Results for 'Mental disorder'

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  1. Personal Autonomy, Decisional Capacity, and Mental Disorder.Lubomira Radoilska - 2012 - In Autonomy and Mental Disorder. Oxford University Press.
    In this Introduction, I situate the underlying project “Autonomy and Mental Disorder” with reference to current debates on autonomy in moral and political philosophy, and the philosophy of action. I then offer an overview of the individual contributions. More specifically, I begin by identifying three points of convergence in the debates at issue, stating that autonomy is: 1) a fundamentally liberal concept; 2) an agency concept and; 3) incompatible with (severe) mental disorder. Next, I explore, in (...)
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  2. Free Energy and Virtual Reality in Psychoanalysis and Neuroscience: A Complexity Theory of Dreaming and Mental Disorder.Jim Hopkins - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
    This paper compares the free energy neuroscience now advocated by Karl Friston and his colleagues with that hypothesised by Freud, arguing that Freud's notions of conflict and trauma can be understood in terms of computational complexity. It relates Hobson and Friston's work on dreaming and the reduction of complexity to contemporary accounts of dreaming and the consolidation of memory, and advances the hypothesis that mental disorder can be understood in terms of computational complexity and the mechanisms, including synaptic (...)
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  3. Self-Concept Through the Diagnostic Looking Glass: Narratives and Mental Disorder.Serife Tekin - 2011 - Philosophical Psychology 24 (3):357-380.
    This paper explores how the diagnosis of mental disorder may affect the diagnosed subject’s self-concept by supplying an account that emphasizes the influence of autobiographical and social narratives on self-understanding. It focuses primarily on the diagnoses made according to the criteria provided by the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), and suggests that the DSM diagnosis may function as a source of narrative that affects the subject’s self-concept. Engaging in this analysis by appealing to autobiographies and (...)
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  4.  75
    On Defining “Mental Disorder”: Purposes and Conditions of Adequacy.Bengt Brülde - 2010 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (1):19-33.
    All definitions of mental disorder are backed up by arguments that rely on general criteria (e.g., that a definition should be consistent with ordinary language). These desiderata are rarely explicitly stated, and there has been no systematic discussion of how different definitions should be assessed. To arrive at a well-founded list of desiderata, we need to know the purpose of a definition. I argue that this purpose must be practical; it should, for example, help us determine who is (...)
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  5.  35
    Mental Disorder and the Concept of Authenticity.Alexandre Erler & Tony Hope - 2014 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 21 (3):219-232.
    Authenticity has recently emerged as an important issue in discussions of mental disorder. We show, on the basis of personal accounts and empirical studies, that many people with psychological disorders are preoccupied with questions of authenticity. Most of the data considered in this paper are from studies of people with bipolar disorder and anorexia nervosa. We distinguish the various ways in which these people view the relationship between the disorder and their sense of their authentic self. (...)
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  6.  21
    How Does a Psychiatrist Infer From an Observed Condition to a Case of Mental Disorder?Maël Lemoine - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):979-983.
    The main thesis of this paper is that mental health practitioners can legitimately infer that a patient's given condition is a case of mental disorder without having diagnosed any specific mental disorder. The article shows how this is justifiable by relying either on psychopathological reasoning, on 'intentional' analysis or possibly on other modes of reasoning. In the end, it highlights the clinical and philosophical consequences of the plurality of modes of 'inferences to mental (...)'. (shrink)
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  7. Free Will and Mental Disorder: Exploring the Relationship.Gerben Meynen - 2010 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (6):429-443.
    A link between mental disorder and freedom is clearly present in the introduction of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). It mentions “an important loss of freedom” as one of the possible defining features of mental disorder. Meanwhile, it remains unclear how “an important loss of freedom” should be understood. In order to get a clearer view on the relationship between mental disorder and (a loss of) (...)
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  8.  62
    Autonomy and Mental Disorder.Lubomira Radoilska (ed.) - 2012 - Oxford University Press.
