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Garrath Williams [51]Gardner Williams [37]Gordon Williams [25]Gareth Williams [22]
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Garrath Williams
Lancaster University
Guy A. Williams Jr.
Harvard University
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  1.  3
    Adaptation and Natural Selection: A Critique of Some Current Evolutionary Thought.George C. Williams - 1970 - Philosophy of Science 37 (4):620-623.
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  2. Psi and the Problem of Consciousness.George Williams - 2013 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 34:259-284.
    In this paper, I consider what the growing evidence in parapsychology can tell us about the nature of consciousness. Parapsychology remains controversial because it implies deviations from the understanding that many scientists and philosophers hold about the nature of reality. However, given the difficulties in explaining consciousness, a growing number of philosophers have called for new, possibly radical explanations, which include versions of dualism or panpsychism. In this spirit, I briefly review the evidence on psi to see what explanation of (...)
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  3.  72
    Religion and Attitudes to Corporate Social Responsibility in a Large Cross-Country Sample.S. Brammer, Geoffrey Williams & John Zinkin - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 71 (3):229-243.
    This paper explores the relationship between religious denomination and individual attitudes to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) within the context of a large sample of over 17,000 individuals drawn from 20 countries. We address two general questions: do members of religious denominations have different attitudes concerning CSR than people of no denomination? And: do members of different religions have different attitudes to CSR that conform to general priors about the teachings of different religions? Our evidence suggests that, broadly, religious individuals do (...)
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  4. Science for Development.T. Williams & G. Williams - 1992 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 36:64-64.
     
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  5.  67
    Islam and CSR: A Study of the Compatibility Between the Tenets of Islam and the UN Global Compact.Geoffrey Williams & John Zinkin - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 91 (4):519-533.
    This paper looks at whether the tenets of Islam are consistent with the 'Ten Principles' of responsible business outlined in the UN Global Compact. The paper concludes that with the possible exception of Islam's focus on personal responsibility and the non-recognition of the corporation as a legal person, which could undermine the concept of corporate responsibility, there is no divergence between the tenets of the religion and the principles of the UN Global Compact. Indeed, Islam often goes further and has (...)
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  6. Why We Get Sick the New Science of Darwinian Medicine.Randolph M. Nesse & George C. Williams - 1994
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  7.  87
    Responsibility as a Virtue.Garrath Williams - 2008 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 11 (4):455-470.
    Philosophers usually discuss responsibility in terms of responsibility for past actions or as a question about the nature of moral agency. Yet the word responsibility is fairly modern, whereas these topics arguably represent timeless concerns about human agency. This paper investigates another use of responsibility, that is particularly important to modern liberal societies: responsibility as a virtue that can be demonstrated by individuals and organisations. The paper notes its initial importance in political contexts, and seeks to explain why we now (...)
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  8. What is It Like to Be Nonconscious? A Defense of Julian Jaynes.Gary Williams - 2011 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 10 (2):217-239.
    I respond to Ned Block’s claim that it is ridiculous to suppose that consciousness is a cultural construction based on language and learned in childhood. Block is wrong to dismiss social constructivist theories of consciousness on account of it being ludicrous that conscious experience is anything but a biological feature of our animal heritage, characterized by sensory experience, evolved over millions of years. By defending social constructivism in terms of both Julian Jaynes’ behaviorism and J.J. Gibson’s ecological psychology, I draw (...)
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  9.  54
    Children as Means and Ends in Large-Scale Medical Research.Garrath Williams - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (8):422-430.
    This paper considers the often-expressed fear that medical research may use children merely as means, and not respect them as ends in themselves – especially insofar as they are deemed less able to consent than adults. The main focus is on large-scale genetic, socio-medical and epidemiological research. The theoretical starting point of the paper is that to be treated as an end in oneself is to be regarded as – and to act as – a participant in cooperative endeavours. This (...)
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  10.  13
    What Can Consciousness Anomalies Tell Us About Quantum Mechanics?George Williams - 2016 - Journal of Scientific Exploration 30 (3):326-354.
    In this paper, I explore the link between consciousness and quantum mechanics. Often explanations that invoke consciousness to help explain some of the most perplexing aspects of quantum mechanics are not given serious attention. However, casual dismissal is perhaps unwarranted, given the persistence of the measurement problem, as well as the mysterious nature of consciousness. Using data accumulated from experiments in parapsychology, I examine what anomalous data with respect to consciousness might tell us about various explanations of quantum mechanics. I (...)
