168 found
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  1. The Ontological Argument Simplified.Gareth B. Matthews & Lynne Rudder Baker - 2010 - Analysis 70 (2):210-212.
    The ontological argument in Anselm’s Proslogion II continues to generate a remarkable store of sophisticated commentary and criticism. However, in our opinion, much of this literature ignores or misrepresents the elegant simplicity of the original argument. The dialogue below seeks to restore that simplicity, with one important modification. Like the original, it retains the form of a reductio, which we think is essential to the argument’s great genius. However, it seeks to skirt the difficult question of whether 'exists' is a (...)
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  2. The Philosophy of Childhood.Gareth B. Matthews - 1997 - Philosophical Quarterly 47 (186):125-127.
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  3. Dialogues with Children.Gareth B. Matthews - 1984 - Harvard University Press.
  4. Parents and Children: The Ethics of the Family.Gareth B. Matthews - 1985 - Journal of Philosophy 82 (6):330-332.
  5.  58
    Order in Multiplicity: Homonymy in the Philosophy of Aristotle.Gareth B. Matthews & Christopher Shields - 2001 - Philosophical Review 110 (2):267.
    One of the most striking innovations in Aristotle’s philosophical writing is also one of its most characteristic features. That feature is Aristotle’s idea that terms central to philosophy, including ‘cause’ [aition], ‘good’, and even the verb ‘to be’, are, as he likes to put it, “said in many ways.” To be sure, philosophers before Aristotle give some evidence of having recognized the phenomenon of being said in many ways. Plato, in particular, suggests that things in this world that we call (...)
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  6. Death in Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.Gareth B. Matthews - 2012 - In Fred Feldman Ben Bradley (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Death. Oup Usa. pp. 186.
    This chapter examines the views of death by ancient Greek philosophers including Aristotle, Socrates, and Plato. It suggests that Aristotle offered no cheerful optimism similar to Socrates in his “Apology” and did not provide any arguments about the immortality of the soul like Plato in “Phaedo.” What Aristotle attempted to do was to help us face immortality that can enhance our chances of living worthy lives.
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  7.  52
    Philosophy and the Young Child.Gareth B. Matthews - 1980 - Harvard University Press.
    In a series of exquisite examples that could only have been gathered by a professional philosopher with an extraordinary respect for young minds, Gareth...
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  8. Accidental Unities.Gareth B. Matthews - 1982 - In M. Schofield & M. C. Nussbaum (eds.), Language and Logos. Cambridge University Press. pp. 223--240.
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  9.  30
    Socratic Perplexity and the Nature of Philosophy.Gareth B. Matthews - 1999 - Oxford University Press.
    Gareth Matthews suggests that we can better understand the nature of philosophical inquiry if we recognize the central role played by perplexity. The seminal representation of philosophical perplexity is in Plato's dialogues; Matthews examines the intriguing shifts in Plato's attitude to perplexity and suggests that these may represent a course of philosophical development that philosophers follow even today.
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  10. Socratic Perplexity: And the Nature of Philosophy.Gareth B. Matthews - 1999 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Gareth Matthews suggests that we can better understand the nature of philosophical inquiry if we recognize the central role played by perplexity. The seminal representation of philosophical perplexity is in Plato's dialogues; Matthews invites us to view this as a response to something inherently problematic in the basic notions that philosophy deals with. He examines the intriguing shifts in Plato's attitude to perplexity and suggests that this development may be seen as an archetypal pattern that philosophers follow even today. So (...)
     
