Results for 'Kant's racism'

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  1. Kant’s Racism.Lucy Allais - 2016 - Philosophical Papers 45 (1-2):1-36.
    After a long period of comparative neglect, in the last few decades growing numbers of philosophers have been paying attention to the startling contrast presented between Kant’s universal moral theory, with its inspiring enlightenment ideas of human autonomy, equality and dignity and Kant’s racism. Against Charles Mills, who argues that the way to make Kant consistent is by attributing to him a threshold notion of moral personhood, according to which some races do not qualify for consideration under the categorical (...)
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  2. On Dealing with Kant's Sexism and Racism.Pauline Kleingeld - 2019 - SGIR Review 2 (2):3-22.
    Kant is famous for his universalist moral theory, which emphasizes human dignity, equality, and autonomy. Yet he also defended sexist and (until late in his life) racist views. In this essay, I address the question of how current readers of Kant should deal with Kant’s sexism and racism. I first provide a brief description of Kant’s views on sexual and racial hierarchies, and of the way they intersect. I then turn to the question of whether we should set aside (...)
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  3.  12
    The Reddish, Iron-Rust Color of the Native Americans. Immanuel Kant's Racism in Context.Joris van Gorkom - 2019 - Con-Textos Kantianos 9:154-177.
    In this essay, I discuss Kant’s views on the “American race.” Robert Bernasconi has pointed out that more research on the sources of Kant’s ideas on non-white races is needed in order to have a better understanding of his racism. This essay responds to that call in order to show how Kant contributed to on-going discussions on the causes and meaning of human differences. However, I will also focus on his influence on his contemporaries. The reason for doing so (...)
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    How to Deal with Kant's Racism—In and Out of the Classroom.Victor Fabian Abundez-Guerra - 2018 - Teaching Philosophy 41 (2):117-135.
    The question of how we should engage with a philosopher’s racial thought is of particular importance when considering Kant, who can be viewed as particularly representative of Enlightenment philosophy. In this article I argue that we should take a stance of deep acknowledgment when considering Kant’s work both inside and outside the classroom. Taking a stance of deep acknowledgment should be understood as 1) taking Kant’s racial thought to be reflective of his moral character, 2) Kant being accountable for his (...)
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    How to Deal with Kant's Racism—In and Out of the Classroom in Advance.Victor Fabian Abundez-Guerra - forthcoming - Teaching Philosophy.
  6.  11
    Skin Color and Phlogiston Immanuel Kant’s Racism in Context.Joris van Gorkom - 2020 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 42 (2):1-22.
    Although much attention has already been paid to Kant’s ideas on race, more research is needed to determine the sources that he used to support his portrayal of non-white races. A comprehension of the intellectual context gives us the opportunity to see the way in which Kant wished to contribute to discussions on inheritable human characteristics and the inferiority of certain races. This article will emphasize the relevance of the views of Joseph Priestley and Alexander Wilson for Kant’s hypothesis on (...)
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  7. Kant's Second Thoughts on Race.Pauline Kleingeld - 2007 - Philosophical Quarterly 57 (229):573–592.
    During the 1780s, as Kant was developing his universalistic moral theory, he published texts in which he defended the superiority of whites over non-whites. Whether commentators see this as evidence of inconsistent universalism or of consistent inegalitarianism, they generally assume that Kant's position on race remained stable during the 1780s and 1790s. Against this standard view, I argue on the basis of his texts that Kant radically changed his mind. I examine his 1780s race theory and his hierarchical conception (...)
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  8. Kant's Untermenschen.Charles Mills - 2005 - In Andrew Valls (ed.), Race and Racism in Modern Philosophy. Cornell University Press. pp. 169--93.
  9.  28
    Kant on Race and Barbarism: Towards a More Complex View on Racism and Anti-Colonialism in Kant.Oliver Eberl - 2019 - Kantian Review 24 (3):385-413.
    Whether Kant’s late legal theory and his theory of race are contradictory in their account of colonialism has been a much-debated question that is also of highest importance for the evaluation of the Enlightenment’s contribution to Europe’s colonial expansion and the dispossession and enslavement of native and black peoples. This article discusses the problem by introducing the discourse on barbarism. This neglected discourse is the original and traditional European colonial vocabulary and served the justification of colonialism from ancient Greece throughout (...)
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    Should We Take Kant Literally?: On Alleged Racism in Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime.Gabrielle D. V. White - 2013 - Philosophy and Literature 37 (2):542-553.