    Autonomy is a fundamental though contested concept both in philosophy and the broader intellectual culture of today’s liberal societies. For instance, most of us place great value on the opportunity to make our own decisions and to lead a life of our own choosing. Yet, there is stark disagreement on what is involved in being able to decide autonomously, as well as how important this is compared to other commitments. For example, the success of every group project requires that group (...)
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  9.  97
    The Concept of Mental Disorder: A Proposal.Alfredo Gaete - 2008 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 15 (4):327-339.
    During the last years, there has been an important discussion on the concept of mental disorder. Several accounts of such a concept have been offered by theorists, although neither of these accounts seems to have successfully answered both the question of what it means for a certain mental condition to be a disorder and the question of what it means for a certain disorder to be mental. In this paper, I propose an account of (...)
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  10.  92
    Can We Define Mental Disorder by Using the Criterion of Mental Dysfunction?Thomas Schramme - 2010 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (1):35-47.
    The concept of mental disorder is often defined by reference to the notion of mental dysfunction, which is in line with how the concept of disease in somatic medicine is often defined. However, the notions of mental function and dysfunction seem to suffer from some problems that do not affect models of physiological function. Functions in general have a teleological structure; they are effects of traits that are supposed to have a particular purpose, such that, for (...)
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  11.  47
    On the Nature of Mental Disorder: Towards an Objectivist Account.Panagiotis Oulis - 2012 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (5):343-357.
    According to the predominant view within contemporary philosophy of psychiatry, mental disorders involve essentially personal and societal values, and thus, the concept of mental disorder cannot, even in principle, be elucidated in a thoroughly objective manner. Several arguments have been adduced in support of this impossibility thesis. My critical examination of two master arguments advanced to this effect by Derek Bolton and Jerome Wakefield, respectively, raises serious doubts about their soundness. Furthermore, I articulate an alternative, thoroughly objective, (...)
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  12.  31
    Culpability and Mental Disorder.R. Cummins - 1980 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 10 (2):207 - 232.
    The "conservative" holds that mental disorder exculpates only if it is evidence of a standard excuse or justification, i.e., one that a mentally "normal" person could have. The Liberal holds that mental disorder sometimes exculpates in itself. I argue that moral culpability in the case of mental disorder is often moot, and that the real issue is what a court should be allowed to do with such individuals. This undermines the idea that culpability is (...)
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  13.  26
    Still Defining Mental Disorder in Terms of Our Goals for Demarcating Mental Disorder.Jukka Varelius - 2009 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 16 (1):67-72.
    A response to the commentaries presented by Eric Matthews and Julian Savulescu on Jukka Varelius, 'Defining Mental Disorder in Terms of Our Goals for Demarcating Mental Disorder.’ Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology 2009 Vol. 16 (1): 35-52.
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  14.  5
    Defining Mental Disorder in Terms of Our Goals for Demarcating Mental Disorder: Mental Illness.Jukka Varelius - 2009 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 16 (1):35-52.
    What mental disorder means is controversial. I attempt to solve that controversy by applying the method of defining a phenomenon in terms of the goals we have for demarcating that phenomenon from other phenomena to the case of mental disorder. I thus address the question about the nature of mental disorder by paying attention to the goals we have for demarcating mental disorder. I maintain that these goals, which embody the reasons why (...)
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  15.  5
    “Reader, I Detained Him Under the Mental Health Act”: A Literary Response to Professor Fennell's Best Interests and Treatment for Mental Disorder[REVIEW]David Gurnham - 2008 - Health Care Analysis 16 (3):268-278.
    This is a response to Professor Fennell's paper on the recent influence and impact of the best interests test on the treatment of patients detained under the Mental Health Act 1983 (MHA) for mental disorder. I discuss two points of general ethical significance raised by Professor Fennell. Firstly, I consider his argument on the breadth of the best interests test, incorporating as it does factors considerably wider than those of medical justifications and the risk of harm. Secondly, (...)
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  16. Mental Disorder, Illness and Biological Disfunction.David Papineau - 1994 - Philosophy 37:73-82.
