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  1.  82
    Religion and Attitudes to Corporate Social Responsibility in a Large Cross-Country Sample.S. Brammer, Geoffrey Williams & John Zinkin - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 71 (3):229-243.
    This paper explores the relationship between religious denomination and individual attitudes to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) within the context of a large sample of over 17,000 individuals drawn from 20 countries. We address two general questions: do members of religious denominations have different attitudes concerning CSR than people of no denomination? And: do members of different religions have different attitudes to CSR that conform to general priors about the teachings of different religions? Our evidence suggests that, broadly, religious individuals do (...)
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  2.  94
    Islam and CSR: A Study of the Compatibility Between the Tenets of Islam and the UN Global Compact.Geoffrey Williams & John Zinkin - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 91 (4):519-533.
    This paper looks at whether the tenets of Islam are consistent with the 'Ten Principles' of responsible business outlined in the UN Global Compact. The paper concludes that with the possible exception of Islam's focus on personal responsibility and the non-recognition of the corporation as a legal person, which could undermine the concept of corporate responsibility, there is no divergence between the tenets of the religion and the principles of the UN Global Compact. Indeed, Islam often goes further and has (...)
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  3. Responsibility as a Virtue.Garrath Williams - 2008 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 11 (4):455-470.
    Philosophers usually discuss responsibility in terms of responsibility for past actions or as a question about the nature of moral agency. Yet the word responsibility is fairly modern, whereas these topics arguably represent timeless concerns about human agency. This paper investigates another use of responsibility, that is particularly important to modern liberal societies: responsibility as a virtue that can be demonstrated by individuals and organisations. The paper notes its initial importance in political contexts, and seeks to explain why we now (...)
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  4.  30
    The Social Creation of Morality and Complicity in Collective Harms: A Kantian Account.Garrath Williams - 2019 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 36 (3):457-470.
    This article considers the charge that citizens of developed societies are complicit in large-scale harms, using climate destabilisation as its central example. It contends that we have yet to create a lived morality – a fabric of practices and institutions – that is adequate to our situation. As a result, we participate in systematic injustice, despite all good efforts and intentions. To make this case, the article draws on recent discussions of Kant’s ethics and politics. Section 1 considers Tamar Schapiro’s (...)
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  5.  43
    The Effect of Culture on Consumers' Willingness to Punish Irresponsible Corporate Behaviour: Applying Hofstede's Typology to the Punishment Aspect of Corporate Social Responsibility.Geoffrey Williams & John Zinkin - 2008 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 17 (2):210–226.
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  6.  16
    Responsibility.Garrath Williams - 2012 - In Ruth Chadwick (ed.), Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics (Second Edition). Elsevier. pp. 821-828.
    Discusses what is involved in describing a person as responsible: she has responsibilities that she is duty-bound to undertake, and may be held responsible when she fails to fulfill these. Considers why societies and organizations divide responsibilities between persons. Also considers how questions of responsibility arise in the spheres of morality, law, organizational life and politics, and how different modes of holding responsible may be appropriate in each. Concludes with a brief discussion of some questions about collective responsibility.
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  7.  14
    The Effect of Culture on Consumers' Willingness to Punish Irresponsible Corporate Behaviour: Applying Hofstede's Typology to the Punishment Aspect of Corporate Social Responsibility.Geoffrey Williams & John Zinkin - 2008 - Business Ethics: A European Review 17 (2):210-226.
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  8. Responsibility.Garrath Williams - 2006 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    We evaluate people and groups as responsible or not, depending on how seriously they take their responsibilities. Often we do this informally, via moral judgment. Sometimes we do this formally, for instance in legal judgment. This article considers mainly moral responsibility, and focuses largely upon individuals. Later sections also comment on the relation between legal and moral responsibility, and on the responsibility of collectives.
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  9.  72
    Children as Means and Ends in Large-Scale Medical Research.Garrath Williams - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (8):422-430.