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  11. Anselm’s Argument Reconsidered.Gareth B. Matthews - 2010 - Review of Metaphysics 64 (1):31-54.
    Anselm’s argument for the existence of God in Proslogion 2 has a little-noticed feature: It can be properly formulated only by beings who have the ability to think of things and refer to things independently of whether or not they exist in reality. The authors explore this cognitive ability and try to make clear the role it plays in the ontological argument. Then, we offer a new version of the ontological argument, which, we argue, is sound: it is valid, has (...)
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  12.  87
    Aristotelian Essentialism.Gareth B. Matthews - 1990 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 50:251-262.
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  13.  30
    Philosophy and the Young Child.Gareth B. Matthews - 1979 - Metaphilosophy 10:354.
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  14. The Ontological Argument.Gareth B. Matthews - 2004 - In William Mann (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Religion. Blackwell.
  15.  9
    The Epistemology and Metaphysics of Socrates.Gareth B. Matthews - 2008 - In Gail Fine (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Plato. Oxford University Press.
    Epistemology and metaphysics as described by Socrates is the crux of this article. Socrates here is all set to assess the wisdom of the candidates. He goes about arguing as to who is wiser and the various aspects of wisdom. He also elaborates on wisdom as a virtue. The article further harps on the idea of what counts as knowledge and also highlights the differences between Socratic Ignorance and Complete Ignorance.
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  16.  16
    Augustine: Ancient Thought Baptized.Gareth B. Matthews & John M. Rist - 1996 - Philosophical Review 105 (1):110.
    As John Rist presents Augustine, he was a man who “lived on the frontier between the ancient world and mediaeval Western Europe”. Among the the many who tried to transform ancient thought, Rist tells us, Augustine was “the most radical and the most influential”.
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  17.  11
    Aristotle on Nature and Incomplete Substance.Gareth B. Matthews - 2000 - Philosophical and Phenomenological Research 60 (1):244-246.
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  18.  84
    Augustine on the Mind’s Search for Itself.Gareth B. Matthews - 2003 - Faith and Philosophy 20 (4):415-429.
    In De trinitate X Augustine seeks to discover the nature of mind. As if recalling Plato’s Paradox of Inquiry, he wonders how such a search can be coherently understood. Rejecting the idea that the mind knows itself only indirectly, or partially, or by description, he insists that nothing is so present to the mind as itself. Yet it is open to the mind to perfect its knowledge of itself by coming to realize that its nature is to be only what (...)
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  19.  50
    Thought's Ego in Augustine and Descartes.Gareth B. Matthews - 1992 - Cornell University Press.
    This book will be of great interest to philosophers of mind and epistemologists, historians of philosophy and their students, philosophers of religion, and ...
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  20. The One and the Many.Gareth B. Matthews & S. Marc Cohen - 1968 - Review of Metaphysics 21 (4):630-655.
    We discuss Aristotle's "Categories" as an answer to Plato's One-over-Many argument. For Plato, F-ness is something "over against" particular F things; to predicate "F" of these things is to assert that they all stand in a certain relation to F-ness. Aristotle answers that predication is classification; and there being a classification of a certain sort is a fact correlative with there being things classifiable in the way the classification in question would classify them.
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  21. Wants and Lacks.Gareth B. Matthews & S. Marc Cohen - 1967 - Journal of Philosophy 64 (14):455-456.
    Anthony Kenny says it is impossible to want what one already has and knows one has. We present a counter-example and then suggest that Kenny may have been misled by the fact that wanting expresses itself in goal-directed behavior. From the truism that one's behavior cannot be directed toward a goal that one knows one has already attained, Kenny may have been led to suppose that behavior directed toward an as yet unattained goal cannot express one's desire for what one (...)
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  22.  86
    Senses and Kinds.Gareth B. Matthews - 1972 - Journal of Philosophy 69 (6):149-157.
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  23. Philosophy and Developmental Psychology : Outgrowing the Deficit Conception of Childhood.Gareth B. Matthews - 2009 - In Harvey Siegel (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Education. Oxford University Press.
     
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  24.  25
    Augustine on Reasoning From One’s Own Case.Gareth B. Matthews - 1998 - Journal of Nietzsche Studies 7 (2):115-128.
  25. Moore on `See': Modes of Polysemy.Gareth B. Matthews - 1974 - Journal of Philosophy 71 (19):711-721.
  26. Augustine.Gareth B. Matthews - 2008 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    This lucid survey takes readers on a thought-provoking tour through the life and work of Augustine. Explores new insights into one of antiquity’s most important philosophers Topics Include: skepticism, language acquisition, mind-body dualism, philosophical dream problems, time and creation, faith and reason, foreknowledge and free will, and Augustine’s standing as a ‘Socratic philosopher’.
     