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  11.  9
    Law as Clinical Evidence: A New ConstitutiveModel of Medical Education and Decision-Making.Malcolm Parker, Lindy Willmott, Ben White, Gail Williams & Colleen Cartwright - 2018 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 15 (1):101-109.
    Over several decades, ethics and law have been applied to medical education and practice in a way that reflects the continuation during the twentieth century of the strong distinction between facts and values. We explain the development of applied ethics and applied medical law and report selected results that reflect this applied model from an empirical project examining doctors’ decisions on withdrawing/withholding treatment from patients who lack decision-making capacity. The model is critiqued, and an alternative “constitutive” model is supported on (...)
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  12. Are Different Standards Warranted to Evaluate Psi?George Williams - 2016 - Journal of Parapsychology 79 (2):186-202.
    Throughout the debate on psi, skeptics have almost universally insisted on different standards for evaluating the evidence, claiming that psi represents a radical departure from our current scientific understanding. Thus, there is considerable ambiguity about what standard of evaluation psi must meet. Little attention has been paid to the possible harm to the integrity of scientific investigation from this resulting inconsistency in testing standards. Some have proposed using a Bayesian framework as an improvement on this dilemma in order to more (...)
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  13.  3
    The Role of Law in Decisions to Withhold and Withdraw Life-Sustaining Treatment From Adults Who Lack Capacity: A Cross-Sectional Study.Benjamin P. White, Lindy Willmott, Gail Williams, Colleen Cartwright & Malcolm Parker - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (5):327-333.
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  14.  27
    The Effect of Culture on Consumers' Willingness to Punish Irresponsible Corporate Behaviour: Applying Hofstede's Typology to the Punishment Aspect of Corporate Social Responsibility.Geoffrey Williams & John Zinkin - 2008 - Business Ethics 17 (2):210–226.
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  15. Responsibility.Garrath Williams - 2006 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    We evaluate people and groups as responsible or not, depending on how seriously they take their responsibilities. Often we do this informally, via moral judgment. Sometimes we do this formally, for instance in legal judgment. This article considers mainly moral responsibility, and focuses largely upon individuals. Later sections also comment on the relation between legal and moral responsibility, and on the responsibility of collectives.
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  16.  6
    The Effect of Culture on Consumers' Willingness to Punish Irresponsible Corporate Behaviour: Applying Hofstede's Typology to the Punishment Aspect of Corporate Social Responsibility.Geoffrey Williams & John Zinkin - 2008 - Business Ethics: A European Review 17 (2):210-226.
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  17.  86
    Counterfactual Triviality: A Lewis-Impossibility Argument for Counterfactuals.J. Robert & G. Williams - 2012 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 85 (3):648-670.
    I formulate a counterfactual version of the notorious 'Ramsey Test'. Whereas the Ramsey Test for indicative conditionals links credence in indicatives to conditional credences, the counterfactual version links credence in counterfactuals to expected conditional chance. I outline two forms: a Ramsey Identity on which the probability of the conditional should be identical to the corresponding conditional probabihty/expectation of chance; and a Ramsey Bound on which credence in the conditional should never exceed the latter.Even in the weaker, bound, form, the counterfactual (...)
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  18.  6
    The Social Creation of Morality and Complicity in Collective Harms: A Kantian Account.Garrath Williams - forthcoming - Journal of Applied Philosophy.
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  19.  8
    Differences in Ethical Attitudes Between Registered Nurses and Medical Students.Ruth Elder, John Price & Gail Williams - 2003 - Nursing Ethics 10 (2):149-164.
    In this study we compared the ethical attitudes of a group of experienced, predominantly female, registered nurses (n = 67) with those of a group of final year, mixed sex, medical students (n = 125). The purpose was to determine the basis of differences in attitudes that could lead to ethical disagreements between these two groups when they came to work together. A questionnaire developed to explore ethical attitudes was administered and the responses of the two groups were compared using (...)
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  20.  46
    Responsibilities for Healthcare.Garrath Williams & Ruth Chadwick - 2012 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (2):155-165.
