Four Phenomenological Philosophers is the first book to examine the major texts of the leading figures of phenomenology in one volume. In separate chapters, the book explores the ideas of Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre and Maurice Merleau-Ponty with detailed readings of their most important texts. The constantly evolving ideas of Edmund Husserl, the founder of phenomenology, are presented through a review of the three major periods of his work. Martin Heidegger, who made a decisive and controversial break with (...) his teacher, Husserl, set forth his own phenomenological program in Being and Time. Jean-Paul Sartre, who transplanted the tradition from its origins in Germany to the streets of Paris, set forth his existential phenomenology in Being and Nothingness. The Phenomenology of Perception was the best and most representative work of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, a contemporary of Sartre whose career was cut short by his early death. A knowledge of these key thinkers and their major texts is essential to an understanding of many of the major themes of contemporary philosophy, from hermeneutics and existentialism to postmodernism and deconstructivism. This book provides the ideal introduction to this important philosophical tradition. (shrink)
Martin Heidegger (1899-1976), born in Baden, Germany, is one of the most important philosophers of the twentieth century. The one-time assistant of Edmund Husserl, the founder of the phenomenological movement, Heidegger established himself as an independent and original thinker with the publication of his major work Being and Time in 1927. This collection of papers is the most comprehensive and international examination of Heidegger's work available. It contains established classic articles, some appearing in English for the first time, and many (...) original pieces provided especially for this collection. The cross-cultural and political aspects of Heidegger's thought are examined, including his relationship to the Nazi party. The purpose of this collection is to provide a critical examination of Heidegger's work which evaluates its limits as well as its strengths, and to assess the prospects for the future development of his thought. Since many of the leading themes of contemporary philosophy such as hermeneutics, phenomenology, existentialism, postmodernism and deconstructivism trace their intellectual heritage back to Heidegger, this collection will be an indispensable guide to the issues which are currently being disputed in the field of philosophy. (shrink)
_Critical Heidegger_ brings together a selection of the best work on Martin Heidegger from a number of key commentators working in Europe. These new and classic essays, for the most part translated from German and French originals, are an essential guide to the current European reception of Heidegger and make available essays that have had considerable impact on English-language Heidegger studies. Essays in this collection: * Marlene Zarader, `The mirror with the triple reflection' * Franco Volpi, `Dasein and Praxis: Aristotle' (...) * Jean-Luc Marion, `Heidegger on Descartes' * ChristopherMacann, `Heidegger's Kant Interpretation' * Michel Haar, `Critical Remarks on the Heideggerian Reading of Nietzsche' * Maria Villela-Petit, `Heidegger's Conception of Space' * Francoise Dastur, `The ekstatico-horizontal constitution of temporality' * F-W von Herrmann, `Way and Method in Philosophy' * Samuel Ijsseling, `The End of Philosophy as the Commencement of Thinking' * Otto Poggler, `Does the saving power also grow? Heidegger's last paths' * Ernst Tugendhat, `Heidegger's Idea of Truth' * Karl-Otto Apel, `Wittgenstein and Heidegger'. (shrink)
In a rare collaboration, a world famous brain scientist and an eminent philosopher have joined forces in an effort to understand how our brain interacts with the world. This is a highly original volume showing how those within phenomenology and physiology can interact to further our understanding of the brain and the mind.
Christophe Bouton’s _Time and Freedom _addresses the problem of the relationship between time and freedom as a matter of practical philosophy, examining how the individual lives time and how her freedom is effective in time. Bouton first charts the history of modern philosophy’s reengagement with the Aristotelian debate about future contingents, beginning with Leibniz. While Kant, Husserl, and their followers would engage time through theories of knowledge, Schopenhauer, Schelling, Kierkegaard, and, Heidegger, Sartre, and Levinas applied a phenomenological and existential methodology (...) to time, but faced a problem of the temporality of human freedom. Bouton’s is the first major work of its kind since Bergson’s _Time and Free Will _, and Bouton’s “mystery of the future,” in which the individual has freedom within the shifting bounds dictated by time, charts a new direction. (shrink)
Este artigo tem como objetivo realizar uma compreensão daseinsanalítica do ser-nomundo do adolescente Christopher, protagonista do romance O Estranho Caso do Cachorro Morto, explicitando as relações do personagem com as pessoas de seu mundo. Partindo do diagnóstico de Transtorno de Asperger, demonst..
Retrieval of relevant unstructured information from the ever-increasing textual communications of individuals and businesses has become a major barrier to effective litigation/defense, mergers/acquisitions, and regulatory compliance. Such e-discovery requires simultaneously high precision with high recall (high-P/R) and is therefore a prototype for many legal reasoning tasks. The requisite exhaustive information retrieval (IR) system must employ very different techniques than those applicable in the hyper-precise, consumer search task where insignificant recall is the accepted norm. We apply Russell, et al.’s cognitive task (...) analysis of sensemaking by intelligence analysts to develop a semi-autonomous system that achieves high IR accuracy of F1 ≥ 0.8 compared to F1 < 0.4 typical of computer-assisted human-assessment (CAHA) or alternative approaches such as Roitblat, et al.’s. By understanding the ‘Learning Loop Complexes’ of lawyers engaged in successful small-scale document review, we have used socio-technical design principles to create roles, processes, and technologies for scalable human-assisted computer-assessment (HACA). Results from the NIST-TREC Legal Track’s interactive task from both 2008 and 2009 validate the efficacy of this sensemaking approach to the high-P/R IR task. (shrink)
O presente artigo tem dois objectivos: por um lado, o de analisar os conceitos de percepçáo e memória no cinema segundo a fenomenologia de Maurice Merleau-Ponty em “Le Cinéma et la Nouvelle Psychologie” e, por outro lado, o de analisar estes mesmos conceitos no filme de Christopher Nolan, Memento . A nossa principal referência será a fenomenologia da percepçáo em Merleau-Ponty de modo a melhor compreendermos o interesse fenomenológico do cinema e deste filme em particular.
Intentionality is a curious notion and so is partial identity; the latter is employed by Christopher Tomaszewski (henceforth, CT) in his paper to afford solutions to a wide array of different philosophical problems. The author’s central thesis is that intentionality is a kind of partial identity; i.e. when the mind is intentionally directed towards an external object, it "takes in" a part of the object – its form, but not its matter. In my essay I first expound Franz Brentano's (...) views on intentionality - inspired by Aristotle's doctrine of hylomorphism. Contrary to what CT suggests, I conclude (in light of Brentano's later work) that intentionality should not be characterized as a genuine relation since one can be intentionally directed towards existing as well as non-existing objects and since, in the case of the latter, it remains unclear what it is that the mind “takes in”. Second, I clarify the notion of partial identity. In this context it is not obvious to me what exactly CT's appeal to partial identity contributes to the solution of the problem of material constitution. Third, I explicate CT's thesis that intentionality is partial identity (based on previously given definitions) and conclude that his argument in support of mind/body-dualism fails. Overall, skepticism remains as to whether partial identity adequately captures the tricky terrain of intentionality. (shrink)