    This paper considers the often-expressed fear that medical research may use children merely as means, and not respect them as ends in themselves – especially insofar as they are deemed less able to consent than adults. The main focus is on large-scale genetic, socio-medical and epidemiological research. The theoretical starting point of the paper is that to be treated as an end in oneself is to be regarded as – and to act as – a participant in cooperative endeavours. This (...)
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  10.  37
    Childhood Obesity: Ethical and Policy Issues.Kristin Voigt, Stuart G. Nicholls & Garrath Williams - 2014 - Oxford University Press.
    Childhood obesity has become a central concern in many countries and a range of policies have been implemented or proposed to address it. This co-authored book is the first to focus on the ethical and policy questions raised by childhood obesity and its prevention. -/- Throughout the book, the authors emphasize that childhood obesity is a multi-faceted phenomenon, and just one of many issues that parents, schools and societies face. They argue that it is important to acknowledge the resulting complexities (...)
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  11.  29
    Law as Clinical Evidence: A New ConstitutiveModel of Medical Education and Decision-Making.Malcolm Parker, Lindy Willmott, Ben White, Gail Williams & Colleen Cartwright - 2018 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 15 (1):101-109.
    Over several decades, ethics and law have been applied to medical education and practice in a way that reflects the continuation during the twentieth century of the strong distinction between facts and values. We explain the development of applied ethics and applied medical law and report selected results that reflect this applied model from an empirical project examining doctors’ decisions on withdrawing/withholding treatment from patients who lack decision-making capacity. The model is critiqued, and an alternative “constitutive” model is supported on (...)
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  12. Tradition and Originality in Roman Poetry.Brooks Otis & Gordon Williams - 1971 - American Journal of Philology 92 (2):316.
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  13.  35
    Taking Responsibility for Negligence and Non-negligence.Garrath Williams - 2020 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 14 (1):113-134.
    Negligence reminds us that we often do and cause things unawares, occasionally with grave results. Given the lack of foresight and intention, some authors argue that people should not be judged culpable for negligence. This paper offers a contrasting view. It argues that gaining control is itself a fundamental responsibility, with both collective and individual elements. The paper underlines both sides, focussing on how they relate as we ascribe responsibility or culpability. Following the introduction, Section 2 argues that conscious awareness (...)
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  14.  13
    The Cosmic Viewpoint: A Study of Seneca's 'Natural Questions'.Gareth D. Williams - 2012 - Oup Usa.
    This book examines the literary and philosophical qualities essential to Seneca's art of science in his Natural Questions. Seneca's meteorological theme raises our gaze from a terrestrial level to a higher, more intuitive plane - a conceptual climb by which Seneca promotes a change of perspective in his readership towards the cosmic viewpoint.
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  15.  73
    Counterfactual Triviality: A Lewis-Impossibility Argument for Counterfactuals.J. Robert & G. Williams - 2012 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 85 (3):648-670.
    I formulate a counterfactual version of the notorious 'Ramsey Test'. Whereas the Ramsey Test for indicative conditionals links credence in indicatives to conditional credences, the counterfactual version links credence in counterfactuals to expected conditional chance. I outline two forms: a Ramsey Identity on which the probability of the conditional should be identical to the corresponding conditional probabihty/expectation of chance; and a Ramsey Bound on which credence in the conditional should never exceed the latter.Even in the weaker, bound, form, the counterfactual (...)
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  16.  95
    Human Genetic Banking: Altruism, Benefit and Consent.Doris Schroeder & Garrath Williams - 2004 - New Genetics and Society 23 (1):89-103.
    This article considers how we should frame the ethical issues raised by current proposals for large-scale genebanks with on-going links to medical and lifestyle data, such as the Wellcome Trust and Medical Research Council's 'UK Biobank'. As recent scandals such as Alder Hey have emphasised, there are complex issues concerning the informed consent of donors that need to be carefully considered. However, we believe that a preoccupation with informed consent obscures important questions about the purposes to which such collections are (...)
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  17.  71
    Sharing Responsibility and Holding Responsible.Garrath Williams - 2013 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (4):351-364.