    This paper explores some ways in which Immanuel Kant’s ethical theory can be brought to bear on professional and health care ethics. Health care professionals are not mere individuals acting upon their own ends. Rather, their principles of action must be defined in terms of participation in a cooperative endeavor. This generates complex questions as to how well their roles mesh with one another and whether they comprise a well-formed collective agent. We argue that Kant’s ethics therefore, and perhaps surprisingly, (...)
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  21.  38
    Between Ethics and Right: Kantian Politics and Democratic Purposes.Garrath Williams - 2012 - European Journal of Philosophy 20 (3):479-486.
    Arthur Ripstein's book Force and Freedom insists that, ‘Freedom, understood as independence of another person's choice, is [all] that matters’. In this paper I suggest that this premise leads Ripstein to an instrumentalization of democracy that neglects a properly public and collective notion of freedom. The paper first criticizes Ripstein's key argument against any extension of public purposes beyond the upholding of persons’ ‘independence of others’ choice’. More constructively, the paper then suggests that a space of public freedom is opened (...)
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  22. Hannah Arendt on Power.Garrath Williams - unknown
    Hannah Arendt’s (1906-1975) conception of power is entirely distinctive. It is rooted in a political philosophy that celebrates the public realm of freedom that emerges when people act with others as citizens or political equals. For Arendt, power is actualized where people act together to sustain or to change the world they share with one another. Her fundamental claim is this: ‘Power corresponds to the human ability not just to act but to act in concert. Power is never the property (...)
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  23.  16
    Changes in Medical Student Attitudes as They Progress Through a Medical Course.J. Price, D. Price, G. Williams & R. Hoffenberg - 1998 - Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (2):110-117.
    Objectives - To explore the wvay ethical principles develop during a medical education course for three groups of medical students - in their first year, at the beginning of their penultimate (fifth) year and towards the end of their final (sixth) year. Design - Survey questionnaire administered to medical students in their first, fifth and final (sixth) year. Setting - A large medical school in Queensland, Australia. Survey sample - Approximately half the students in each of three years (first, fifth (...)
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  24.  63
    Counterfactual Triviality.J. Robert & G. Williams - 2012 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 85 (3):648-670.
    I formulate a counterfactual version of the notorious 'Ramsey Test'. Whereas the Ramsey Test for indicative conditionals links credence in indicatives to conditional credences, the counterfactual version links credence in counterfactuals to expected conditional chance. I outline two forms: a Ramsey Identity on which the probability of the conditional should be identical to the corresponding conditional probabihty/expectation of chance; and a Ramsey Bound on which credence in the conditional should never exceed the latter.Even in the weaker, bound, form, the counterfactual (...)
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  25.  51
    Sharing Responsibility and Holding Responsible.Garrath Williams - 2013 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (4):351-364.
    Who, in particular, may hold us responsible for our moral failings? Most discussions of moral responsibility bracket this question, despite its obvious practical importance. In this article, I investigate the moral authority involved and how it arises in the context of personal relationships, such as friendship or family relations. My account is based on the idea that parties to a personal relationship not only share responsibility for their relationship, but also — to some degree that is negotiated between them — (...)
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  26.  59
    Bioethics and Large-Scale Biobanking: Individualistic Ethics and Collective Projects.Garrath Williams - 2005 - Genomics, Society and Policy 1 (2):50-66.
    Like most bioethical discussion, examination of human biobanks has been largely framed in terms of research subjects’ rights, principally informed consent, with some gestures toward public benefits. However, informed consent is for the competent, rights-bearing individual: focussing on the individual, it thus neglects social, economic and even political matters; focussing on the competent rights-bearer, it does not serve situations where consent is plainly inappropriate (eg, the young child) or where coercion can obviously be justified (the criminal). Using the British experience (...)
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  27.  41
    'Infrastructures of Responsibility': The Moral Tasks of Institutions.Garrath Williams - 2006 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (2):207–221.
    The members of any functioning modern society live their lives amid complex networks of overlapping institutions. Apart from the major political institutions of law and government, however, much normative political theory seems to regard this institutional fabric as largely a pragmatic convenience. This paper contests this assumption by reflecting on how institutions both constrain and enable spheres of effective action and responsibility. In this way a society’s institutional fabric constitutes, in Samuel Scheffler’s phrase, an infrastructure of responsibility. The paper discusses (...)