    I shall begin with the "anti-psychiatry" view that the lack of a physical basis excludes many familiar mental disorders from the category of "illness". My response to this argument will be that anti-psychiatrists are probably right to hold that most mental disorders do not involve any physical disorder, but that they are wrong to conclude from this that these mental disorders are not illnesses.
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  17.  4
    ‘A Healthier and More Hopeful Person’: Illegitimacy, Mental Disorder and the Improved Prognosis of the Adolescent Mother. [REVIEW]Ofra Koffman - 2015 - Journal of Medical Humanities 36 (2):113-126.
    This paper aims to contribute to the exploration of the shift from a problematisation of ‘unwed motherhood’ to ‘teenage motherhood’ in late twentieth century Britain. It does so by exploring the dominant social scientific understanding of ‘unwed mothers’ during the 1950s and 1960s which suggested that these women suffered from a psychological disorder. I then analyse the conceptualisation of ‘adolescent unwed mothers’ exploring why professionals deemed them to be less disturbed than older women in their predicament. This finding is (...)
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  18. The Harmful Dysfunction Analysis of Mental Disorder.Dominic Murphy & Robert L. Woolfolk - 2000 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 7 (4):241-252.
  19. What Makes a Mental Disorder Mental?Jerome C. Wakefield - 2006 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 13 (2):123-131.
  20. What is Mental About Mental Disorder?Bengt Brülde & Filip Radovic - 2006 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 13 (2):99-116.
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  21. Defining Mental Disorder.Bernard Gert & Charles M. Culver - 2004 - In Jennifer Radden (ed.), The Philosophy of Psychiatry: A Companion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  22.  54
    Mental Disorder and Intentional Order.Richard Gipps - 2006 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 13 (2):117-121.
  23. What is Mental Disorder?: An Essay in Philosophy, Science, and Values.Derek Bolton - 2008 - Oxford University Press.
    The effects of mental disorder are apparent and pervasive, in suffering, loss of freedom and life opportunities, negative impacts on education, work satisfaction and productivity, complications in law, institutions of healthcare, and more. With a new edition of the 'bible' of psychiatric diagnosis - the DSM - under developmental, it is timely to take a step back and re-evalutate exactly how we diagnose and define mental disorder. This new book by Derek Bolton tackles the problems involved (...)
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  24. Problems in the Definition of 'Mental Disorder'.Derek Bolton - 2001 - Philosophical Quarterly 51 (203):182-199.
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  25.  20
    Best Interests and Treatment for Mental Disorder.Phil Fennell - 2008 - Health Care Analysis 16 (3):255-267.
    This paper considers the role of the concept of best interests in the treatment of mental disorder. It considers the Mental Capacity Act 2005 where treatment of an incapacitated person’s mental disorder is authorized if treatment is in the patient’s own best interests. It also examines the Mental Health Act 1983 as amended by the Mental Health Act 2007 where treatment without consent of a detained patient is allowed where necessary for the patient’s (...)
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  26.  34
    Defining Mental Disorder in Terms of Our Goals for Demarcating Mental Disorder.Jukka Varelius - 2009 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 16 (1):35-52.
    What mental disorder means is controversial. I attempt to solve that controversy by applying the method of defining a phenomenon in terms of the goals we have for demarcating that phenomenon from other phenomena to the case of mental disorder. I thus address the question about the nature of mental disorder by paying attention to the goals we have for demarcating mental disorder. I maintain that these goals, which embody the reasons why (...)
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  27.  30
    The Structure of Mental Disorder.Paul G. Muscari - 1981 - Philosophy of Science 48 (December):553-572.
    The present trend towards an atheoretical statistical method of psychiatric classification has prompted many psychiatrists to conceive of "mental disorder", or for that matter any other psychopathological designation, as an indexical cluster of properties and events more than a distinct psychological impairment. By employing different combinations of inclusion and exclusion criteria, the current American Psychiatric Association's scheme (called DSM-III) hopes to avoid the over-selectivity of more metaphysical systems and thereby provide the clinician with a flexible means of dealing (...)
