Results for 'Marc D. Street'

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  1.  95
    Ethical Decision Making: The Effects of Escalating Commitment. [REVIEW]Marc D. Street, Chris Robertson & Scott W. Geiger - 1997 - Journal of Business Ethics 16 (11):1153-1161.
    Despite the recent emergence of many new ethical decision making models, there has been minimal emphasis placed on the impact of escalating commitment on the ethical decision making process. In this paper a new variable is introduced into the ethical decision making literature. This variable, exposure to escalation situations, is posited to increase the likelihood that individuals will choose unethical decision alternatives. Further, it is proposed that escalation situations should be included as a variable in Jones's (1991) comprehensive model of (...)
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  2.  79
    The Influence of Perceived Importance of an Ethical Issue on Moral Judgment, Moral Obligation, and Moral Intent.Russell Haines, Marc D. Street & Douglas Haines - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 81 (2):387-399.
    The study extends and tests the issue contingent four-component model of ethical decision-making to include moral obligation. A web-based questionnaire was used to gauge the influence of perceived importance of an ethical issue on moral judgment and moral intent. Perceived importance of an ethical issue was found to be a predictor of moral judgment but not of moral intent as predicted. Moral obligation is suggested to be a process that occurs after a moral judgment is made and explained a significant (...)
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  3. Bridging Emotion Theory and Neurobiology Through Dynamic Systems Modeling.Marc D. Lewis - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (2):169-194.
    Efforts to bridge emotion theory with neurobiology can be facilitated by dynamic systems (DS) modeling. DS principles stipulate higher-order wholes emerging from lower-order constituents through bidirectional causal processes cognition relations. I then present a psychological model based on this reconceptualization, identifying trigger, self-amplification, and self-stabilization phases of emotion-appraisal states, leading to consolidating traits. The article goes on to describe neural structures and functions involved in appraisal and emotion, as well as DS mechanisms of integration by which they interact. These mechanisms (...)
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  4.  16
    Segmentation of the Speech Stream in a Non-Human Primate: Statistical Learning in Cotton-Top Tamarins.Marc D. Hauser, Elissa L. Newport & Richard N. Aslin - 2001 - Cognition 78 (3):B53-B64.
  5. Reviving Rawls's Linguistic Analogy: Operative Principles and the Causal Structure of Moral Actions.Marc D. Hauser, Liane Young & Fiery Cushman - 2007 - In Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (ed.), Moral Psychology, Volume 2. MIT Press.
    The thesis we develop in this essay is that all humans are endowed with a moral faculty. The moral faculty enables us to produce moral judgments on the basis of the causes and consequences of actions. As an empirical research program, we follow the framework of modern linguistics.1 The spirit of the argument dates back at least to the economist Adam Smith (1759/1976) who argued for something akin to a moral grammar, and more recently, to the political philosopher John Rawls (...)
     
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  6. Evolutionary and Developmental Foundations of Human Knowledge.Marc D. Hauser & Elizabeth Spelke - 2004 - In Michael S. Gazzaniga (ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences Iii. MIT Press.
    What are the brain and cognitive systems that allow humans to play baseball, compute square roots, cook soufflés, or navigate the Tokyo subways? It may seem that studies of human infants and of non-human animals will tell us little about these abilities, because only educated, enculturated human adults engage in organized games, formal mathematics, gourmet cooking, or map-reading. In this chapter, we argue against this seemingly sensible conclusion. When human adults exhibit complex, uniquely human, culture-specific skills, they draw on a (...)
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  7.  28
    Unifying Psychophysics: And What If Things Are Not so Simple?Marc Brysbaert & Géry D'Ydewalle - 1989 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (2):271-273.
  8.  13
    Spontaneous Number Discrimination of Multi-Format Auditory Stimuli in Cotton-Top Tamarins.Marc D. Hauser, Stanislas Dehaene, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz & Andrea L. Patalano - 2002 - Cognition 86 (2):B23-B32.
  9.  31
    Artifactual Kinds and Functional Design Features: What a Primate Understands Without Language.Marc D. Hauser - 1997 - Cognition 64 (3):285-308.
  10.  71
    Three Time Scales of Neural Self-Organization Underlying Basic and Nonbasic Emotions.Marc D. Lewis & Zhong-xu Liu - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (4):416-423.
