Results for 'Social values'

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  1. The Social Value of Health Research and the Worst Off.Nicola Barsdorf & Joseph Millum - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):105-115.
    In this article we argue that the social value of health research should be conceptualized as a function of both the expected benefits of the research and the priority that the beneficiaries deserve. People deserve greater priority the worse off they are. This conception of social value can be applied for at least two important purposes: in health research priority setting when research funders, policy-makers, or researchers decide between alternative research projects; and in evaluating the ethics of proposed (...)
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  2.  17
    The Social Value Requirement Reconsidered.Alan Wertheimer - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (5):301-308.
    It is widely assumed that it is ethical to conduct research with human subjects only if the research has social value. There are two standard arguments for this view. The allocation argument claims that public funds should not be devoted to research that lacks social value. The exploitation avoidance argument claims that subjects are exploited if research has no social value. The primary purpose of this article is to argue that these arguments do not succeed. The allocation (...)
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  3.  17
    Reconfiguring Social Value in Health Research Through the Lens of Liminality.Agomoni Ganguli‐Mitra, Edward S. Dove, Graeme T. Laurie & Samuel Taylor‐Alexander - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):87-96.
    Despite the growing importance of ‘social value’ as a central feature of research ethics, the term remains both conceptually vague and to a certain extent operationally rigid. And yet, perhaps because the rhetorical appeal of social value appears immediate and self-evident, the concept has not been put to rigorous investigation in terms of its definition, strength, function, and scope. In this article, we discuss how the anthropological concept of liminality can illuminate social value and differentiate and reconfigure (...)
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  4.  22
    The Social Value of Knowledge and the Responsiveness Requirement for International Research.Danielle M. Wenner - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):97-104.
    Ethicists have long recognized that two necessary features of ethical research are scientific validity and social value. Yet despite a significant literature surrounding the validity component of this dictate, until recently there has been little attention paid to unpacking what the social value component might require. This article introduces a framework for assessing the social value of research, and in particular, for determining whether a given research program is likely to have significant social value of the (...)
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  5.  28
    The Social Value Requirement in Research: From the Transactional to the Basic Structure Model of Stakeholder Obligations.Danielle M. Wenner - 2018 - Hastings Center Report 48 (6):25-32.
    It has long been taken for granted that clinical research involving human subjects is ethical only if it holds out the prospect of producing socially valuable knowledge. Recently, this social value requirement has come under scrutiny, with prominent ethicists arguing that the social value requirement cannot be substantiated as an ethical limit on clinical research, and others attempting to offer new support. In this paper, I argue that both criticisms and existing defenses of the social value requirement (...)
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  6. Social Values Influence the Adequacy Conditions of Scientific Theories: Beyond Inductive Risk.Ingo Brigandt - 2015 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 45 (3):326-356.
    The ‘death of evidence’ issue in Canada raises the spectre of politicized science, and thus the question of what role social values may have in science and how this meshes with objectivity and evidence. I first criticize philosophical accounts that have to separate different steps of research to restrict the influence of social and other non-epistemic values. A prominent account that social values may play a role even in the context of theory acceptance is (...)
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  7. Whose Social Values? Evaluating Canada’s ‘Death of Evidence’ Controversy.Maya J. Goldenberg - 2015 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 45 (3):404-424.
    With twentieth- and twenty-first-century philosophy of science’s unfolding acceptance of the nature of scientific inquiry being value-laden, the persistent worry has been that there are no means for legitimate negotiation of the social or non-epistemic values that enter into science. The rejection of the value-free ideal in science has thereby been coupled with the spectres of indiscriminate relativism and bias in scientific inquiry. I challenge this view in the context of recently expressed concerns regarding Canada's death of evidence (...)
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  8.  44
    Social Value, Clinical Equipoise, and Research in a Public Health Emergency.Alex John London - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (3):326-334.
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  9.  23
    The Social Value of Pragmatic Trials.Shona Kalkman, Ghislaine van Thiel, Rieke van der Graaf, Mira Zuidgeest, Iris Goetz, Diederick Grobbee & Johannes van Delden - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):136-143.
