebuttal of the kind of empiricist arguments that Burke offers to justify the social nature of the experience of beauty. I argue that the requirement of universal communicability is not a mere addition to the requirement of (...) validity and is far more relevant to an adequate characterisation of the beautiful than has customarily been assumed. I further argue that the 'exemplary necessity' of pure judgments of taste, if understood correctly, reveals beauty's primordial social significance, enabling us to become alive to a profound universal solidarity among aesthetic subjects. (shrink)
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  23. Anthony Celano (2013). The Foundation of Moral Reasoning: The Development of the Doctrine of Universal Moral Principles in the Works of Thomas Aquinas and His Predecessors. Diametros 38:1-61.score: 24.0
    This article considers the development of the idea of universal moral principles in the work of Thomas Aquinas and his predecessors in the thirteenth century. Like other medieval authors who sought to place the principles of moral practice on a foundation more secure than on the choices of the good person, as described by Aristotle, Thomas chooses to introduce a measure of ethical certitude through the concept of the innate habit of synderesis. This idea, introduced by Jerome in his (...)
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  24. Greg Hjorth, Leigh Humphries & Arnold W. Miller (2013). Universal Sets for Pointsets Properly on the N Th Level of the Projective Hierarchy. Journal of Symbolic Logic 78 (1):237-244.score: 24.0
    The Axiom of Projective Determinacy implies the existence of a universal $\utilde{\Pi}^{1}_{n}\setminus\utilde{\Delta}^{1}_{n}$ set for every $n \geq 1$. Assuming $\text{\upshape MA}(\aleph_{1})+\aleph_{1}=\aleph_{1}^{\mathbb{L}}$ there exists a universal $\utilde{\Pi}^{1}_{1}\setminus\utilde{\Delta}^{1}_{1}$ set. In ZFC there is a universal $\utilde{\Pi}^{0}_{\alpha}\setminus\utilde{\Delta}^{0}_{\alpha}$ set for every $\alpha$.
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  25. Ruurik Holm (2013). Non-Zero Probabilities for Universal Generalizations. Synthese 190 (18):4001-4007.score: 24.0
    This article discusses the classical problem of zero probability of universal generalizations in Rudolf Carnap’s inductive logic. A correction rule for updating the inductive method on the basis of evidence will be presented. It will be shown that this rule has the effect that infinite streams of uniform evidence assume a non-zero limit probability. Since Carnap’s inductive logic is based on finite domains of individuals, the probability of the corresponding universal quantification changes accordingly. This implies that universal (...)
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  26. Mirna Džamonja & Saharon Shelah (2004). On the Existence of Universal Models. Archive for Mathematical Logic 43 (7):901-936.score: 24.0
    Suppose that λ=λ <λ ≥ℵ0, and we are considering a theory T. We give a criterion on T which is sufficient for the consistent existence of λ++ universal models of T of size λ+ for models of T of size ≤λ+, and is meaningful when 2λ +>λ++. In fact, we work more generally with abstract elementary classes. The criterion for the consistent existence of universals applies to various well known theories, such as triangle-free graphs and simple theories. Having in (...)
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  27. Domènec Melé & Carlos Sánchez-Runde (2013). Cultural Diversity and Universal Ethics in a Global World. Journal of Business Ethics 116 (4):681-687.score: 24.0
    Cultural diversity and globalization bring about a tension between universal ethics and local values and norms. Simultaneously, the current globalization and the existence of an increasingly interconnected world seem to require a common ground to promote dialog, peace, and a more humane world. This article is the introduction to a special issue of the Journal of Business Ethics regarding these problems. We highlight five topics, which intertwine the eight papers of this issue. The first is whether moral diversity in (...)
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  28. Lakshmi Arya (2006). The Uniform Civil Code: The Politics of the Universal in Postcolonial India. [REVIEW] Feminist Legal Studies 14 (3):293-328.score: 24.0
    This article speaks of a debate in contemporary India: that surrounding the validity of enacting a civil code that applies uniformly to all communities and religions in the state. In certain feminist arguments, such a code is seen as possibly providing a sphere of rights to Indian women that is alternative to the rights – or wrongs – given to them by the plural religious laws, which form the basis of the civil law in India. India, however, is a heterogeneous (...)
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  29. Daryl Koehn (2013). East Meets West: Toward a Universal Ethic of Virtue for Global Business. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 116 (4):703-715.score: 24.0
    Rudyard Kipling famously penned, “East is East, West is West, and never the twain shall meet.” His poetic line suggests that Eastern and Western cultures are irreconcilably different and that their members engage in fundamentally incommensurable ethical practices. This paper argues that differing cultures do not necessarily operate by incommensurable moral principles. On the contrary, if we adopt a virtue ethics perspective, we discover that East and West are always meeting because their virtues share a natural basis and structure. This (...)