    Who, in particular, may hold us responsible for our moral failings? Most discussions of moral responsibility bracket this question, despite its obvious practical importance. In this article, I investigate the moral authority involved and how it arises in the context of personal relationships, such as friendship or family relations. My account is based on the idea that parties to a personal relationship not only share responsibility for their relationship, but also — to some degree that is negotiated between them — (...)
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  18. John Stuart Mill's "On Liberty".John C. Rees & G. L. Williams - 1988 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 42 (4):704-706.
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  19.  21
    Evolution and Ethics: T.H. Huxley's Evolution and Ethics with New Essays on its Victorian and Sociobiological Context.James G. Paradis & George Christopher Williams - 1989 - Princeton University Press.
    T. H. Huxley (1825-1895) was not only an active protagonist in the religious and scientific upheaval that followed the publication of Darwin's theory of evolution but also a harbinger of the sociobiological debates about the implications of evolution that are now going on. His seminal lecture Evolution and Ethics, reprinted here with its introductory Prolegomena, argues that the human psyche is at war with itself, that humans are alienated in a cosmos that has no special reference to their needs, and (...)
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  20. The Cosmic Viewpoint: A Study of Seneca's Natural Questions.Gareth D. Williams - 2012 - Oxford University Press USA.
    The Cosmic Viewpoint examines the literary and philosophical qualities essential to Seneca's art of science in his Natural Questions. Seneca's meteorological theme raises our gaze from a terrestrial level to a higher, more intuitive plane.
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  21. Kant's Account of Reason.Garrath Williams - 2009 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Two of the most prominent questions in Kant's critical philosophy concern reason. The first, central to his theoretical philosophy, is the unprovable pretensions of reason in earlier “rationalist” philosophers, especially Leibniz and Descartes. The second, central to his practical philosophy, is the subservient role accorded to reason by the British empiricists—above all Hume, who declared, “Reason is wholly inactive, and can never be the source of so active a principle as conscience, or a sense of morals.” Treatise, 3.1.1.11; see also (...)
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  22. Can the Psi Data Help Us Make Progress on the Problem of Consciousness?George R. Williams - 2021 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 28 (5-6):145-72.
    The inherently subjective nature of consciousness severely limits our ability to make progress on the problem of consciousness. The inability to acquire objective, publicly available data on the phenomenal aspect of consciousness makes evaluating alternative theories very difficult, if not impossible. However, the anomalous nature of subjective states with respect to our conventional theories of the physical world suggests the possibility of considering other anomalous data around consciousness that happen to be objective. For such purposes, I propose that we examine (...)
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  23.  18
    Changes in Medical Student Attitudes as They Progress Through a Medical Course.J. Price, D. Price, G. Williams & R. Hoffenberg - 1998 - Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (2):110-117.
    Objectives - To explore the wvay ethical principles develop during a medical education course for three groups of medical students - in their first year, at the beginning of their penultimate (fifth) year and towards the end of their final (sixth) year. Design - Survey questionnaire administered to medical students in their first, fifth and final (sixth) year. Setting - A large medical school in Queensland, Australia. Survey sample - Approximately half the students in each of three years (first, fifth (...)
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  24.  32
    An Empirical Survey on Biobanking of Human Genetic Material and Data in Six EU Countries.Isabelle Hirtzlin, Christine Dubreuil, Nathalie Préaubert, Jenny Duchier, Brigitte Jansen, Jürgen Simon, Paula Lobatao De Faria, Anna Perez-Lezaun, Bert Visser, Garrath D. Williams, Anne Cambon-Thomsen & The Eurogenbank Consortium - 2003 - European Journal of Human Genetics 11:475–488.
    Biobanks correspond to different situations: research and technological development, medical diagnosis or therapeutic activities. Their status is not clearly defined. We aimed to investigate human biobanking in Europe, particularly in relation to organisational, economic and ethical issues in various national contexts. Data from a survey in six EU countries were collected as part of a European Research Project examining human and non-human biobanking. A total of 147 institutions concerned with biobanking of human samples and data were investigated by questionnaires and (...)