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  28.  5
    Evolution and Ethics: T.H. Huxley's Evolution and Ethics with New Essays on its Victorian and Sociobiological Context.James G. Paradis & George Christopher Williams - 1989 - Princeton University Press.
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  29. Universalistic Hedonism Vs. Hedonic Individual Relativism.Gardner Williams - 1955 - Journal of Philosophy 52 (3):72-77.
  30.  1
    Fifty Interesting Years.Gareth Williams - 2012 - Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education 16 (2):51-55.
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  31.  22
    Responsibilities for Healthcare - Kantian Reflections.Garrath Williams & Ruth Chadwick - 2012 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (2):155-165.
    Many have complained that Kant’s ethics provides little specific guidance as to how we should act. In contemporary healthcare, professionals act in large-scale organizational contexts, with complex reward structures, and in many cases belong to professional bodies that determine the ethical obligations associated with particular roles.
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  32.  44
    Huxley's Evolution and Ethics in Sociobiological Perspective.George C. Williams - 1988 - Zygon 23 (4):383-407.
  33. John Stuart Mill's on Liberty.John C. Rees & G. L. Williams - 1989
     
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  34.  81
    Kant's Account of Reason.Garrath Williams - 2009 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Two of the most prominent questions in Kant's critical philosophy concern reason. The first, central to his theoretical philosophy, is the unprovable pretensions of reason in earlier “rationalist” philosophers, especially Leibniz and Descartes. The second, central to his practical philosophy, is the subservient role accorded to reason by the British empiricists—above all Hume, who declared, “Reason is wholly inactive, and can never be the source of so active a principle as conscience, or a sense of morals.” Treatise, 3.1.1.11; see also (...)
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  35.  42
    The Greek Origins of J. S. Mill's Happiness.Geraint Williams - 1996 - Utilitas 8 (1):5.
    The larger topic which interests me is the general influence of the Greeks on Mill but here I shall concentrate on one aspect of this larger problem – can some of the difficulties which Mill is seen as getting into with his modified utilitarianism be better understood through an appreciation of the primacy of Greek views on happiness instead of the usual emphasis given to the Benthamite starting-point? The traditional objections to Mill's version of utility hardly need rehearsing: how can (...)
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  36.  83
    Human Genetic Banking:Altruism, Benefit and Consent.Doris Schroeder & Garrath Williams - 2004 - New Genetics and Society 23 (1):89-103.
    This article considers how we should frame the ethical issues raised by current proposals for large-scale genebanks with on-going links to medical and lifestyle data, such as the Wellcome Trust and Medical Research Council's 'UK Biobank'. As recent scandals such as Alder Hey have emphasised, there are complex issues concerning the informed consent of donors that need to be carefully considered. However, we believe that a preoccupation with informed consent obscures important questions about the purposes to which such collections are (...)
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  37.  6
    ‘Who Are We to Judge?’ – On the Proportionment of Happiness to Virtue: Garrath Williams.Garrath Williams - 2010 - Philosophy 85 (1):47-66.
    The claim that happiness and virtue ought to be proportionate to one another has often been expressed in the idea of a future world of divine justice, despite many moral difficulties with this idea. This paper argues that human efforts to enact such a proportionment are, ironically, justified by the same reasons that make the idea of divine justice seem so problematic. Moralists have often regarded our frailty and fallibility as reasons for abstaining from the judgment of others; and doubts (...)
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  38.  13
    An Empirical Survey on Biobanking of Human Genetic Material and Data in Six EU Countries.Isabelle Hirtzlin, Christine Dubreuil, Nathalie Préaubert, Jenny Duchier, Brigitte Jansen, Jürgen Simon, Paula Lobatao De Faria, Anna Perez-Lezaun, Bert Visser, Garrath D. Williams, Anne Cambon-Thomsen & The Eurogenbank Consortium - 2003 - European Journal of Human Genetics 11:475–488.
    Biobanks correspond to different situations: research and technological development, medical diagnosis or therapeutic activities. Their status is not clearly defined. We aimed to investigate human biobanking in Europe, particularly in relation to organisational, economic and ethical issues in various national contexts. Data from a survey in six EU countries were collected as part of a European Research Project examining human and non-human biobanking. A total of 147 institutions concerned with biobanking of human samples and data were investigated by questionnaires and (...)