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  27.  21
    Augustine.Gareth B. Matthews - 2011 - In H. Lagerlund (ed.), Philosophical Review. Springer. pp. 125--131.
    This lucid survey takes readers on a thought-provoking tour through the life and work of Augustine. Explores new insights into one of antiquity’s most important philosophers Topics Include: skepticism, language acquisition, mind-body dualism, philosophical dream problems, time and creation, faith and reason, foreknowledge and free will, and Augustine’s standing as a ‘Socratic philosopher’.
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  28.  4
    Augustine. [REVIEW]Gareth B. Matthews - 1996 - Philosophical Review 105 (1):110-112.
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  29.  64
    Consciousness and Life.Gareth B. Matthews - 1977 - Philosophy 52 (January):13-26.
    In L. Frank Baum's story, Ozma of Oz , which is a sequel to Baum's much more famous story, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz , Dorothy and her companion come upon a wound-down mechanical man bearing a label on which are printed the following words: Smith and Tinker's Patent Double-Action, Extra-Responsive, Thought-Creating Perfect-Talking MECHANICAL MAN Fitted with our Special Clock-Work Attachment Thinks, Speaks, Acts, and Does Everything but Live As Dorothy and her companion are made to discover when they wind (...)
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  30. The Idea of a Psychological Organism.Gareth B. Matthews - 1985 - Behaviorism 13 (1):37-52.
    Each of the following might be considered both necessary and sufficient for an organism to count as a psychological organism: (a) being able to do something that requires a psychological theory to explain; (b) being capable of having experiences; (c) being motivated; (d) behaving in ways that are the joint outcome of the organism's beliefs and desires; (e) being capable of instrumental learning, or operant conditioning; (f) being susceptible to classical conditioning. This paper takes up each of these candidates in (...)
     
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  31.  21
    The Augustinian Tradition.Gareth B. Matthews (ed.) - 1998 - University of California Press.
    Students and scholars will find that these essays provide impressive evidence of the persisting vitality of Augustine's thought.
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  32.  29
    Augustine.Gareth B. Matthews - 2005 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    This lucid survey takes readers on a thought-provoking tour through the life and work of Augustine. Explores new insights into one of antiquity’s most important philosophers Topics Include: skepticism, language acquisition, mind-body dualism, philosophical dream problems, time and creation, faith and reason, foreknowledge and free will, and Augustine’s standing as a ‘Socratic philosopher’.
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  33.  79
    Two Theories of Supposition?Gareth B. Matthews - 1997 - Topoi 16 (1):35-40.
    In a recent paper Paul Vincent Spade suggests that, although the medieval doctrine of the modes of personal supposition originally had something to do with the rest of the theory of supposition, it became, by the 14th century, an unrelated theory with no question to answer. By contrast, I argue that the theory of the modes of personal supposition was meant to provide a way of making understandable the idea that a general term in a categorical proposition can be used (...)
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  34.  81
    Substance and Predication in Aristotle.Gareth B. Matthews - 1993 - Review of Metaphysics 46 (3):624-625.
    In this ambitious and challenging book, Frank Lewis aims to make clear the relation between the early metaphysical theory of Aristotle's Categories and the later theory of the central books of Aristotle's Metaphysics; to show, with each theory, how Aristotle positions himself in relation to Plato's theory of Forms; and to locate Aristotle's treatment of purely accidental entities within a more general Aristotelian theory of compounds.
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  35.  48
    Anaxagoras Re-Defended.Gareth B. Matthews - 2005 - Ancient Philosophy 25 (2):245-246.
  36.  52
    Le ‘Cogito’ Dans la Pensée de Saint Augustin. [REVIEW]Gareth B. Matthews - 2003 - Augustinian Studies 34 (2):291-294.
  37. Aristotle on Life.Gareth B. Matthews - 1996 - In Margaret A. Boden (ed.), The Philosophy of Artificial Life. Oxford University Press. pp. 303--313.
     