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  30. Erich Hatala Matthes (forthcoming). Impersonal Value, Universal Value, and the Scope of Cultural Heritage. Ethics.score: 24.0
    Philosophers have used the terms 'impersonal' and 'personal value' to refer to, among others things, whether something's value is universal or particular to an individual. In this paper, I propose an account of impersonal value that, I argue, better captures the intuitive distinction than potential alternatives, while providing conceptual resources for moving beyond the traditional stark dichotomy. I illustrate the practical importance of my theoretical account with reference to debate over the evaluative scope of cultural heritage.
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  31. Sergey Pavlov (2011). The Logic with Truth and Falsehood Operators From a Point of View of Universal Logic. Logica Universalis 5 (2):319-325.score: 24.0
    The logic with independent truth and falsehood operators TFL is proposed. In TFL(→) standard truth-conditions for the implication are adopted. Nevertheless the laws of classical logic are not valid. In this language more then 107 different binary connectives can be defined. So this logic can be treated as universal logic relatively to the class of sentential logics.
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  32. Andrzej Rosłanowski & Saharon Shelah (2007). Universal Forcing Notions and Ideals. Archive for Mathematical Logic 46 (3-4):179-196.score: 24.0
    Our main result states that a finite iteration of Universal Meager forcing notions adds generic filters for many forcing notions determined by universality parameters. We also give some results concerning cardinal characteristics of the σ-ideals determined by those universality parameters.
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  33. Sri Mata Amritanandamayi Devi (2006). El despertar de la maternidad universal. Polis 14.score: 24.0
    En este texto se afirma la igualdad entre los hombres y mujeres, pues ambos poseen el mismo potencial infinito e inherente. La espiritualidad verdadera implica el autoconocimiento y consiste en realizar el poder de vida y de amar que existe potencialmente en todos nosotros. Es necesario superar toda forma de discriminación hacia las mujeres. La autora convoca a las mujeres a luchar por sus derechos, pues dice que están dormidas y deben despertar, cambiar su mente, redescubrir y valorar que representan (...)
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  34. Arthur W. Apter & Grigor Sargsyan (2010). An Equiconsistency for Universal Indestructibility. Journal of Symbolic Logic 75 (1):314-322.score: 24.0
    We obtain an equiconsistency for a weak form of universal indestructibility for strongness. The equiconsistency is relative to a cardinal weaker in consistency strength than a Woodin cardinal. Stewart Baldwin's notion of hyperstrong cardinal. We also briefly indicate how our methods are applicable to universal indestructibility for supercompactness and strong compactness.
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  35. Arthur W. Apter & Grigor Sargsyan (2008). Universal Indestructibility for Degrees of Supercompactness and Strongly Compact Cardinals. Archive for Mathematical Logic 47 (2):133-142.score: 24.0
    We establish two theorems concerning strongly compact cardinals and universal indestructibility for degrees of supercompactness. In the first theorem, we show that universal indestructibility for degrees of supercompactness in the presence of a strongly compact cardinal is consistent with the existence of a proper class of measurable cardinals. In the second theorem, we show that universal indestructibility for degrees of supercompactness is consistent in the presence of two non-supercompact strongly compact cardinals, each of which exhibits a significant (...)
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  36. Laura K. Landolt (2013). Externalizing Human Rights: From Commission to Council, the Universal Periodic Review and Egypt. [REVIEW] Human Rights Review 14 (2):107-129.score: 24.0
    Critics of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (CHR) and its successor, the Human Rights Council (HRC), focus on member state efforts to protect themselves and allies from external pressure for human rights implementation. Even though HRC members still shield rights abusers, the new Universal Periodic Review (UPR) subjects all states to regular scrutiny, and provides substantial new space for domestic NGOs to externalize domestic human rights demands. This paper offers an institutional account of the expansion of NGO (...)
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  37. Pedro Navarro-Illana, Justo Aznar & Javier Díez-Domingo (2014). Ethical Considerations of Universal Vaccination Against Human Papilloma Virus. BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):29.score: 24.0
    From an epidemiological perspective, the practice of universal vaccination of girls and young women in order to prevent human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and potential development of cervical cancer is widely accepted even though it may lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer.
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  38. Cecilia Cintra Cavaleiro de Macedo (2007). Neoplatonismo e Aristotelismo no hilemorfismo universal de IBN Gabirol (AVICEBRON). Veritas 52 (3).score: 24.0
    This article discusses neoplatonic and aristotelian presence in Ibn Gabirol metaphysics. With this aim, Plotinus and Gabirol’s are confronted in some of the main points, where the resemblance had already been pointed: the First Principle, the intermediary between God and the world and the universal matter. Once the differences between the approaches of these authors regarding such questions have been identified, some contributions which may come from the works of Aristotle will be briefly presented, in order to clarify the (...)
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  39. Mirna Džamonja (2005). Club Guessing and the Universal Models. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 46 (3):283-300.score: 24.0
    We survey the use of club guessing and other PCF constructs in the context of showing that a given partially ordered class of objects does not have a largest, or a universal, element.