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  28.  6
    The Relationship Between Creativity and Mental Disorder in an African Setting.O. Olugbile & M. P. Zachariah - 2011 - Mens Sana Monographs 9 (1):225.
    Background: There has for some time now been recognition that there was a relationship between exceptional creative talent and mental disorder. The works of Andreasen (2008) and others in this area have been very significant. However, most of the research has been carried out in USA and Europe. Very little has come out of Africa on the subject. Aim : To survey the beliefs of different groups within an African society, concerning the possibility of a relationship between creative (...)
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  29. Mind, Meaning, and Mental Disorder: The Nature of Causal Explanation in Psychology and Psychiatry.Derek Bolton - 1996 - Oxford University Press.
    Philosophical ideas about the mind, brain, and behavior can seem theoretical and unimportant when placed alongside the urgent questions of mental distress and disorder. However, there is a need to give direction to attempts to answer these questions. On the one hand, a substantial research effort is going into the investigation of brain processes and the development of drug treatments for psychiatric disorders, and on the other, a wide range of psychotherapies is becoming available to adults and children (...)
     
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  30. Mental Disorder, Diagnosis, Treatment and Ethics.Piers Allott - 2009 - Journal of Ethics in Mental Health 1 (1):8.
    This short contribution questions the ethics of basing the way we think and act in relation to mental disorder on beliefs and assumptions that are in the view of the author at best, unhelpful and at worst, simply incorrect.
     
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  31.  23
    Self and Identity in Borderline Personality Disorder: Agency and Mental Time Travel.Natalie Gold & Michalis Kyratsous - 2017 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 23 (5):1020-1028.
  32.  6
    Mental Disorder Between Naturalism and Normativism.Somogy Varga - 2017 - Philosophy Compass 12 (6):e12422.
    Worries about the potential medicalization of social and moral problems has propelled the debate on the nature of mental disorder, with normativists insisting that psychiatric classification is inherently value-laden and naturalists maintaining that a purely descriptive account of disease is possible. In recent work, some authors take a different path, accepting that the concepts of disease and mental disorder are value-laden but maintaining that this does not prevent objective truths regarding mental disorder attribution. This (...)
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  33. Mental Disorder and Values.Bengt Brülde - 2007 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 14 (2):pp. 93-102.
    It is now generally agreed that we have to rely on value judgments to distinguish mental disorders from other conditions, but it is not quite clear how. To clarify this, we need to know more than to what extent attributions of disorder are dependent on values. We also have to know (1) what kind of evaluations we have to rely on to identify the class of mental disorder; (2) whether attributions of disorder contain any implicit (...)
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  34.  34
    Intuitive Expectations and the Detection of Mental Disorder: A Cognitive Background to Folk-Psychiatries.Pascal Boyer - 2011 - Philosophical Psychology 24 (1):95-118.
    How do people detect mental dysfunction? What is the influence of cultural models of dysfunction on this detection process? The detection process as such is not usually researched as it falls between the domains of cross-cultural psychiatry and anthropological ethno-psychiatry . I provide a general model for this “missing link” between behavior and cultural models, grounded in empirical evidence for intuitive psychology. Normal adult minds entertain specific intuitive expectations about mental function and behavior, and by implication they infer (...)
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  35.  23
    Naturalist Accounts of Mental Disorder.Elselijn Kingma - 2013 - In K. . W. . M. Fulford (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Psychiatry. Oxford University Press. pp. 363.
    This chapter examines naturalistic accounts of mental disorder: accounts that define disorder as biological dysfunction. There are three such accounts: an eliminativist account ; a forward-looking or goal-contribution account and a backward-looking or evolutionary account. I argue first, and contra Szasz, that biological functions can be attributed at a mental level. But our mental architecture might simultaneously support many different ways of attributing function claims, which might undermine a strong naturalism about mental disorder. (...)
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  36.  25
    Does Mental Disorder Involve Loss of Personal Autonomy?Derek Bolton & Natalie Banner - 2012 - In Lubomira Radoilska (ed.), Autonomy and Mental Disorder. Oxford University Press.