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  38.  78
    On Being Immoral in a Dream.Gareth B. Matthews - 1981 - Philosophy 56 (January):47-64.
    What is often called Descartes' dream problem should perhaps be called Plato's dream problem instead. Certainly it can be found in Plato's Theaetetus at 158b–c. It can also be found in Cicero and, through Cicero's influence, in much of the work of St Augustine.
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  39.  32
    Suppositio and Quantification in Ockham.Gareth B. Matthews - 1973 - Noûs 7 (1):13-24.
  40.  48
    Augustine’s Way Into the Will: The Theological and Philosophical Significance of De Libero Arbitrio, Simon Harrison. [REVIEW]Gareth B. Matthews - 2007 - Augustinian Studies 38 (1):306-307.
  41. Augustine and Philosophy.Johannes Brachtendorf, John D. Caputo, Jesse Couenhoven, Alexander R. Eodice, Wayne J. Hankey, John Peter Kenney, Paul A. Macdonald Jr, Gareth B. Matthews, Roland J. Teske, Frederick Van Fleteren & James Wetzel - 2010 - Lexington Books.
    The essays in this book, by a variety of leading Augustine scholars, examine not only Augustine's multifaceted philosophy and its relation to his epoch-making theology, but also his practice as a philosopher, as well as his relation to other philosophers both before and after him. Thus the collection shows that Augustine's philosophy remains an influence and a provocation in a wide variety of settings today.
     
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  42.  64
    The Enigma of "Categories" 1a20ff and Why It Matters.Gareth B. Matthews - 1989 - Apeiron 22 (4):91 - 104.
  43.  5
    Animals and the Unity of Psychology: Gareth B. Matthews.Gareth B. Matthews - 1978 - Philosophy 53 (206):437-454.
    By ‘the unity of psychology’ I mean something one might also express by saying that the psychology of human beings is part of the psychology of animals generally. Perhaps there are several different ways of trying to trace out the ramifications of the idea that psychology is one. A central consideration, I think, is likely to be some sort of principle of continuity up and down the scale of nature. The idea would be that up and down the scale of (...)
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  44.  22
    Augustine and Postmodernism: Confessions and Circumfession. [REVIEW]Gareth B. Matthews - 2006 - International Philosophical Quarterly 46 (1):117-118.
  45. Evil, God's Foreknowledge, and Human Free Will.Gareth B. Matthews - 2003 - In Jorge J. E. Gracia, Gregory M. Reichberg & Bernard N. Schumacher (eds.), The Classics of Western Philosophy: A Reader's Guide. Blackwell. pp. 88.
     
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  46. The Philosopher's Child: Critical Perspectives in the Western Tradition.Susan M. Turner & Gareth B. Matthews (eds.) - 1998 - University of Rochester Press.
  47.  26
    The Ring of Gyges: Plato in Grade School.Gareth B. Matthews - 2000 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 14 (1):3-11.
    This paper illustrates some of the exciting and interesting philosophical discussions we can have with children when we let them develop the thread of the conversation in their own ways. The author discusses the virtue of patience when doing philosophy with children, and the importance of letting the rhythms of the discussion unfold without undue adult interference. Adults often attempt to control the ways in which children discuss issues with one another. The author reminds us of how powerful it can (...)
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  48.  15
    Descartes and Augustine.Gareth B. Matthews - 1998 - Philosophical and Phenomenological Research 61 (3):721-723.
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  49.  38
    La Notion D’Accident Chez Aristote: Logique Et Métaphysique. [REVIEW]Gareth B. Matthews - 1990 - Ancient Philosophy 10 (1):141-143.
  50.  11
    Animals and the Unity of Psychology.Gareth B. Matthews - 1978 - Philosophy 53 (206):437 - 454.
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