    Our model integrates the nativist assumption of prespecified neural structures underpinning basic emotions with the constructionist view that emotions are assembled from psychological constituents. From a dynamic systems perspective, the nervous system self-organizes in different ways at different time scales, in relation to functions served by emotions. At the evolutionary scale, brain parts and their connections are specified by selective pressures. At the scale of development, connectivity is revised through synaptic shaping. At the scale of real time, temporary networks of (...)
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  11.  29
    RETRACTED: Rule Learning by Cotton-Top Tamarins.Marc D. Hauser, Daniel Weiss & Gary Marcus - 2002 - Cognition 86 (1):B15-B22.
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  12.  17
    Emotional Speech Processing: Disentangling the Effects of Prosody and Semantic Cues.Marc D. Pell, Abhishek Jaywant, Laura Monetta & Sonja A. Kotz - 2011 - Cognition and Emotion 25 (5):834-853.
  13.  81
    Mayan Morality: An Exploration of Permissible Harms.Linda Abarbanell & Marc D. Hauser - 2010 - Cognition 115 (2):207-224.
    Anthropologists have provided rich field descriptions of the norms and conventions governing behavior and interactions in small-scale societies. Here, we add a further dimension to this work by presenting hypothetical moral dilemmas involving harm, to a small-scale, agrarian Mayan population, with the specific goal of exploring the hypothesis that certain moral principles apply universally. We presented Mayan participants with moral dilemmas translated into their native language, Tseltal. Paralleling several studies carried out with educated subjects living in large-scale, developed nations, the (...)
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  14.  9
    Cultural Learning: Are There Functional Consequences?Marc D. Mauser - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (3):524-524.
  15.  32
    A Primate Dictionary? Decoding the Function and Meaning of Another Species' Vocalizations.Marc D. Hauser - 2000 - Cognitive Science 24 (3):445-475.
  16.  1
    Primate Understanding of Functional Design Features.Marc D. Hauser - 1997 - Cognition 64 (3):285-308.
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  17.  82
    Getting Emotional - a Neural Perspective on Emotion, Intention, and Consciousness.Marc D. Lewis & Rebecca M. Todd - 2005 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 12 (8-10):210-235.
    Intentions and emotions arise together, and emotions compel us to pursue goals. However, it is not clear when emotions become objects of awareness, how emotional awareness changes with goal pursuit, or how psychological and neural processes mediate such change. We first review a psychological model of emotional episodes and propose that goal obstruction extends the duration of these episodes while increasing cognitive complexity and emotional intensity. We suggest that attention is initially focused on action plans and their obstruction, and only (...)
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  18. The Evolutionary Ancestry of Our Knowledge of Tools: From Percepts to Concepts.Marc D. Hauser & Laurie R. Santos - 2007 - In Eric Margolis & Stephen Laurence (eds.), Creations of the Mind: Theories of Artifacts and Their Representaion. Oxford University Press. pp. 267--288.
     
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  19.  58
    Why Be Nice? Psychological Constraints on the Evolution of Cooperation.Jeffrey R. Stevens & Marc D. Hauser - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (2):60-65.
  20.  21
    If You've Got It, Why Not Flaunt It? Monkeys with Broca's Area but No Syntactical Structure to Their Vocal Utterances.Marc D. Hauser - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):564-564.
  21. The Evolution of the Language Faculty: Clarifications and Implications.W. Tecumseh Fitch, Marc D. Hauser & Noam Chomsky - 2005 - Cognition 97 (2):179-210.
  22. Concept Attribution in Nonhuman Animals: Theoretical and Methodological Problems in Ascribing Complex Mental Processes.Colin Allen & Marc D. Hauser - 1991 - Philosophy of Science 58 (2):221-240.
    The demise of behaviorism has made ethologists more willing to ascribe mental states to animals. However, a methodology that can avoid the charge of excessive anthropomorphism is needed. We describe a series of experiments that could help determine whether the behavior of nonhuman animals towards dead conspecifics is concept mediated. These experiments form the basis of a general point. The behavior of some animals is clearly guided by complex mental processes. The techniques developed by comparative psychologists and behavioral ecologists are (...)
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  23.  94
    When Your Moral Organ is Right!Marc D. Hauser - 2008 - Think 7 (19):17-21.
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  24. Evolving the Psychological Mechanisms for Cooperation.Jeffrey R. Stevens & Marc D. Hauser - unknown
    ■ Abstract Cooperation is common across nonhuman animal taxa, from the hunting of large game in lions to the harvesting of building materials in ants. Theorists have proposed a number of models to explain the evolution of cooperative behavior. These ultimate explanations, however, rarely consider the proximate constraints on the implementation of cooperative behavior. Here we review several types of cooperation and propose a suite of cognitive abilities required for each type to evolve. We propose that several types of cooperation, (...)