  37.  18
    Incapacity to Give Informed Consent Owing to Mental Disorder.C. W. van Staden - 2003 - Journal of Medical Ethics 29 (1):41-43.
    What renders some mentally disordered patients incapable of informed consent to medical interventions? It is argued that a patient is incapable of giving informed consent owing to mental disorder, if a mental disorder prevents a patient from understanding what s/he consents to; if a mental disorder prevents a patient from choosing decisively; if a mental disorder prevents a patient from communicating his/her consent; or if a mental disorder prevents a patient (...)
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  38.  26
    Social Construction, Biological Design, and Mental Disorder.Jerome C. Wakefield - 2014 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 21 (4):349-355.
    Pierre-Henri Castel provides a short but richly argued precis of his recently published two-volume 1,000-page masterwork on the history of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Having not read the as-yet-untranslated books, I write this commentary from Plato’s cave, trying to infer the reality of Castel’s analysis from expository shadows. I am unlikely to be more successful than Plato’s poor troglodytes, so I apologize ahead of time for any misunderstandings. Moreover, I cannot assess Castel’s detailed evidential case for his substantive theses.1 I thus (...)
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  39.  3
    Policy Implications of the Biological Model of Mental Disorder.D. P. Olsen - 2000 - Nursing Ethics 7 (5):412-424.
    The current dominant paradigm of mental disorder is that psychopathology is a deviation from normal physiological functioning of the brain. This paradigm is closely allied to the identity theory of mind in philosophy, which holds that mental phenomena are identical with the physical state of the brain. The assumptions of the biological model have policy implications, regardless of the utility or ‘truth’ of the paradigm, which should be made explicit for the assessment of ethics in mental (...)
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  40.  5
    Mental Disorder Is a Disability Concept, Not a Behavioral One.Raymond M. Bergner & Nora Bunford - 2017 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 24 (1):25-40.
    Certain things should never be taken for granted, among them... the precise meaning of words that are at the heart of your discipline.For a large class of cases - though not for all - in which we employ the word ‘‘meaning’’ it can be defined thus: the meaning of a word is its use in the language.The prevailing state of affairs in the mental health field is one in which we have been unable to agree on a definition of (...)
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  41.  19
    Hidden Substance: Mental Disorder as a Challenge to Normatively Neutral Accounts of Autonomy.Fabian Freyenhagen & Tom O'Shea - 2013 - International Journal of Law in Context 9 (1):53-70.
    Mental capacity and autonomy are often understood to be normatively neutral - the only values or other norms they may presuppose are those the assessed person does or would accept. We show how mental disorder threatens normatively neutral accounts of autonomy. These accounts produce false positives, particularly in the case of disorders that affect evaluative abilities. Two normatively neutral strategies for handling autonomy-undermining disorder are explored and rejected: a blanket exclusion of mental disorder, and (...)
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  42. An Evaluation of the DSM Concept of Mental Disorder.Guy A. Boysen - 2007 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 28 (2):157-173.
    The stated purpose of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is to classify mental disorders. However, no tenable operational definition of mental disorder is offered in the manual. This leaves the possibility open that the behaviors labeled as disordered in the DSM are not members of a valid category. Attempts to define mental illness fall into the category of essentialist or relativist based, respectively, on the acceptance or denial of the existence of a (...)
     
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  43.  41
    Defining Mental Disorder. Exploring the 'Natural Function' Approach.Somogy Varga - 2011 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 6:1-.
    Due to several socio-political factors, to many psychiatrists only a strictly objective definition of mental disorder, free of value components, seems really acceptable. In this paper, I will explore a variant of such an objectivist approach to defining metal disorder, natural function objectivism. Proponents of this approach make recourse to the notion of natural function in order to reach a value-free definition of mental disorder. The exploration of Christopher Boorse's 'biostatistical' account of natural function (1) (...)
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  44.  2
    Where’s the Problem? Considering Laing and Esterson’s Account of Schizophrenia, Social Models of Disability, and Extended Mental Disorder.Rachel Cooper - 2017 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 38 (4):295-305.