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  25.  24
    Differences in Ethical Attitudes Between Registered Nurses and Medical Students.Ruth Elder, John Price & Gail Williams - 2003 - Nursing Ethics 10 (2):149-164.
    In this study we compared the ethical attitudes of a group of experienced, predominantly female, registered nurses (n = 67) with those of a group of final year, mixed sex, medical students (n = 125). The purpose was to determine the basis of differences in attitudes that could lead to ethical disagreements between these two groups when they came to work together. A questionnaire developed to explore ethical attitudes was administered and the responses of the two groups were compared using (...)
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  26.  21
    A Sociobiological Expansion of Evolution and Ethics.George C. Williams - 1989 - In George Christopher Williams & James G. Paradis (eds.), Evolution and Ethics: T.H. Huxley's Evolution and Ethics with New Essays on its Victorian and Sociobiological Context. Princeton University Press. pp. 179-214.
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  27.  58
    Huxley's Evolution and Ethics in Sociobiological Perspective.George C. Williams - 1988 - Zygon 23 (4):383-407.
  28.  67
    Hannah Arendt: Critical Assessments of Leading Political Philosophers. Volume II, Arendt and Political Philosophy.Garrath Williams (ed.) - 2005 - Routledge.
    Hannah Arendt (1906-1975) is likely to be the first woman to join the canon of the great philosophers. Arendt's work has attracted a huge volume of scholarship. This collection reprints papers from the USA, Germany, France and the UK, where further scholarly work is emerging at an increasing pace. Given that there was vigorous debate of her work in her lifetime, that there have since been several waves of evaluation and re-evaluation, and because a new generation of scholars is now (...)
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  29.  72
    The Greek Origins of J. S. Mill's Happiness*: Geraint Williams.Geraint Williams - 1996 - Utilitas 8 (1):5-14.
    The larger topic which interests me is the general influence of the Greeks on Mill but here I shall concentrate on one aspect of this larger problem – can some of the difficulties which Mill is seen as getting into with his modified utilitarianism be better understood through an appreciation of the primacy of Greek views on happiness instead of the usual emphasis given to the Benthamite starting-point? The traditional objections to Mill's version of utility hardly need rehearsing: how can (...)
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  30.  67
    J. S. Mill and Political Violence: Geraint Williams.Geraint Williams - 1989 - Utilitas 1 (1):102-111.
    The most common view of Mill sees him as the classic liberal and one key element in this liberalism is said to be that his thought ‘rests on the belief that the use of reason can settle fundamental social conflicts’. He is seen by a leading authority as ‘the rationalist, confident that social change could be effected by the art of persuasion and by the simple fact that men would learn from bitter experiences’. To point out that at various times (...)
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  31.  8
    The Role of Law in Decisions to Withhold and Withdraw Life-Sustaining Treatment From Adults Who Lack Capacity: A Cross-Sectional Study.Benjamin P. White, Lindy Willmott, Gail Williams, Colleen Cartwright & Malcolm Parker - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (5):327-333.
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  32. Psi and the Problem of Consciousness.George Williams - 2013 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 34:259-284.
    In this paper, I consider what the growing evidence in parapsychology can tell us about the nature of consciousness. Parapsychology remains controversial because it implies deviations from the understanding that many scientists and philosophers hold about the nature of reality. However, given the difficulties in explaining consciousness, a growing number of philosophers have called for new, possibly radical explanations, which include versions of dualism or panpsychism. In this spirit, I briefly review the evidence on psi to see what explanation of (...)
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  33.  50
    'Infrastructures of Responsibility': The Moral Tasks of Institutions.Garrath Williams - 2006 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (2):207–221.