    The criticism has been made that Kant looks racist, at least in his early work. This, however, is to insist on a literal reading. I explore Kant’s use of irony and satire as he battles to defend his vision. I show the rhetoric of irony in a pivotal text, looking at what happens and why.
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    Immanuel Kant - Racist and Colonialist?Vadim Chaly - 2020 - Kantian Journal 39 (2):94-98.
    A murder of an Afro-American detainee by a policeman at the end of May 2020 caused a public outrage in the United States, which led to a campaign against the monuments to historical figures whose reputation, according to the protesters, was marred by racism. Some German publicists, impressed by the campaign, initiated an analogous search for racists among the national thinkers and politicians of the past. Suddenly Kant emerged as a ‘scapegoat’. This statement is an attempt to assess such (...)
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  12. Race, Difference, and Anthropology in Kant's Cosmopolitanism.Todd Hedrick - 2008 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 46 (2):pp. 245-268.
    This paper explores the connections between Kant’s theory of hierarchical racial difference, on the one hand, and his cosmopolitanism and conceptions of moral and political progress, on the other. I argue that Kant’s racial biology plays an essential role in maintaining national-cultural differences, which he views as essential for the establishment of the cosmopolitan union. Unfortunately, not only are these views racist, they also complicate Kant’s ability to consistently think through the prospect of the human species’ moral progress. Thus, while (...)
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  13.  10
    The Concept of Race in Kant’s Lectures on Anthropology.Alexey Zhavoronkov & Alexey Salikov - 2018 - Con-Textos Kantianos 7:275-292.
    In the course of the last 20 years, the problem of Kant’s view of races has evolved from a marginal topic to a question which affects his critical philosophy in general, including the anthropology and its influence on contemporary social studies. The goal of our paper is to examine the anthropological role of Kant’s concept of race from the largely overlooked or underestimated perspective of his Lectures on Anthropology. Taking into account the differences between Kant’s approach in the early lectures (...)
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  14.  18
    The World War Against the Spirit of Immanuel Kant: Philosophical Germanophobia in Russia in 1914–1915 and the Birth of Cultural Racism[REVIEW]Ilya Kukulin - 2014 - Studies in East European Thought 66 (1-2):101-121.
    During the First World War the radical nationalist sentiments were widespread in different European countries involved in military activities, including the Russian Empire. In Russia this rise united the features of Russian ethnonationalism and imperial enthusiasm. The Russian philosopher Vladimir Ern in his article “From Kant to Krupp” attempted “to ground” the hostility between Russia and its allies, on the one hand, and Germany, on the other hand. This attempt turned Ern’s article into one of the earliest manifestoes of cultural (...)
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    Hospitality's Downfall: Kant, Cosmopolitanism, and Refugees.Adam Knowles - 2017 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 31 (3):347-357.
    Neoliberal rationality eliminates what these thinkers termed the "good life" or the "true realm of freedom", by which they did not mean luxury, leisure, or indulgence, but rather the cultivation and expression of distinctly human capacities for ethical and political freedom, creativity, unbounded reflection, or invention.The legacy of Kant's political writings is uniquely duplicitous. This is because the space of the Kantian text is capable—as great philosophical works often are—of sustaining immense contradictions.1 On the one hand, as has long (...)
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  16. Immanuel Kant on Racial Identity.Joris van Gorkom - 2008 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 15 (1):1-10.
    Immanuel Kant enshrined the modem notion of race. Many commentators prefer to ignore this aspect of Kant’s thinking, considering it to be out-dated, merely a remnant of eighteenth century philosophy or bad science. This article will examine Kant’s racial theory within the context of his wider work, and mainly so with regard to the teleological principle. Kant often presents his new notion of race and racial differences in relation to teleology, i.e., he used races as an example for understanding the (...)
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  17. Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason.Immanuel Kant - 1934 - Macmillan.
  18.  59
    Reckoning With Kant on Race.Elvira Basevich - 2020 - Philosophical Forum 51 (3):221-245.
    This essay develops Kant’s theory of reform to theorize racial justice reform. I assess the function of Kant’s philosophy of race as part of his nonideal theory of justice, which offers a racist pragmatic anthropology that uses the concept of race to determine the practical effectiveness of legislative reason. His philosophy of race defends a teleological account of the natural history of the human species to fulfill the requirements of justice and assumes that certain racial groups have failed to develop (...)