    In this article, I compare and evaluate R. D. Laing and A. Esterson’s account of schizophrenia as developed in Sanity, Madness and the Family, social models of disability, and accounts of extended mental disorder. These accounts claim that some putative disorders should not be thought of as reflecting biological or psychological dysfunction within the afflicted individual, but instead as external problems. In this article, I consider the grounds on which such claims might be supported. I argue that problems (...)
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  45.  3
    Mental Disorder Is Disability: In Support of Our Design.Raymond M. Bergner & Nora Bunford - 2017 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 24 (1):49-52.
    Although generally supportive of our overall position, both Zachar and Gala and Laughon raise questions about our research design. Herein, we respond to these questions by presenting counterarguments that support the soundness of this design.Subsequent to stating some broad agreement with our central thesis that mental disorder is best viewed as a disability concept and not a behavioral one, Dr. Zachar expresses a number of reservations about our work. We focus on the following discussion on what seem to (...)
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  46.  10
    A Sex Caused Inconsistency in Dsm-III-R: The Definition of Mental Disorder and the Definition of Paraphilias.Bernard Gert - 1992 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 17 (2):155-171.
    The DSM-III-R definition of mental disorder is inconsistent with the DSM-III-R definition of paraphilias. The former requires the suffering or increased risk of suffering some harm while the latter allows that deviance, by itself, is sufficient to classify a behavioral syndrome as a paraphilia. This inconsistency is particularly clear when examining the DSM-III-R account of a specific paraphilia, Transvestic Fetishism. The author defends the DSM-III-R definition of mental disorder and argues that the DSM-III-R definition of paraphilias (...)
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  47.  7
    Mental Disorder or Creative Gift? The Cognitive Scientific Approach to Synesthesia.Józef Bremer - 2015 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 20 (1):73-98.
    In cases where one sense-modality is stimulated by another, we speak of synesthesia, i.e., of a subjective experience of multiple distinct sensations as being quite literally conjoined. The term “synesthesia” is derived indirectly from the Greek words “syn,” meaning “together,” and “aisthesis,” meaning “sensation.” This article focuses on the question of whether synesthesia is in fact a mental disorder or a creative gift. Both the commonsense views that have emerged in recent times, and neurological research, demonstrate that our (...)
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  48.  15
    The Definition of Mental Disorder: Evolving but Dysfunctional?R. Bingham & N. Banner - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (8):537-542.
    Extensive and diverse conceptual work towards developing a definition of ‘mental disorder’ was motivated by the declassification of homosexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual in 1973. This highly politicised event was understood as a call for psychiatry to provide assurances against further misclassification on the basis of discrimination or socio-political deviance. Today, if a definition of mental disorder fails to exclude homosexuality, then it fails to provide this safeguard against potential abuses and therefore fails to (...)
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  49.  2
    Conceptualization of a Mental Disorder: A Clinical Perspective.Gary J. Gala & Sarah L. Laughon - 2017 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 24 (1):41-43.
    The paper by Bergnar and Bunford in this edition of Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology is a sophisticated examination of a central question that has lacked consensus in the philosophy of psychiatry, namely, what is “the key aspect of the meaning of this fundamental term, mental disorder”? To settle this question, the authors use an empirical approach by surveying graduate students in clinical psychology. In this way, they attempt to invoke the Wittgensteinian method of determining the meaning of a (...)
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  50.  30
    Medieval Holism: Hildegard of Bingen on Mental Disorder.Suzanne M. Phillips Monique D. Boivin - 2007 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 14 (4):pp. 359-368.
    Current efforts to think holistically about mental disorder may be assisted by considering the integrative strategies used by Hildegard of Bingen, a twelfth-century abbess and healer. We search for integrative strategies in the detailed records of Hilde-gard’s treatment of the noblewoman Sigewiza and in Hildegard’s more general writings. Three strategies support Hildegard’s holistic thinking: the use of narrative approaches to mental illness, acknowledging interdependence between perspectives, and applying principles of balance to the relationships between perspectives. Applying these (...)
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