    Pragmatic trials aim to directly inform health care decision-making through the collection of so-called ‘real world data’ from observations of comparative treatment effects in clinical practice. In order to ensure the applicability and feasibility of a pragmatic trial, design features may be necessary that deviate from standard research ethics requirements. Examples are traditional requirements to seek written informed consent and to perform extensive data and safety monitoring. Proposals for deviations from standard research ethics practice have resulted in controversy about their (...)
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  10. Social Values and Scientific Evidence: The Case of the HPV Vaccines.Kristen Intemann & Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (2):203-213.
    Several have argued that the aims of scientific research are not always independent of social and ethical values. Yet this is often assumed only to have implications for decisions about what is studied, or which research projects are funded, and not for methodological decisions or standards of evidence. Using the case of the recently developed HPV vaccines, we argue that the social aims of research can also play important roles in justifying decisions about (1) how research problems (...)
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  11.  21
    The Social Value of Knowledge and International Clinical Research.Danielle M. Wenner - 2015 - Developing World Bioethics 15 (2):76-84.
    In light of the growth in the conduct of international clinical research in developing populations, this paper seeks to explore what is owed to developing world communities who host international clinical research. Although existing paradigms for assigning and assessing benefits to host communities offer valuable insight, I criticize their failure to distinguish between those benefits which can justify the conduct of research in a developing world setting and those which cannot. I argue that the justification for human subjects research is (...)
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  12.  11
    The Social Value of Clinical Research.Michelle Gjl Habets, Johannes Jm van Delden & AnneLien L. Bredenoord - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):66.
    International documents on ethical conduct in clinical research have in common the principle that potential harms to research participants must be proportional to anticipated benefits. The anticipated benefits that can justify human research consist of direct benefits to the research participant, and societal benefits, also called social value. In first-in-human research, no direct benefits are expected and the benefit component of the risks-benefit assessment thus merely exists in social value. The concept social value is ambiguous by nature (...)
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  13.  19
    In Defense of a Social Value Requirement for Clinical Research.David Wendler & Annette Rid - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):77-86.
    Many guidelines and commentators endorse the view that clinical research is ethically acceptable only when it has social value, in the sense of collecting data which might be used to improve health. A version of this social value requirement is included in the Declaration of Helsinki and the Nuremberg Code, and is codified in many national research regulations. At the same time, there have been no systematic analyses of why social value is an ethical requirement for clinical (...)
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  14.  13
    Social Values and Scientific Evidence: The Case of the HPV Vaccines.Kristen Intemann & Inmaculada Melo-martín - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (2):203-213.
    Several have argued that the aims of scientific research are not always independent of social and ethical values. Yet this is often assumed only to have implications for decisions about what is studied, or which research projects are funded, and not for methodological decisions or standards of evidence. Using the case of the recently developed HPV vaccines, we argue that the social aims of research can also play important roles in justifying decisions about (1) how research problems (...)
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  15. The Social Value of Non-Deferential Belief.Allan Hazlett - 2016 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 94 (1):131-151.
    We often prefer non-deferential belief to deferential belief. In the last twenty years, epistemology has seen a surge of sympathetic interest in testimony as a source of knowledge. We are urged to abandon ‘epistemic individualism’ and the ideal of the ‘autonomous knower’ in favour of ‘social epistemology’. In this connection, you might think that a preference for non-deferential belief is a manifestation of vicious individualism, egotism, or egoism. I shall call this the selfishness challenge to preferring non-deferential belief. The (...)
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  16.  8
    Social Value Judgements in Healthcare: A Philosophical Critique.Laura R. Biron, Ruth Faden & Benedict Rumbold - 2012 - Journal of Health Organization and Management 26 (3):317-30.
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to consider some of the philosophical and bioethical issues raised by the creation of the draft social values framework developed to facilitate data collection and country-specific presentations at the inaugural workshop on "Social values and health priority setting" held in February 2011. -/- DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Conceptual analysis is used to analyse the term "social values", as employed in the framework, and its relationship to related ideas such as moral (...)
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  17. The Social Value of Reasoning in Epistemic Justification.Jennifer Nagel - 2015 - Episteme 12 (2):297-308.
    When and why does it matter whether we can give an explicit justification for what we believe? This paper examines these questions in the light of recent empirical work on the social functions served by our capacity to reason, in particular, Mercier and Sperber’s argumentative theory of reasoning.