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  19. Kant’s Ethical Thought.Allen W. Wood - 1999 - Cambridge University Press.
    This is a major new study of Kant's ethics that will transform the way students and scholars approach the subject in future. Allen Wood argues that Kant's ethical vision is grounded in the idea of the dignity of the rational nature of every human being. Undergoing both natural competitiveness and social antagonism the human species, according to Kant, develops the rational capacity to struggle against its impulses towards a human community in which the ends of all are to (...)
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  20.  65
    Kant's Transcendental Psychology.Patricia Kitcher - 1994 - Oup Usa.
    In this innovative study Patricia Kitcher argues that we can only understand the deduction of the categories in Kant's Critique of Pure Reason in terms of his attempt to fathom the psychological prerequisites of thought. Thus a consideration of his conception of psychology is essential to an understanding of his philosophy. Kitcher specifically considers Kant's claims about the unity of the thinking self; the spatial forms of human perceptions; the relations among mental states necessary for them to have (...)
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  21. Kant's Account of Cognition.Eric Watkins & Marcus Willaschek - 2017 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 55 (1):83-112.
    kant’s critique of pure reason undertakes a systematic investigation of the possibility of synthetic cognition a priori so as to determine whether this kind of cognition is possible in the case of traditional metaphysics.1 While much scholarly attention has been devoted to the distinction between analytic and synthetic judgments as well as to that between the a priori and the a posteriori, less attention has been devoted to understanding exactly what cognition is for Kant. In particular, it is often insufficiently (...)
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  22. Rethinking Kant's Fact of Reason.Owen Ware - 2014 - Philosophers' Imprint 14.
    Kant’s doctrine of the Fact of Reason is one of the most perplexing aspects of his moral philosophy. The aim of this paper is to defend Kant’s doctrine from the common charge of dogmatism. My defense turns on a previously unexplored analogy to the notion of ‘matters of fact’ popularized by members of the Royal Society in the seventeenth century. In their work, ‘facts’ were beyond doubt, often referring to experimental effects one could witness first hand. While Kant uses the (...)
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  23. Kant's Moral Religion.Allen W. Wood - 1970 - Ithaca: Wiley-Blackwell.
    In Kant's Moral Religion, Allen W. Wood argues that Kant's doctrine of religious belief is consistent with his best critical thinking and, in fact, that the ...
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  24.  47
    Kant's Human Being: Essays on His Theory of Human Nature.Robert B. Louden - 2011 - Oup Usa.
    In Kant's Human Being, Robert B. Louden continues and deepens avenues of research first initiated in his highly acclaimed book, Kant's Impure Ethics.
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  25.  57
    Kant's Transcendental Proof of Realism.Kenneth R. Westphal - 2004 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book is the first detailed study of Kant's method of 'transcendental reflection' and its use in the Critique of Pure Reason to identify our basic human cognitive capacities, and to justify Kant's transcendental proofs of the necessary a priori conditions for the possibility of self-conscious human experience. Kenneth Westphal, in a closely argued internal critique of Kant's analysis, shows that if we take Kant's project seriously in its own terms, the result is not transcendental idealism (...)
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  26.  97
    Kant's Transcendental Idealism: An Interpretation and Defense.Arthur Melnick - 1983 - Philosophical Review 94 (1):134.
  27. Kant's Non-Voluntarist Conception of Political Obligations: Why Justice is Impossible in the State of Nature.Helga Varden - 2008 - Kantian Review 13 (2):1-45.
    This paper presents and defends Kant’s non-voluntarist conception of political obligations. I argue that civil society is not primarily a prudential requirement for justice; it is not merely a necessary evil or moral response to combat our corrupting nature or our tendency to act viciously, thoughtlessly or in a biased manner. Rather, civil society is constitutive of rightful relations because only in civil society can we interact in ways reconcilable with each person’s innate right to freedom. Civil society is the (...)
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  28. Kant’s Deductions of Morality and Freedom.Owen Ware - 2017 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 47 (1):116-147.
    It is commonly held that Kant ventured to derive morality from freedom in Groundwork III. It is also believed that he reversed this strategy in the second Critique, attempting to derive freedom from morality instead. In this paper, I set out to challenge these familiar assumptions: Kant’s argument in Groundwork III rests on a moral conception of the intelligible world, one that plays a similar role as the ‘fact of reason’ in the second Critique. Accordingly, I argue, there is no (...)