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  39.  34
    Reply to Comments on "Huxley's Evolution and Ethics in Sociobiological Perspective".George C. Williams - 1988 - Zygon 23 (4):437-438.
  40.  95
    Moral Responsibility.Garrath Williams - 2010 - Oxford Bibliographies Online.
    [Bibliographic article focussing on compatibilist approaches to responsibility.] Moral responsibility relates to many significant topics in ethics and metaphysics, such as the content and scope of moral obligations, the nature of human agency, and the structure of human interaction. This entry focuses on compatibilist approaches to moral responsibility—that is, approaches that see moral responsibility as compatible with the causal order of the world. This is partly because they have more to say about the nature of moral responsibility and the practices (...)
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  41.  57
    Mother Nature is a Wicked Old Witch.George C. Williams - 1993 - In Matthew Nitecki & Doris Nitecki (eds.), Evolutionary Ethics. Suny Press. pp. 2--17.
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  42.  62
    Blame and Responsibility.Garrath Williams - 2003 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 6 (4):427-445.
    This paper looks at judgments of guilt in the face of alleged wrong-doing, be it in public or in private discourse. Its concern is not the truth of such judgments, although the complexity and contestability of such claims will be stressed. The topic, instead, is what sort of activities we are engaged in, when we make our judgments on others' conduct. To examine judging as an activity it focuses on a series of problems that can occur when we blame others. (...)
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  43. Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy.Garrath Williams - 2003 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    This encyclopedia entry surveys the moral and political thought of the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679). Hobbes's vision of the world is strikingly original and still relevant to contemporary politics. His main concern is the problem of social and political order: how human beings can live together in peace and avoid the danger and fear of civil conflict. He poses stark alternatives: we should give our obedience to an unaccountable sovereign (a person or group empowered to decide every social and (...)
     
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  44.  51
    Ethics and Public Policy.Dita Wickins-Drazilova & Garrath Williams - 2010 - In Luis Moreno, Iris Pigeot & Wolfgang Ahrens (eds.), Epidemiology of Obesity in Children and Adolescents. Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 7--20.
    Ethical reflections help us decide what are the best actions to pursue in difficult and controversial situations. Reflections on public policy consider how to alter patterns of individual activity and institutional policies or frameworks for the better. The rising prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity may pose serious health issues. As such, it is related to ethical and public policy questions including responsibility for health, food production and consumption, patterns of physical activity, the role of the state, and the rights (...)
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  45.  44
    J. S. Mill and Political Violence.Geraint Williams - 1989 - Utilitas 1 (1):102.
    The most common view of Mill sees him as the classic liberal and one key element in this liberalism is said to be that his thought ‘rests on the belief that the use of reason can settle fundamental social conflicts’. He is seen by a leading authority as ‘the rationalist, confident that social change could be effected by the art of persuasion and by the simple fact that men would learn from bitter experiences’. To point out that at various times (...)
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  46. “The Church.William J. Abraham, Jose Miguez Bonino, Robert F. Drinan, Leo Pfeffer, Seymour Siegel, George Huntston Williams & Sharon L. Worthing - 2010 - In Charles Taliaferro & Chad V. Meister (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Christian Philosophical Theology. Cambridge University Press.
     
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  47. Utilitarianism ; on Liberty ; Considerations on Representative Government ; Remarks on Bentham's Philosophy.John Stuart Mill & Geraint Williams - 1993
     
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  48.  12
    The Structure of Liquid Tin.K. Furukawa, B. R. Orton, J. Hamor & G. I. Williams - 1963 - Philosophical Magazine 8 (85):141-155.
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  49.  94
    Praise and Blame.Garrath Williams - 2004 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Joel Feinberg observed that ‘moral responsibility… is a subject about which we are all confused.’ (1970: 37) Perhaps nowhere is this confusion more evident than in our understandings of praise and blame. This entry will contrast three influential philosophical accounts of our everyday practices of praise and blame, in terms of how they might be justified. On the one hand, a broadly Kantian approach sees responsibility for actions as relying on forms of self control that point back to the idea (...)
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  50.  12
    A Sociobiological Expansion of Evolution and Ethics.George C. Williams - 1989 - In George Christopher Williams & James G. Paradis (eds.), Evolution and Ethics: T.H. Huxley's Evolution and Ethics with New Essays on its Victorian and Sociobiological Context. Princeton University Press. pp. 179-214.
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