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  25.  16
    The Evolution of the Language Faculty: Clarifications and Implications.W. Tecumseh Fitch, Marc D. Hauser & Noam Chomsky - 2005 - Cognition 97 (2):179-210.
  26.  9
    Self-Organising Cognitive Appraisals.Marc D. Lewis - 1996 - Cognition and Emotion 10 (1):1-26.
  27.  94
    Wrongful Harm to Future Generations: The Case of Climate Change.Marc D. Davidson - 2008 - Environmental Values 17 (4):471 - 488.
    In this article I argue that governments are justified in addressing the potential for human induced climate damages on the basis of future generations' rights to bodily integrity and personal property. First, although future generations' entitlements to property originate in our present entitlements, the principle of self-ownership requires us to take 'reasonable care' of the products of future labour. Second, while Parfit's non-identity problem has as yet no satisfactory solution, the present absence of an equilibrium between theory and intuitions justifies (...)
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  28.  50
    The Ethics of Opinion in Academe: Questions for an Ethical and Administrative Dilemma. [REVIEW]Marc D. Hiller & Theodore D. Peters - 2005 - Journal of Academic Ethics 3 (2-4):183-203.
    If we accept that all plagiarism is wrong, the issue is black and white. But are there more challenging questions that color the issue with shades of gray that may influence or help clarify the ethical underpinnings of the act? Does intent matter? Does the venue matter? Does the form of writing matter? What about a professor when working as a private citizen, rather than in his/her academic role? Might plagiarism be mitigated when there is no associated financial gain? Is (...)
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  29. Moral Judgments About Altruistic Self-Sacrifice: When Philosophical and Folk Intuitions Clash.Bryce Huebner & Marc D. Hauser - 2011 - Philosophical Psychology 24 (1):73-94.
    Altruistic self-sacrifice is rare, supererogatory, and not to be expected of any rational agent; but, the possibility of giving up one's life for the common good has played an important role in moral theorizing. For example, Judith Jarvis Thomson (2008) has argued in a recent paper that intuitions about altruistic self-sacrifice suggest that something has gone wrong in philosophical debates over the trolley problem. We begin by showing that her arguments face a series of significant philosophical objections; however, our project (...)
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  30.  24
    Homologies for Numerical Memory Span?Marc D. Hauser - 2000 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (4):127-128.
  31.  47
    How the Source, Inevitability and Means of Bringing About Harm Interact in Folk-Moral Judgments.Bryce Huebner, Marc D. Hauser & Phillip Pettit - 2011 - Mind and Language 26 (2):210-233.
    Means-based harms are frequently seen as forbidden, even when they lead to a greater good. But, are there mitigating factors? Results from five experiments show that judgments about means-based harms are modulated by: 1) Pareto considerations (was the harmed person made worse off?), 2) the directness of physical contact, and 3) the source of the threat (e.g. mechanical, human, or natural). Pareto harms are more permissible than non-Pareto harms, Pareto harms requiring direct physical contact are less permissible than those that (...)
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  32.  51
    Choosing Among Candidates for Scarce Medical Resources.Marc D. Basson - 1979 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 4 (3):313-333.
  33. Action Comprehension in Non-Human Primates: Motor Simulation or Inferential Reasoning?Justin N. Wood & Marc D. Hauser - 2008 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (12):461-465.
  34.  22
    Sunstein's Heuristics Provide Insufficient Descriptive and Explanatory Adequacy.Marc D. Hauser - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (4):553-554.
    In considering a domain of knowledge – language, music, mathematics, or morality – it is necessary to derive principles that can describe the mature state and explain how an individual reaches this state. Although Sunstein's heuristics go some way toward a description of our moral sense, it is not clear that they are at the right level of description, and as stated, they provide no guidelines for looking at the acquisition process – the problem of explanatory adequacy.
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  35.  9
    Self‐Organization of Cognition‐Emotion Interactions.Marc D. Lewis & Isabela Granic - 1999 - In Tim Dalgleish & M. J. Powers (eds.), Handbook of Cognition and Emotion. Wiley. pp. 683--701.
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  36.  11
    Rights to Ecosystem Services.Marc D. Davidson - 2014 - Environmental Values 23 (4):465-483.