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  29.  39
    Kant's Theory of Knowledge: An Analytical Introduction.Georges Dicker - 2004 - Oup Usa.
    Kant's masterpiece, Critique of Pure Reason, is universally recognized to be among the most difficult of all philosophical writing, and yet it is required reading in almost every course that covers modern philosophy. Most students find Critique of Pure Reason impenetrable without the help of secondary sources. While there are numerous advanced scholarly works on the topic, Dicker's is the first treatment explicitly designed for undergraduates to read alongside the primary text, rendering Kant's views accessible without oversimplifying them. (...)
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  30. Kant's Argument That Existence is Not a Determination.Nicholas F. Stang - 2015 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 91 (1):583-626.
    In this paper, I examine Kant's famous objection to the ontological argument: existence is not a determination. Previous commentators have not adequately explained what this claim means, how it undermines the ontological argument, or how Kant argues for it. I argue that the claim that existence is not a determination means that it is not possible for there to be non-existent objects; necessarily, there are only existent objects. I argue further that Kant's target is not merely ontological arguments (...)
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  31. Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: A Commentary.Jens Timmermann - 2007 - Cambridge University Press.
    The Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals is Kant's central contribution to moral philosophy, and has inspired controversy ever since it was first published in 1785. Kant champions the insights of 'common human understanding' against what he sees as the dangerous perversions of ethical theory. Morality is revealed to be a matter of human autonomy: Kant locates the source of the 'categorical imperative' within each and every human will. However, he also portrays everyday morality in a way that many (...)
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  32.  33
    Kant’s Introduction to Logic and His Essay on the Mistaken Subtility of the Four Figures.Immanuel Kant - 1885 - Westport, Conn., Greenwood Press.
    We are republishing these classic works in affordable, high quality, modern editions, using the original text and artwork.
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  33.  85
    Kant's Metaphysic of Experience.H. J. Paton - 1936 - London: G. Allen & Unwin.
  34.  73
    Immanuel Kant's Moral Theory.Roger J. Sullivan - 1989 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book, sure to become a standard reference work, is a comprehensive, lucid, and systematic commentary on Kant's practical philosophy. Kant is arguably the most important moral philosopher of the modern period. Using as nontechnical a language as possible, Professor Sullivan offers a detailed, authoritative account of Kant's moral philosophy - including his ethical theory, his philosophy of history, his political philosophy, his philosophy of religion, and his philosophy of education - and demonstrates the historical, Kantian origins of (...)
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  35. Kant's Justification of the Death Penalty Reconsidered.Benjamin S. Yost - 2010 - Kantian Review 15 (2):1-27.
    This paper argues that Immanuel Kant’s practical philosophy contains a coherent, albeit implicit, defense of the legitimacy of capital punishment, one that refutes the most important objections leveled against it. I first show that Kant is consistent in his application of the ius talionis. I then explain how Kant can respond to the claim that death penalty violates the inviolable right to life. To address the most significant objection – the claim that execution violates human dignity – I argue that (...)
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  36.  51
    Kant’s Moral Theory and Demandingness.Alice Pinheiro Walla - 2015 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 18 (4):731-743.
    In this paper, I sketch a Kantian account of duties of rescue, which I take to be compatible with Kant’s theory. I argue that there is in fact no “trumping relation” between imperfect and perfect duties but merely that “latitude shrinks away” in certain circumstances. Against possible demandingness objections, I explain why Kant thought that imperfect duty must allow latitude for choice and argue that we must understand the necessary space for pursuing one’s own happiness as entailed by Kant’s justification (...)
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  37. Kant's Political Religion: The Transparency of Perpetual Peace and the Highest Good.Robert S. Taylor - 2010 - Review of Politics 72 (1):1-24.
    Scholars have long debated the relationship between Kant’s doctrine of right and his doctrine of virtue (including his moral religion or ethico-theology), which are the two branches of his moral philosophy. This article will examine the intimate connection in his practical philosophy between perpetual peace and the highest good, between political and ethico-religious communities, and between the types of transparency peculiar to each. It will show how domestic and international right provides a framework for the development of ethical communities, including (...)
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  38.  29
    Hume’s Racism and His Case Against the Miraculous.Charles Taliaferro & Anders Hendrickson - 2002 - Philosophia Christi 4 (2):427 - 441.
    Hume’s case against the reliability of reports of intelligent Blacks is analogous to his case against the reliability of reports of miracles.