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  18.  23
    Social Values as an Independent Factor Affecting End of Life Medical Decision Making.Charles J. Cohen, Yifat Chen, Hedi Orbach, Yossi Freier-Dror, Gail Auslander & Gabriel S. Breuer - 2015 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 18 (1):71-80.
    Research shows that the physician’s personal attributes and social characteristics have a strong association with their end-of-life decision making. Despite efforts to increase patient, family and surrogate input into EOL decision making, research shows the physician’s input to be dominant. Our research finds that physician’s social values, independent of religiosity, have a significant association with physician’s tendency to withhold or withdraw life sustaining, EOL treatments. It is suggested that physicians employ personal social values in their (...)
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  19.  41
    From Social Values to P-Values: The Social Epistemology of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.Stephen John - 2017 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 34 (2):157-171.
    In this article I ask two questions prompted by the phenomenon of ‘politically patterned’ climate change denial. First, can an individual's political commitments provide her with good reasons not to defer to cognitive experts’ testimony? Building on work in philosophy of science on inductive risk, I argue they can. Second, can an individual's political commitments provide her with good reasons not to defer to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's testimony? I argue that they cannot, because of the high epistemic (...)
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  20.  22
    Defining and Negotiating the Social Value of Research in Public Health Facilities: Perceptions of Stakeholders in a Research‐Active Province of South Africa.Elizabeth Lutge, Catherine Slack & Douglas Wassenaar - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):128-135.
    This article reports on qualitative research conducted in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, among researchers and gate-keepers of health facilities in the province. Results suggest disparate but not irreconcilable perceptions of the social value of research in provincial health facilities. This study found that researchers tended to emphasize the contribution of research to the generation of knowledge and to the health of future patients while gate-keepers of health facilities tended to emphasize its contribution to the healthcare system and to current patients. (...)
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  21.  16
    Social Value Orientation and Endorsement of Horizontal and Vertical Individualism and Collectivism: An Exploratory Study Comparing Individuals From North America and South Korea.Chanki Moon, Giovanni A. Travaglino & Ayse K. Uskul - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  22.  10
    Attachment, Social Value Orientation, Sensation Seeking, and Bullying in Early Adolescence.Marco Innamorati, Laura Parolin, Angela Tagini, Alessandra Santona, Andrea Bosco, Pietro De Carli, Giovanni L. Palmisano, Filippo Pergola & Diego Sarracino - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  23.  20
    Social Values as Arguments: Similar is Convincing.Gregory R. Maio, Ulrike Hahn, John-Mark Frost, Toon Kuppens, Nadia Rehman & Shanmukh Kamble - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  24. The Social Value of Ritual and Music in Classical Chinese Thought.James Garrison - 2012 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 31 (3):209-222.
     
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  25.  9
    Defending the Social Value of Knowledge as a Safeguard for Public Trust.S. Holzer Felicitas - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (7):559-567.
    The ‘socially valuable knowledge’ principle has been widely acknowledged as one of the most important guiding principles for biomedical research involving human subjects. The principle states that the potential of producing socially valuable knowledge is a necessary requirement, although not sufficient, for the ethical conduct of research projects. This is due to the assumption that the social value of knowledge avoids exploitation of research subjects and justifies the use of health resources. However, more recently, several authors have started interrogating (...)
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  26.  18
    Collaborative Partnership and the Social Value of Clinical Research: A Qualitative Secondary Analysis.Sanna-Maria Nurmi, Arja Halkoaho, Mari Kangasniemi & Anna-Maija Pietilä - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):57.
    Protecting human subjects from being exploited is one of the main ethical challenges for clinical research. However, there is also a responsibility to protect and respect the communities who are hosting the research. Recently, attention has focused on the most efficient way of carrying out clinical research, so that it benefits society by providing valuable research while simultaneously protecting and respecting the human subjects and the communities where the research is conducted. Collaboration between partners plays an important role and that (...)
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  27.  70
    Cognitive and Social Values.Peter Machamer & Heather Douglas - 1999 - Science & Education 8 (1):45-54.
  28.  70
    Before Microfinance: The Social Value of Microsavings in Vincentian Poverty Reduction. [REVIEW]Marco Tavanti - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 112 (4):697-706.
