A educação, segundo Kant, divide-se em física e prática. A educação física tem em vista os cuidados com o infante, a educação prática diz respeito à formação do sujeito . A formação ou educação prática, por sua vez, se divide, essencialmente, em dois momentos, disciplina e instrução. Pretendemos aqui investigar o papel da Disciplina no projeto filosófico da Educação Prática de Kant. Verificamos o constrangimento ao falar da questão da disciplina no âmbito pedagógico , desse modo, pretendemos elucidar o pensamento (...) pedagógico kantiano, uma tentativa de, ademais, revelar possíveis contribuições da modernidade às discussões contemporâneas. Para o filósofo a disciplina desempenha um papel vital na educação prática – a educação do homem livre. Procurando expor e justificar essa posição, iremos analisar alguns momentos do conjunto de preleções “Sobre a pedagogia”, porém, sem perder os vínculos com o todo do pensamento prático e teórico de Kant. L'éducation, selon Kant, est divisé en physique et pratique. L'éducation physiquevise à prendre soin de l'enfant, l'éducation pratique concernant la formation du sujet . La formation pratique, à son tour, est divisé essentiellement en deux moments, la discipline et l'instruction. Nous avons l'intention ici d’examiner le rolê de la discipline dans le projet philosophique de la éducation pratique chez Kant. Nous vérifions la contrainte pour discuter de la question de la discipline dans l'éducation , donc nous avons l'intention d'élucider la pensée pédagogique de Kant, une tentative, par ailleurs, révéler d'éventuelles contributions de la modernité aux débats contemporains. Pour lê philosophe la discipline joue un rôle vital dans la l'éducation pratique – l'éducation d’être libre. Vous cherchez à exposer et justifier cette position, nous allons examiner quelques instants de la série de conférences «Sur la pédagogie» sans perdre les liens avec toute la réflexion théorique et pratique de Kant. (shrink)
The elaborated intrusion (EI) theory of desire (Kavanagh, Andrade, & May, 2005) attributes the motivational force of cravings to cognitive elaboration, including imagery, of apparently spontaneous thoughts that intrude into awareness. We report a questionnaire study in which respondents rated a craving for food or drink. Questionnaire items derived from EI theory formed a single factor alongside factors for anticipated reward/relief, resistance, and opportunity. In a multiple regression predicting strength of craving, the first three factors accounted for 36% of (...) the variance. Opportunity did not enter the model. In a second study, the difference between individuals' strong and weak cravings to take part in a sporting activity was shown to be related to visual, auditory, and general imagery, and to anticipated reward or relief from engaging in the activity. Implications for treatment of craving-related disorders are discussed in the light of these results and of other research indicating that interference with imagery can reduce the strength of craving. (shrink)
This paper explores the ethical dilemma of conflicting loyalties found in whistleblowing. Central to this dilemma is the internal/external disclosure dichotomy; disclosure of organisational wrongdoing to an external recipient is seen as disloyal, whilst disclosure to an internal recipient is seen as loyal. Understanding how the organisation and society have dealt with these problems over the last 30 years is undertaken through an analysis of Vandekerckhove’s project, which seeks to place the normative legitimisations of whistleblowing legislation and organisational whistleblowing policies (...) within a globalisation semantic able to contain this conflict between society and the organisation. This project fails, it is argued, because of Vandekerckhove’s particular understanding of the organisation as an autopoietic system, i.e. an operationally closed system. A case is made to understand organisations as complex systems, i.e. operationally open systems. Critical Complexity theory sees the identities of systems and components as coterminous. In the context of the organisation, this means that the identities of the corporation and its corporate members arise and die together. The whistleblower’s disclosure reconfigures the organisation by forcing the organisation to open up and make its boundaries flexible, making the designation ‘internal’ or ‘external’ to the organisation, and, therefore, who qualifies as a recipient of a disclosure of wrongdoing, flexible. The organisation is restrained from retailing against the whistleblower, because its identities are coterminous. Furthermore, as the disclosure cannot be categorically defined as either internal or external, the question of whether an external disclosure can qualify as an act of organisational loyalty becomes moot. (shrink)