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  39.  26
    Kant's Theory of Biology.Eric Watkins & Ina Goy (eds.) - 2014 - De Gruyter.
    During the last twenty years, Kant's theory of biology has increasingly attracted the attention of scholars and developed into a field which is growing rapidly in importance within Kant studies. The volume presents fifteen interpretative essays written by experts working in the field, covering topics from seventeenth- and eighteenth-century biological theories, the development of the philosophy of biology in Kant's writings, the theory of organisms in Kant's Critique of the Power of Judgment, and current perspectives on the (...)
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  40. Kant’s Contribution to Moral Education: The Relevance of Catechistics.Chris W. Surprenant - 2010 - Journal of Moral Education 39 (2):165-174.
    Kant’s deontological ethics, along with Aristotle’s virtue ethics and Mill’s utilitarian ethics, is often identified as one of the three primary moral options between which individuals can choose. Given the importance of Kant’s moral philosophy, it is surprising and disappointing how little has been written on his important contributions to moral education. Kant argues for a catechistic approach to moral education. By memorizing a series of moral questions and answers, an individual learns the basic principles of morality in the same (...)
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  41.  31
    Kant's Political Philosophy.Howard Williams - 1983 - St. Martin's Press.
  42. Kant's Model of the Mind: A New Interpretation of Transcendental Idealism.Wayne Waxman - 1991 - Oxford University Press.
    This book argues that Kant's transcendental idealism has been misinterpreted: it denies not simply the super-sensory reality of space, time, and appearances, but their reality outside imagination as well. After adducing extensive and explicit textual evidence in its favor, Waxman shows this interpretation to be essential to the Transcendental Deduction, the affirmation of things in themselves, and the attempt to surmount Hume's scepticism. He further argues that Kant's much-neglected claim that, besides himself, "no psychologist has so much as (...)
     
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  43. Kant's Antinomies of Reason: Their Origin and Their Resolution.Victoria S. Wike - 1982 - Upa.
    Analyzes the origin, structure and resolution of Kant's antinomies of reason from a systematic rather than a historical perspective, exploring the relationship between the theoretical antinomies and the practical antinomy in order to indicate their similarities and differences and to suggest the dependence of the latter on the former.
     
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  44. Kant's Pragmatic Anthropology: Its Origin, Meaning, and Critical Significance.Holly L. Wilson - 2006 - State University of New York Press.
    _The first comprehensive examination in English of Kant’s Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View._.
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  45. Kant’s Ethical Thought. [REVIEW]Allen W. Wood - 1999 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 62 (4):758-759.
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  46.  93
    Kant’s Criticism of Metaphysics.W. H. Walsh - 1975 - University Press.
    So much for the Aesthetic. We can now proceed to the Analytic, the philosophical importance of which is much greater. Kant's main contentions in this part of his work can be summed up in; two propositions: human understanding contains certain a priori concepts, and on these are based certain non-empirical principles; these concepts are only general concepts of a phenomenal object, and therefore the principles in question are only prescriptive to sense-experience. As has already been said, interest in the (...)
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  47. Kant's Biological Teleology and Its Philosophical Significance.Hannah Ginsborg - 2006 - In A Companion to Kant. Blackwell.
    The article surveys Kant’s treatment of biological teleology in the ’Critique of Judgment’, with special attention to the question of whether the notion of natural teleology is coherent. It argues that our entitlement to regard nature as teleological is not established by the argument of the ’Antinomy’, but rather results from our entitlement to regard the workings of our own cognitive faculties in normative terms. This implies a view of the relation between biological teleology and the representational character of mind (...)
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  48.  57
    Hume's Racism and Miracles.C. L. Ten - 2002 - Journal of Value Inquiry 36 (1):103-109.
  49. Kant's Critique of Practical Reason and Other Works on the Theory of Ethics.Immanuel Kant & Thomas Kingsmill Abbott - 1879 - Longmans.
     
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  50.  40
    Kant's Critique of Pure Reason: Background Source Materials.Eric Watkins (ed.) - 2009 - Cambridge University Press.
    This volume provides English translations of texts that form the essential background to Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Presenting the projects of Kant's predecessors and contemporaries in eighteenth-century Germany, it enables readers to understand the positions that Kant might have identified with 'pure reason', the criticisms of pure reason that had developed prior to Kant's, and alternative attempts at synthesizing empiricist elements within a rationalist framework. The volume contains chapters on Christian Wolff, Martin Knutzen, Alexander Baumgarten, Christian (...)
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