    The purpose of this article is to present and discuss the values and limits of microfinance within the context of poverty reduction, international development, and community empowerment. The main thesis is that microfinance requires a more complex strategy than simply the provision of credits. The development of financial capital depends on the increase in human capacity and social capital. Microfinance is revisited under the ethical lenses of global responsibility for alleviating poverty and developing community sustainability. Through a critical (...)
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  29.  47
    Evaluating Social Value: On the Intersection of Mortality and Economics in the Distribution of Publicly Funded Medical Care.David Alan Klein - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (7):18 - 20.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 7, Page 18-20, July 2011.
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  30. Moral Principles and Social Values.Jennifer Trusted - 2002 - Routledge.
    First published in 1987. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
     
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  31.  12
    Substantiating the Social Value Requirement for Research: An Introduction.Annette Rid & Seema K. Shah - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):72-76.
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  32.  15
    Science, Social Values and Straw Positions.Steven French - 2005 - Metascience 14 (3):465-468.
  33.  40
    Moderating Effects of Social Value Orientation on the Effect of Social Influence in Prosocial Decisions.Zhenyu Wei, Zhiying Zhao & Yong Zheng - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  34. The Social Value of Logic Teaching.F. C. S. Schiller - 1913 - Hibbert Journal 12:192.
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  35.  31
    Ethics in Practice: The State of the Debate on Promoting the Social Value of Global Health Research in Resource Poor Settings Particularly Africa.Geoffrey M. Lairumbi, Michael Parker, Raymond Fitzpatrick & Michael C. English - 2011 - BMC Medical Ethics 12 (1):22.
    BackgroundPromoting the social value of global health research undertaken in resource poor settings has become a key concern in global research ethics. The consideration for benefit sharing, which concerns the elucidation of what if anything, is owed to participants, their communities and host nations that take part in such research, and the obligations of researchers involved, is one of the main strategies used for promoting social value of research. In the last decade however, there has been intense debate (...)
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  36.  9
    Sports and Social Values.Robert L. Simon - 1986 - Ethics 96 (4):886-887.
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  37.  6
    Changing Social Values in Europe.David G. Barker - 1992 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 1 (2):91–103.
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  38.  4
    Should Social Value Obligations Be Local or Global?Rahul Nayak & Seema K. Shah - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):116-127.
    According to prominent bioethics scholars and international guidelines, researchers and sponsors have obligations to ensure that the products of their research are reasonably available to research participants and their communities. In other words, the claim is that research is unethical unless it has local social value. In this article, we argue that the existing conception of reasonable availability should be replaced with a social value obligation that extends to the global poor. To the extent the social value (...)
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  39.  44
    Rationing and Social Value Judgments.Alexander W. Friedman - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (7):28 - 29.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 7, Page 28-29, July 2011.
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  40.  18
    Analysing Social Values in Identification; A Framework for Research on the Representation and Implementation of Values.Rusten Menard - 2016 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 46 (2):122-142.
    This article contributes to the concept of social values by presenting analytical tools that explore how social values are classified, re-presented and interpersonally performed in the construction of identities. I approach social values as classificatory systems of acceptability and desirability that are collectively generated. The meanings of social values are embedded in culture and in power imbalanced social relations; they constantly undergo reformulation in identification processes and are also used to define (...)
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  41.  7
    Social values and teaching methods: what do Teachers need to improve from the Students's view.Diana Castro Ricalde & Díaz Flores - 2015 - Humanidades Médicas 15 (3):582-602.
    Introducción: Los docentes universitarios requieren nuevos saberes para enfrentar los diversos retos que plantea la educación superior; dichos desafíos se relacionan con el dominio de saberes disciplinarios, profesionales, laborales, pedagógicos y didácticos e incluso axiológicos. Lo que aquí se presenta son los resultados de una investigación llevada a cabo en la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México en el periodo de enero de 2014 a abril de 2015. El objetivo: fue determinar los saberes específicos, métodos de enseñanza y valores sociales (...)
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  42.  2
    Social values and teaching methods: what do Teachers need to improve from the Students's view.Diana Castro Ricalde & Martha Díaz Flores - 2015 - Humanidades Médicas 15 (3):582-602.