General anesthesia provides an alternative to typical laboratory paradigms for investigating implicit learning. We assess the evidence that a simple type of learning—priming—can occur without consciousness. Although priming has been shown to be a small but persistent phenomenon in surgical patients there is reason to question whether it occurs implicitly due to problems in detecting awareness using typical clinical signs. This paper reviews the published studies on priming during anesthesia that have included a measure of awareness or of anesthetic depth. (...) We conclude that perceptual priming, but not conceptual priming, takes place in the absence of conscious awareness. (shrink)
This article studies the mathematical properties of two systems that model Aristotle's original syllogistic and the relationship obtaining between them. These systems are Corcoran's natural deduction syllogistic and ?ukasiewicz's axiomatization of the syllogistic. We show that by translating the former into a first-order theory, which we call T RD, we can establish a precise relationship between the two systems. We prove within the framework of first-order logic a number of logical properties about T RD that bear upon the same properties (...) of the natural deduction counterpart ? that is, Corcoran's system. Moreover, the first-order logic framework that we work with allows us to understand how complicated the semantics of the syllogistic is in providing us with examples of bizarre, unexpected interpretations of the syllogistic rules. Finally, we provide a first attempt at finding the structure of that semantics, reducing the search to the characterization of the class of models of T RD. (shrink)
In this paper we analyse how risk factors in highly industrialised agriculture are connected to animal neglect. With Danish agriculture as a case study, we use two types of data. First, we use register data from Statistics Denmark to map how risk factors such as farmers’ financial and social troubles are connected to convictions of neglect. Second, we analyse narratives where interviewed farmers, involved in cases of neglect, describe how they themselves experienced the incidents. We find that while livestock farmers (...) in general have a low risk of animal neglect problems, a small percentage of them face severe financial difficulties, divorce and psychiatric problems, which are connected to an increased risk of being convicted for the neglect of farm animals. The narratives bring forward themes of pressure related to financial trouble, technological break down, family problems, stress and a growing concern among the farmers towards the governmental control in farm animal production. We discuss how these factors can be used to identify and help farmers with a high risk of being convicted of livestock neglect. (shrink)
In this paper I seek to critically examine UCT’s and CCT’s and consider how a Levinasian ethics might offer normative guidelines to evaluate such aid programmes. Such an analysis will serve to both critique and supplement the traditional utilitarian analyses of such programmes. In so doing, this paper also hopes to contribute to the business ethics literature in which a Levinasian ethics may be brought to bear on real world problems. I proceed by enlisting Jordaan who argues that a Levinasian (...) ethical politics can be instantiated in institutional designs by allowing a more complex representation of the other’s alterity. Two UCT programmes are interrogated in light of this finding – the first, a UCT programme in a community in Vietnam; the second, a joint CCT/UCT programme targeting adolescent girls in Malawi, designed to test the efficacy of conditionality to achieve certain. (shrink)
RESUMO Este artigo contempla nosso estudo de práticas socioculturais que demonstram que/como o sujeito contemporâneo dialoga online com enunciados advindos de acontecimentos do universo off-line. Nosso corpus apresenta postagens circuladas publicamente em páginas diversas no Facebook em que se lê: “É verdade esse bilete”. A afirmativa, proveniente de um bilhete escrito por uma criança em sua esfera familiar e divulgado em redes sociais, foi apropriada por múltiplos interlocutores no ciberespaço a fim de produzir efeitos de humor e dizeres contraditórios em (...) diferentes instâncias discursivas. Para a análise, recorremos a elementos constitutivos do dialogismo de proposição bakhtiniana; aos conceitos de meme e remix e às discussões foucaultianas acerca da vontade de verdade. Nossas interpretações apontam que é possível rastrear, nas réplicas ativas analisadas, posições axiológicas que nos remetem ao sujeito contemporâneo, o qual, usando a ironia e efeitos de humor, constitui/compartilha