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  40. Charlotte Jørgensen (2009). Interpreting Perelman's Universal Audience: Gross Versus Crosswhite. [REVIEW] Argumentation 23 (1):11-19.score: 24.0
    While still subject to differing interpretations Perelman’s theory of audience has potential as an evaluative tool in rhetorical criticism as demonstrated by Gross and Crosswhite. I compare their explanations of how politicians address the universal audience and the respective implications for evaluating the argumentation and then argue that although Gross provides a more immediately applicable theory, Crosswhite’s interpretation recommends itself by virtue of its wider scope in regard to deliberative rhetoric.
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  41. Franco Montagna (2011). Completeness with Respect to a Chain and Universal Models in Fuzzy Logic. Archive for Mathematical Logic 50 (1-2):161-183.score: 24.0
    In this paper we investigate fuzzy propositional and first order logics which are complete or strongly complete with respect to a single chain, and we relate this properties with the existence of a universal chain for the logic.
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  42. Sven Nyholm (forthcoming). Kant's Universal Law Formula Revisited. Metaphilosophy.score: 24.0
    Kantians are increasingly deserting the universal law formula in favor of the humanity formula. The former, they argue, is open to various decisive objections; the two are not equivalent (since the latter, but not the former asserts a basic substantive value judgment); and it is only by appealing to the humanity formula that Kant can reliably generate substantive implications from his theory of an acceptable sort. These assessments of the universal law formula, which clash starkly with Kant’s own (...)
     
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  43. Sven Nyholm (2012). On the Universal Law and Humanity Formulas. Dissertation, University of Michiganscore: 24.0
    Whereas the universal law formula says to choose one’s basic guiding principles (or “maxims”) on the basis of their fitness to serve as universal laws, the humanity formula says to always treat the humanity in each person as an end, and never as a means only. Commentators and critics have been puzzled by Kant’s claims that these are two alternative statements of the same basic law, and have raised various objections to Kant’s suggestion that these are the most (...)
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  44. Katherine Thompson (2010). Small Universal Families for Graphs Omitting Cliques Without GCH. Archive for Mathematical Logic 49 (7-8):799-811.score: 24.0
    When no single universal model for a set of structures exists at a given cardinal, then one may ask in which models of set theory does there exist a small family which embeds the rest. We show that for λ+-graphs (λ regular) omitting cliques of some finite or uncountable cardinality, it is consistent that there are small universal families and 2λ > λ+. In particular, we get such a result for triangle-free graphs.
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  45. Fraser MacBride (1999). Could Armstrong Have Been a Universal? Mind 108 (431):471-501.score: 22.0
    There cannot be a reductive theory of modality constructed from the concepts of sparse particular and sparse universal. These concepts are suffused with modal notions. I seek to establish this conclusion by tracing out the pattern of modal entanglements in which these concepts are involved. In order to appreciate the structure of these entanglements a distinction must be drawn between the lower-order necessary connections in which particulars and universals apparently figure, and higher-order necesary connections. The former type of (...)
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  46. Marc Ettlinger, Amy S. Finn & Carla L. Hudson Kam (2011). The Effect of Sonority on Word Segmentation: Evidence for the Use of a Phonological Universal. Cognitive Science 36 (4):655-673.score: 22.0
    It has been well documented how language-specific cues may be used for word segmentation. Here, we investigate what role a language-independent phonological universal, the sonority sequencing principle (SSP), may also play. Participants were presented with an unsegmented speech stream with non-English word onsets that juxtaposed adherence to the SSP with transitional probabilities. Participants favored using the SSP in assessing word-hood, suggesting that the SSP represents a potentially powerful cue for word segmentation. To ensure the SSP influenced the segmentation process (...)
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  47. Andrew Wells (1996). Situated Action, Symbol Systems and Universal Computation. Minds and Machines 6 (1):33-46.score: 22.0
    Vera & Simon (1993a) have argued that the theories and methods known as situated action or situativity theory are compatible with the assumptions and methodology of the physical symbol systems hypothesis and do not require a new approach to the study of cognition. When the central criterion of computational universality is added to the loose definition of a symbol system which Vera and Simon provide, it becomes apparent that there are important incompatibilities between the two approaches such that situativity theory (...)
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  48. James Maclaurin (2012). Universal Darwinism: Its Scope and Limits. In , Defensor Rationes: Essays in Honour of Colin Cheyne. Springer.score: 21.0
    Many things evolve: species, languages, sports, tools, biological niches, and theories. But are these real instances of natural selection? Current assessments of the proper scope of Darwinian theory focus on the broad similarity of cultural or non-organic processes to familiar central instances of natural selection. That similarity is analysed in terms of abstract functional descriptions of evolving entities (e.g. replicators, interactors, developmental systems etc). These strategies have produced a proliferation of competing evolutionary analyses. I argue that such reasoning ought not (...)
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  49. Violeta Beširević (2010). End-of-Life Care in the 21st Century: Advance Directives in Universal Rights Discourse. Bioethics 24 (3):105-112.score: 21.0
  50. Edward H. Spence (2009). A Universal Model for the Normative Evaluation of Internet Information. Ethics and Information Technology 11 (4):243-253.score: 21.0
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