    Introducción: Los docentes universitarios requieren nuevos saberes para enfrentar los diversos retos que plantea la educación superior; dichos desafíos se relacionan con el dominio de saberes disciplinarios, profesionales, laborales, pedagógicos y didácticos e incluso axiológicos. Lo que aquí se presenta son los resultados de una investigación llevada a cabo en la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México en el periodo de enero de 2014 a abril de 2015. El objetivo: fue determinar los saberes específicos, métodos de enseñanza y valores sociales (...)
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  43.  18
    Analysing Social Values in Identification; A Framework for Research on the Representation and Implementation of Values.Rusten Menard - 2016 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 46 (2):122-142.
    This article contributes to the concept of social values by presenting analytical tools that explore how social values are classified, re-presented and interpersonally performed in the construction of identities. I approach social values as classificatory systems of acceptability and desirability that are collectively generated. The meanings of social values are embedded in culture and in power imbalanced social relations; they constantly undergo reformulation in identification processes and are also used to define (...)
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  44.  51
    Gender-Related Differences in Ethical and Social Values of Business Students: Implications for Management. [REVIEW]Patricia Smith & Ellwood Oakley - 1997 - Journal of Business Ethics 16 (1):37-45.
    This study investigated gender-related differences in ethical attitudes of 318 graduate and undergraduate business students. Significant differences were observed in male and female responses to questions concerning ethics in social and personal relationships. No differences were noted for survey items concerning rules-based obligations. Implications for future management are discussed.
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  45.  22
    Gender-Related Differences in Ethical and Social Values of Business Students: Implications for Management. [REVIEW]Patricia L. Smith & I. I. I. Oakley - 1997 - Journal of Business Ethics 16 (1):37-45.
    This study investigated gender-related differences in ethical attitudes of 318 graduate and undergraduate business students. Significant differences were observed in male and female responses to questions concerning ethics in social and personal relationships. No differences were noted for survey items concerning rules-based obligations. Implications for future management are discussed.
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  46. CEO Leadership Styles and the Implementation of Organizational Diversity Practices: Moderating Effects of Social Values and Age. [REVIEW]Eddy S. Ng & Greg J. Sears - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 105 (1):41-52.
    Drawing on strategic choice theory, we investigate the influence of CEO leadership styles and personal attributes on the implementation of organizational diversity management practices. Specifically, we examined CEO transformational and transactional leadership in relation to organizational diversity practices and whether CEO social values and age may moderate these relationships. Our results suggest that transformational leadership is most strongly associated with the implementation of diversity practices. Transactional leadership is also related to the implementation of diversity management practices when either (...)
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  47.  25
    The Role of Plurality and Context in Social Values.Stavroula Tsirogianni & George Gaskell - 2011 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 41 (4):441-465.
    The study of social values has its origins in the study of both cross cultural and within cultural differences in latent or manifest definitions of the right social order to achieve the good life. To this extent, the social scientific literature is replete with references to them. Yet, researchers either use the term values Social values are often used interchangeably with that of attitudes or treated as a post-hoc explanatory concept. When values (...)
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  48.  7
    Creating Social Value for the ‘Base of the Pyramid’: An Integrative Review and Research Agenda.Addisu A. Lashitew, Somendra Narayan, Eugenia Rosca & Lydia Bals - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-22.
    A growing body of research looks into business-led efforts to create social value by improving the socio-economic well-being of Base of the Pyramid communities. Research shows that businesses that pursue these strategies—or BoP businesses—face distinct sets of challenges that require unique capabilities. There is, however, limited effort to synthesize current evidence on the mechanisms through which these businesses create social value. We systematically review the literature on BoP businesses, covering 110 studies published in business and management journals. We (...)
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  49.  41
    Core Social Values in Contemporary Societies.Pan Wei - 2009 - Diogenes 56 (1):53-73.
    This essay intends to build an analytical tool for understanding social values. It proceeds by defining the term ‘social value’, differentiating ‘core’ and ‘non-core’ social values and discussing their respective functions in society. Then, it extracts from social values a seven-tier system of core social values, built on seven basic social relationships: self–other, man–nature, individual–community, community–society, people–government, people–(state) nation, and (state) nation–world system. The corresponding views of right and wrong on (...)
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  50.  20
    Gender-Related Differences in Ethical and Social Values of Business Students: Implications for Management.Patricia L. Smith & I. I. I. Ellwood F. Oakley - 1997 - Journal of Business Ethics 16 (1):37-45.
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