enunciados no intuito de estabelecer sua vontade de verdade na ágora digital. ABSTRACT This paper presents a study of sociocultural practices that exemplify how subjects interact online with offline events. We analyse selected posts collected from social media profiles supported by Facebook. Each excerpt shows the affirmative “It’s true this notte,” a rough translation of a written message addressed by a four-year-old Brazilian boy to his mother stating that there would “supposedly” be a school holiday the following day. The note went viral after his teacher posted it publicly on her social media timeline and the reassuring assertion was appropriated multiple times in the cyberspace so as to as trigger a humour effect in different discourse instances. Grounded on the concepts of meme; remix; Bakhtinian dialogism and Foucauldian’s ideas on truth, we perform a discursive analysis. Our results point to track marks of axiological positions of contemporary subjects that resort to irony to construct/share utterances in order to establish their will to truth in the digital landscape. (shrink)
The combined use of computers and telecommunications and the latest evolution in the field of Artificial Intelligence brought along new ways of contracting and of expressing will and declarations. The question is, how far we can go in considering computer intelligence and autonomy, how can we legally deal with a new form of electronic behaviour capable of autonomous action? In the field of contracting, through Intelligent Electronic Agents, there is an imperious need of analysing the question of expression of consent, (...) and two main possibilities have been proposed: considering electronic devices as mere machines or tools, or considering electronic devices as legal persons. Another possibility that has been frequently mentioned consists in the application of the rules of agency to electronic transactions. Meanwhile, the question remains: would it possible, under a Civil Law framework, to apply the notions of “legal personhood” and “representation” to electronic agents? It is obvious that existing legal norms are not fit for such an endeavouring challenge. Yet, the virtual world exists and it requires a new but realistic legal approach on software agents, in order to enhance the use of electronic commerce in a global world. (shrink)
El artículo aborda de modo breve la extensa producción epistemológica y metodológica de Hugo Zemelman. El esfuerzo está centrado en mostrar su potencialidad no como reemplazo de un modo aceptado de hacer investigación científica, sino más bien en valorizar una forma diferente de hacer el recorte del campo de observación y posterior intervención en el mismo. A partir de este objetivo, se revisan categorías relevantes de la propuesta, procurando conformar un “corpus” de conocimiento coherente y pertinente a los fines de (...) comprender el planteo que realiza el autor estudiado.The article briefly summarizes the extensive epistemological and methodological production of Hugo Zemelman. The effort shows its potentiality not as a replacement of an accepted mode of scientific research, but in give value to a different form to make the frame of the observation field and later its intervention. Later, I review his main categories, trying to create a coherent and pertinent ‘corpus’ of knowledge in order to comprehend the proposal from the author. (shrink)
O objetivo do meu artigo é criticar a compreensão utilitarista do agente moral como átomo racional que está disposto invariavelmente a agir de acordo com o não sofrimento. Minha hipótese é a de que o utilitarismo esvazia os seres humanos de suas motivações para oferecer uma imagem opaca do agente moral. Por isso, ele é incapaz de solucionar dilemas morais que envolvem, por um lado, o autossacrifício por razões afetivas e, por outro, conflitos que opõem culturas distintas. Meu ponto é (...) que não é necessariamente imoral a ação de um agente o qual sacrifica a solução ótima (proposta pelo cálculo utilitário e que privilegia a maioria), em nome de uma motivação afetiva, que julga que uma vida pode valer mais do que outra, nem o sofrimento é necessariamente imoral em todas as culturas de modo uniforme. (shrink)
This paper discusses the ways in which anesthetic agents can be used to investigate the role of awareness in learning and memory. It reviews research into learning during light, subclinical anesthesia, termedhypesthesia.This research suggests that the effects of anesthetics on implicit and explicit memory are roughly comparable, although implicit memory for simple stimuli may resist the effects of very low doses of anesthetic. In addition, this paper reports experimental data demonstrating that long-term retention of information is prevented by doses of (...) anesthetic that are low enough to permit awareness and even short-term memory of auditory stimuli. Overall, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that frontal lobe function is particularly sensitive to anesthetics. They raise theoretical and practical questions about the necessity of consciousness for learning and about interpretation of the evidence for learning during surgery under general anesthesia. (shrink)