    The members of any functioning modern society live their lives amid complex networks of overlapping institutions. Apart from the major political institutions of law and government, however, much normative political theory seems to regard this institutional fabric as largely a pragmatic convenience. This paper contests this assumption by reflecting on how institutions both constrain and enable spheres of effective action and responsibility. In this way a society’s institutional fabric constitutes, in Samuel Scheffler’s phrase, an infrastructure of responsibility. The paper discusses (...)
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  34.  42
    Between Ethics and Right: Kantian Politics and Democratic Purposes.Garrath Williams - 2012 - European Journal of Philosophy 20 (3):479-486.
    Arthur Ripstein's book Force and Freedom insists that, ‘Freedom, understood as independence of another person's choice, is [all] that matters’. In this paper I suggest that this premise leads Ripstein to an instrumentalization of democracy that neglects a properly public and collective notion of freedom. The paper first criticizes Ripstein's key argument against any extension of public purposes beyond the upholding of persons’ ‘independence of others’ choice’. More constructively, the paper then suggests that a space of public freedom is opened (...)
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  35. Love and Responsibility: A Political Ethic for Hannah Arendt.Garrath Williams - 1998 - Political Studies 46 (5):937-950.
    This paper argues that those critics of Hannah Arendt's thought who have protested at her disavowal of ‘moral standards’ as being appropriate in the judgment of political action have, in fact, misjudged the structure of her thought. My argument is, however, a constructive one: the paper seeks to demonstrate how Arendt arrives at her sweeping rejection of conventional standards of moral judgment, and what solution she proposes. I do this in three stages. First, I address Arendt's understanding of self as (...)
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  36. Utilitarianism ; on Liberty ; Considerations on Representative Government ; Remarks on Bentham's Philosophy.John Stuart Mill & Geraint Williams - 1993
     
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  37. Responsibilities for Healthcare - Kantian Reflections.Garrath Williams & Ruth Chadwick - 2012 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (2):155-165.
    This paper explores some ways in which Immanuel Kant’s ethical theory can be brought to bear on professional and health care ethics. Health care professionals are not mere individuals acting upon their own ends. Rather, their principles of action must be defined in terms of participation in a cooperative endeavor. This generates complex questions as to how well their roles mesh with one another and whether they comprise a well-formed collective agent. We argue that Kant’s ethics therefore, and perhaps surprisingly, (...)
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  38.  46
    Kant and the Question of Meaning.Garrath Williams - 1999 - Philosophical Forum 30 (2):115–131.
    This paper discusses Kant’s problematic attempts to come to grips with the question of meaning. The first section sets out the problem as Kant discovers it, under the idea of a ‘Categorical Imperative.’ The second looks directly at his thoughts on the question of meaning, in connection with individual dignity, personal fulfilment and hope for our common future. Third, I examine inadequacies in Kant’s account, while the fourth part suggests that these arise through a lack of faith in the practical (...)
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  39. Bioethics and Large-Scale Biobanking: Individualistic Ethics and Collective Projects.Garrath Williams - 2005 - Genomics, Society and Policy 1 (2):50-66.
    Like most bioethical discussion, examination of human biobanks has been largely framed in terms of research subjects’ rights, principally informed consent, with some gestures toward public benefits. However, informed consent is for the competent, rights-bearing individual: focussing on the individual, it thus neglects social, economic and even political matters; focussing on the competent rights-bearer, it does not serve situations where consent is plainly inappropriate (eg, the young child) or where coercion can obviously be justified (the criminal). Using the British experience (...)
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  40.  40
    Reply to Comments on "Huxley's Evolution and Ethics in Sociobiological Perspective".George C. Williams - 1988 - Zygon 23 (4):437-438.
  41. Mother Nature is a Wicked Old Witch.George C. Williams - 1993 - In Matthew Nitecki & Doris Nitecki (eds.), Evolutionary Ethics. Suny Press. pp. 2--17.
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  42. What is It Like to Be Nonconscious? A Defense of Julian Jaynes.Gary Williams - 2011 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 10 (2):217-239.