    Ecosystem services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems. Many of these services are provided outside the borders of the land where they are produced. This article investigates who is entitled to these non-excludable ecosystem services from a libertarian perspective. Taking a right-libertarian perspective, it is concluded that the beneficiaries generally hold the right to use non-excludable ecosystem services and the right to landowners not converting ecosystems. Landowners are only at liberty to convert ecosystems if they appropriated their land before (...)
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  37.  34
    Dynamic Facial Expressions Prime the Processing of Emotional Prosody.Patricia Garrido-Vásquez, Marc D. Pell, Silke Paulmann & Sonja A. Kotz - 2018 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12.
  38.  29
    Free-Ranging Rhesus Monkeys Spontaneously Individuate and Enumerate Small Numbers of Non-Solid Portions.Justin N. Wood, Marc D. Hauser, David D. Glynn & David Barner - 2008 - Cognition 106 (1):207-221.
  39. Personality Self-Organization: Cascading Constraints on Cognition-Emotion Interaction.Marc D. Lewis - 1997 - In Alan Fogel, Maria C. D. P. Lyra & Jaan Valsiner (eds.), Dynamics and Indeterminism in Developmental and Social Processes. L. Erlbaum. pp. 294--193.
     
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  40.  17
    Domain-Specific Knowledge in Human Children and Non-Human Primates: Artifacts and Foods.Laurie R. Santos, Marc D. Hauser & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2002 - In Marc Bekoff, Colin Allen & Gordon M. Burghardt (eds.), The Cognitive Animal: Empirical and Theoretical Perspectives on Animal Cognition. MIT Press. pp. 205--216.
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  41.  7
    Bioethical Decision-Making: A Reply to Ackerman.Marc D. Basson - 1983 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 8 (2):181-186.
    Terrence Ackerman has suggested that we ought to view general bioethical principles as generalizations which summarize our previous bioethical decisions rather than as moral rules. He would have us derive our ethical views instead principally from the facts of the cases in question and our intuitions about them. The proposal is attractive because of its similarity to medical decision-making, but it fails because it allows for no higher order standard of reference against which conflicting ethical intuitions may be judged. CiteULike (...)
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  42. Appendix. The Minimalist Program.Noam Chomsky, Marc Hauser, Fitch D. & W. Tecumseh - unknown
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  43.  2
    12. The Use of Formal Language Theory in Studies of Artificial Language Learning: A Proposal for Distinguishing the Differences Between Human and Nonhuman Animal Learners.James Rogers & Marc D. Hauser - 2010 - In Harry van der Hulst (ed.), Recursion and Human Language. De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 213-232.
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  44. The Linguistic Analogy: Motivations, Results, and Speculations.Susan Dwyer, Bryce Huebner & Marc D. Hauser - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (3):486-510.
    Inspired by the success of generative linguistics and transformational grammar, proponents of the linguistic analogy (LA) in moral psychology hypothesize that careful attention to folk-moral judgments is likely to reveal a small set of implicit rules and structures responsible for the ubiquitous and apparently unbounded capacity for making moral judgments. As a theoretical hypothesis, LA thus requires a rich description of the computational structures that underlie mature moral judgments, an account of the acquisition and development of these structures, and an (...)
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  45.  2
    Biostatistics in Medicine.Marc D. Silverstein - 1984 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 27 (4):652-654.
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  46.  2
    International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care.Marc D. Silverstein - 1987 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 31 (1):151-152.
  47.  4
    Beyond Canterbury: Can Medicine and Law Agree About Informed Consent? And Does It Matter?Marc D. Ginsberg - 2017 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 45 (1):106-111.
    Informed consent is central to the law of the physicianpatient relationship, respecting patient autonomy. This paper addresses a conflict between law and medicine in defining informed consent. Additionally, it addresses the possibility that patients prefer not to be “informed“ and would defer decision-making to their physicians.
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  48. Computers, Health Records, and the Right to Privacy.Marc D. Hiller & Vivian Beyda - 1981 - In Medical Ethics and the Law: Implications for Public Policy. Ballinger Pub. Co..
     
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  49.  1
    Managed Care and Public Health.Marc D. Hiller - 2000 - Inquiry (Misc) 37 (3).
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  50.  1
    Medical Ethics and the Law: Implications for Public Policy.Marc D. Hiller (ed.) - 1981 - Ballinger Pub. Co..
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