The private sector plays an active role in implementation of mechanisms concerning the mitigation of climate change. In spite of that, the corporate actors play a limited direct role in international arenas when it comes to negotiating the design of climate and energy regime. The climate and energy governance in the United Nations system remains mostly state-centric, but the active participation of corporate actors in negotiation of climate and energy regimes is essential to increase the effectiveness of their governance. Business (...) is not just a subject of a regulatory climate and energy imposed by the state; rather, business is an intrinsic part of the fabric of climate and energy governance, as “rule-maker,” particularly in the many voluntary regimes. However, the architecture in place should guarantee that the private sector does not highjack the decisions and its positions are balanced by other non-governmental actors in the process. This article analyzes the role that the private sector can play in the global climate and energy governance. The private sector does not only play a “rule taker” role in the climate change and energy regime. Indeed, they are not passive observers as they influence through indirect means. The results suggest that the private sector is able to play a key role in global climate and energy governance based on the principle of multi-stakeholder participation in global decision-making, but the architecture should be able to balance the goods and bads of private direct influence in international regimes. (shrink)
Analisar as relações sociais e econômicas efetuadas numa dada sociedade é de vital importância para sua compreensão. Neste artigo o objetivo estará voltado para compreender as estratégias de sobrevivência utilizadas pela família de Antônio Augusto Bicalho Canêdo, o maior proprietário de escravos da freguesia de São Paulo do Muriahé. As fontes utilizadas serão os registros de batismos, casamentos e o inventário post-mortem relacionadas ao nosso personagem.
This paper explores the changes in cognitive function which occur as someone "loses consciousness" under anesthesia. Seven volunteers attempted a categorization task and a within-list recognition test while inhaling air, 0.2% isoflurane, and 0.4% isoflurane. In general, performance on these tests declined as the dose of anesthetic was increased and returned to baseline after 10 min of breathing air. A measure of auditory evoked responding termed "coherent frequency" showed parallel changes. At 0.2% isoflurane, subjects could still identify and respond to (...) category exemplars but showed impaired short-term memory function. Electrical stimulation at 0.4% isoflurane, intended to mimic the arousing effects of surgery, had a small, beneficial effect on performance. A mean of 63% of category exemplars was identified at this stage, but recognition memory for those exemplars was at chance on recovery. There was no evidence for learning of words presented at 0.8% isoflurane. (shrink)
Considerando que o cogito possa ser tomado, nas Meditações, como uma conclusão de uma demonstração, pode-se avançar a tese de que essa demonstração está consoante ao método analítico, que Descartes reconhece empreender nesse texto. Esse método teria entre as suas funções nas Meditações aquela de apresentar – sob a forma de uma rede de implicações ontológicas – o raciocínio que conduz à certeza da existência. Como cumpre no referido texto determinar a certeza da existência sem tomar como base nenhuma certeza (...) preestabelecida, o método analítico financiaria, segundo a nossa interpretação, uma reconstrução do argumento do cogito sob uma base indireta, mais precisamente através de uma reductio ad absurdum, cujo objetivo consiste em mostrar a contradição inelutável que surge na tentativa de um indivíduo de provar a sua não existência. (shrink)
If it is true that Spinoza belongs to the history of Jewish Philosophy, his concept of God also cannot cease to being “Jewish”. Our aim here is to call into question if Spinoza’s concept of God, as exposed in Ethics’ definitions, has something of Jewish, particularly when faced with conceptions yielded by some of the main philosophers from Jewish and Arabic traditions: Saadya, Avicenna, Ibn Gabirol, Halevi, Maimonides and Crescas. Our answer, at the end, is negative.