    I respond to Ned Block’s claim that it is ridiculous to suppose that consciousness is a cultural construction based on language and learned in childhood. Block is wrong to dismiss social constructivist theories of consciousness on account of it being ludicrous that conscious experience is anything but a biological feature of our animal heritage, characterized by sensory experience, evolved over millions of years. By defending social constructivism in terms of both Julian Jaynes’ behaviorism and J.J. Gibson’s ecological psychology, I draw (...)
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  43. ‘Who Are We to Judge?’ – On the Proportionment of Happiness to Virtue: Garrath Williams.Garrath Williams - 2010 - Philosophy 85 (1):47-66.
    The claim that happiness and virtue ought to be proportionate to one another has often been expressed in the idea of a future world of divine justice, despite many moral difficulties with this idea. This paper argues that human efforts to enact such a proportionment are, ironically, justified by the same reasons that make the idea of divine justice seem so problematic. Moralists have often regarded our frailty and fallibility as reasons for abstaining from the judgment of others; and doubts (...)
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  44.  19
    The Structure of Liquid Tin.K. Furukawa, B. R. Orton, J. Hamor & G. I. Williams - 1963 - Philosophical Magazine 8 (85):141-155.
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  45. Science for Development.T. Williams & G. Williams - 1992 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 36:64-64.
     
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  46.  52
    Disclosure and Responsibility in Arendt’s The Human Condition.Garrath Williams - 2015 - European Journal of Political Theory 14 (1):37-54.
    Hannah Arendt is one of the few philosophers to examine the dynamics of political action at length. Intriguingly, she emphasises the disclosure of who the actor is as a specific distinction of political action. This emphasis is connected with some long-standing worries about Arendt’s account that centre on its apparent unconcern for political responsibility. In this paper, I argue that Arendt’s emphasis on disclosure actually harbours a profound concern with responsibility. I do so by examining three questions. The main part (...)
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  47. Quantum Mechanics, Metaphysics, and Bohm's Implicate Order.George Williams - 2019 - Mind and Matter 2 (17):155-186.
    The persistent interpretation problem for quantum mechanics may indicate an unwillingness to consider unpalatable assumptions that could open the way toward progress. With this in mind, I focus on the work of David Bohm, whose earlier work has been more influential than that of his later. As I’ll discuss, I believe two assumptions play a strong role in explaining the disparity: 1) that theories in physics must be grounded in mathematical structure and 2) that consciousness must supervene on material processes. (...)
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  48. Hannah Arendt on Power.Garrath Williams - 2011 - In Keith Dowding (ed.), Encyclopedia of Power. Thousand Oaks: Sage. pp. 26-28.
    Hannah Arendt’s (1906-1975) conception of power is entirely distinctive. It is rooted in a political philosophy that celebrates the public realm of freedom that emerges when people act with others as citizens or political equals. For Arendt, power is actualized where people act together to sustain or to change the world they share with one another. Her fundamental claim is this: ‘Power corresponds to the human ability not just to act but to act in concert. Power is never the property (...)
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  49.  7
    Health Promotion--Caring Concern or Slick Salesmanship?G. Williams - 1984 - Journal of Medical Ethics 10 (4):191-195.
    There is an increasing tendency for administrators and government to expect both the health services and the education service to 'show results' for the investment of public money in them. One response to this has been the growing commitment to 'health promotion', where measurable objectives may be set in terms of desired behaviour (stopping smoking, breast self-examination, child immunisation etc) and where evaluation can be made on the evidence of statistical improvement. Health workers use the term 'promotion' in a variety (...)
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  50. Are Different Standards Warranted to Evaluate Psi?George Williams - 2016 - Journal of Parapsychology 79 (2):186-202.
    Throughout the debate on psi, skeptics have almost universally insisted on different standards for evaluating the evidence, claiming that psi represents a radical departure from our current scientific understanding. Thus, there is considerable ambiguity about what standard of evaluation psi must meet. Little attention has been paid to the possible harm to the integrity of scientific investigation from this resulting inconsistency in testing standards. Some have proposed using a Bayesian framework as an improvement on this dilemma in order to more (...)
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