El problema de la teodicea ha sido una de las grandes preocupaciones del pensamiento religioso en Occidente: si Dios es absolutamente bueno y omnipotente, ¿cómo puede existir el mal en el mundo?, y ¿por qué sufren los virtuosos y gozan los impíos? En la Antigüedad, el Libro de Job intentó ofrecer una respuesta que perduró hasta tiempos modernos. En el siglo XVII, Leibniz ofreció una respuesta mucho más racionalizada, propia de los tiempos modernos. Joseph de Maistre, un contrarrevolucionario del siglo (...) XIX, hizo de la teodicea uno de sus temas centrales. El siguiente artículo es un estudio de la forma en que De Maistre aborda este tema. (shrink)
En este artículo se revisa el impacto que la formación en investigación tiene sobre los modos en que las decisiones metodológicas son asumidas y, más aún, sobre la propia concepción de metodología con la que se piensa y ejecuta una investigación en ciencias sociales. Precisamente, es desde el interior de este campo y desde la mirada sociológica, que se formulan algunas reflexiones en torno al propio habitus de investigador social, valiéndonos para ello de los aportes de Pierre Bourdieu.This article analyses (...) the impact of research training on the methodological decisions in the social sciences. Based on Bourdieu contributions, the main aim of the article is to think about the conditions in which the social researcher habitus is built. One of the central questions that organises the document is how methodological conceptions guiding research are influenced by the training received by researchers. (shrink)
This ar ti cle ex tends, from a philo soph i cal and an thro po log i cal point of view, the re cent dis - cus sions as to what is met a phoric. Lan guage phi - los o phers have con trib uted to the un der stand ing of the na ture and func tion of met a phors, but their com ments have been tra ..
Este trabalho investigou características sócio-demográficas e vocacionais em 59 alunos de baixa renda, de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 16 e 48 anos. A maioria já prestou vestibular e tem escolha profissional definida. Os alunos relatam possuir pouca informação sobre profissões, processo de escol..
Resumo: A partir de um estudo sobre os tropos de Enesidemo consignados e discutidos por Sexto Empírico, em suas Hipotiposis pirrônicas, propomos um ensaio de filosofia no qual a leitura desses tropos nos conduz à necessidade de postular uma universalidade nova, radical e intransponível. Por meio dela, não só o teor e o alcance filosóficos do ceticismo podem ser enfatizados, mas também se pode assegurar um lugar de pensamento não-relativista contra a intolerância dogmática ou contra a insatisfação com os conflitos (...) da filosofia.: Based on a study of the tropes of Aenesidemus discussed by Sextus Empiricus in his Pyrrhoniae Hypotyposes, we propose a reading which leads us to the need to postulate for contemporary thought a new universality that is radical and insurmountable. By this means, the philosophical content and scope of skepticism can be understood in the sense of an encounter - finally - with the much sought after notion of truth as that which can not be possessed, or whose announced possession is always the revelation of a one-sidedness. In addition, a place of non-relativistic thought can be secured against dogmatic intolerance and against dissatisfaction with the conflicts of philosophy. (shrink)
In this paper we propose a theoretical model of protein folding and protein evolution in which a polypeptide (sequence/structure) is assumed to behave as a Maxwell Demon or Information Gathering and Using System (IGUS) that performs measurements aiming at the construction of the native structure. Our model proposes that a physical meaning to Shannon information (H) and Chaitin's algorithmic information (K) parameters can be both defined and referred from the IGUS standpoint. Our hypothesis accounts for the interdependence of protein folding (...) and protein evolution through mutual influencing relationships mediated by the IGUS. In brief, IGUS activity in protein folding determines long term tendencies that emerge at the evolutionary time-scale.Thus, protein evolution is a consequence of measurements executed by proteins at the cellular level, where the IGUS imposes a tendency to attain a highly unique stable native form that promotes the updating of the information content. The folding kinetics observed is, thus, the outcome of an evolutionary process where the polypeptide-IGUS drives the evolution of its linear sequence. Finally, we describe protein evolution as an entropic process that tends to increase the content of mutual algorithmic information between the sequence and the structure. This model enables one: 1. To comprehend that full determination of the three-dimensional structure by the linear sequence is a tendency where satisfaction is only possible at thermodynamic equilibrium .2. To account for the observed randomness of the amino acid sequences. 3. To predict an alternation of periods of selection and neutral diffusion during protein evolutionary time. (shrink)
Este texto apresenta alguns aspectos significativos que marcaram o processo de formação dos assistentes sociais do Curso de Serviço Social de Tubarão, Santa Catarina. Através da análise de sua trajetória, evidenciamos as lutas instauradas e as relações estabelecidas com o campo do poder, as quais estão associadas à trajetória do referido curso.