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  1. Deanna Abernethy & John R. Klauder (2005). The Distance Between Classical and Quantum Systems. Foundations of Physics 35 (5):881-895.
    In a recent paper, a “distance” function, $\cal D$ , was defined which measures the distance between pure classical and quantum systems. In this work, we present a new definition of a “distance”, D, which measures the distance between either pure or impure classical and quantum states. We also compare the new distance formula with the previous formula, when the latter is applicable. To illustrate these distances, we have used 2 × 2 matrix examples and two-dimensional vectors for simplicity and (...)
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  2. Carl G. Adler (1980). Why is Mechanics Based on Acceleration? Philosophy of Science 47 (1):146-152.
    The unique role of the second derivative of position with respect to time in classical mechanics is investigated. It is indicated that mechanics might have been developed around other order derivatives. Examples based on $\overset \ldots \to{x}$ and $\overset....\to{x}$ are presented. Kirchhoff's argument for using ẍ is given and generalized.
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  3. Diederik Aerts (1996). Relativity Theory: What is Reality? [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 26 (12):1627-1644.
    In classical Newtonian physics there was a clear understanding of “what reality is.≓ Indeed in this classical view, reality at a certain time is the collection of all what is actual at this time, and this is contained in “the present.≓ Often it is stated that three-dimensional space and one-dimensional time hare been substituted by four-dimensional space-time in relativity theory, and as a consequence the classical concept of reality, as that which is “present,≓ cannot be retained. Is reality then the (...)
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  4. Alexander Afriat, Cartesian and Lagrangian Momentum.
    I compare the momenta of Descartes and Lagrange geometrically, and consider cases in which the full generality of Lagrangian momentum is necessary.
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  5. John Aidun (1982). Aristotelian Force as Newtonian Power. Philosophy of Science 49 (2):228-235.
    Aristotle's rule of proportions of the factors of motion, presented in VII 5 of the Physics, characterizes Aristotelian force. Observing that the locomotion to which Aristotle applied the Rule is the motion produced by manual labor, I develop an interpretation of the factors of motion that reveals that Aristotelian force is Newtonian power. An alternate interpretation of the Rule by Toulmin and Goodfield implicitly identifies Aristotelian force with Newtonian force. In order to account for the absence of an acceleration in (...)
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  6. E. J. Aiton (1970). Essays in the History of Mechanics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 1 (3):265-273.
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  7. Valia Allori & Nino Zanghi (2008). On the Classical Limit of Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 10.1007/S10701-008-9259-4 39 (1):20-32.
    Contrary to the widespread belief, the problem of the emergence of classical mechanics from quantum mechanics is still open. In spite of many results on the ¯h → 0 asymptotics, it is not yet clear how to explain within standard quantum mechanics the classical motion of macroscopic bodies. In this paper we shall analyze special cases of classical behavior in the framework of a precise formulation of quantum mechanics, Bohmian mechanics, which contains (...)
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  8. J. S. Alper, M. Bridger, J. Earman & J. D. Norton (2000). What is a Newtonian System? The Failure of Energy Conservation and Determinism in Supertasks. Synthese 124 (2):281-293.
    Supertasks recently discussed in the literature purport to display a failure ofenergy conservation and determinism in Newtonian mechanics. We debatewhether these supertasks are admissible as Newtonian systems, with Earmanand Norton defending the affirmative and Alper and Bridger the negative.
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  9. Joseph S. Alper & Mark Bridger (1998). Newtonian Supertasks: A Critical Analysis. Synthese 114 (2):355-369.
    In two recent papers Perez Laraudogoitia has described a variety of supertasks involving elastic collisions in Newtonian systems containing a denumerably infinite set of particles. He maintains that these various supertasks give examples of systems in which energy is not conserved, particles at rest begin to move spontaneously, particles disappear from a system, and particles are created ex nihilo. An analysis of these supertasks suggests that they involve systems that do not satisfy the mathematical conditions required of Newtonian systems at (...)
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  10. Martin S. Altschul (1978). Coordinate Transformations and the Theory of Measurement. Foundations of Physics 8 (1-2):69-92.
    We discuss the criteria for deriving new information from coordinate transformations, focusing on the property of implementability, or measurability in practice. We contrast the role of coordinate transformations in classical and quantum physics, and demonstrate that many well-known applications fail to meet the criteria for new information. Finally, we discuss some mathematical properties of the coordinate transformations, and then relate these properties to a practical measurement scheme.
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  11. J. Anandan (1980). On the Hypotheses Underlying Physical Geometry. Foundations of Physics 10 (7-8):601-629.
    The relationship between physics and geometry is examined in classical and quantum physics based on the view that the symmetry group of physics and the automorphism group of the geometry are the same. Examination of quantum phenomena reveals that the space-time manifold is not appropriate for quantum theory. A different conception of geometry for quantum theory on the group manifold, which may be an arbitrary Lie group, is proposed. This provides a unified description of gravity and gauge fields as well (...)
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  12. James L. Anderson (1990). Newton's First Two Laws Are Not Definitions. American Journal of Physics 58 (12):1192--5.
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  13. S. M. Anlage (2000). Book Review: Quantum Chaos-An Introduction. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 30 (7):1135-1138.
  14. Mayeul Arminjon (2004). Gravity as Archimedes' Thrust and a Bifurcation in That Theory. Foundations of Physics 34 (11):1703-1724.
    Euler’s interpretation of Newton’s gravity (NG) as Archimedes’ thrust in a fluid ether is presented in some detail. Then a semi-heuristic mechanism for gravity, close to Euler’s, is recalled and compared with the latter. None of these two ‘‘gravitational ethers’’ can obey classical mechanics. This is logical since the ether defines the very reference frame, in which mechanics is defined. This concept is used to build a scalar theory of gravity: NG corresponds to an incompressible ether, a compressible ether leads (...)
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  15. Andre Koch Torres Assis & J. Guala-Valverde (2000). Mass in Relational Mechanics. Apeiron 7:131-132.
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  16. G. Auletta (2004). Critical Examination of the Conceptual Foundations of Classical Mechanics in the Light of Quantum Physics. Epistemologia 27 (1):55-82.
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  17. Y. Avishai & H. Ekstein (1972). Causal Independence. Foundations of Physics 2 (4):257-270.
    Causal independence of the simultaneous positions and momenta of two distinguishable particles in nonrelativistic physics and causal independence of events in two relatively spacelike regions of space-time in relativity are analyzed and discussed. This review paper formulates causal independence in a general and operational way and summarizes the inferences drawn from it in non-relativistic quantum mechanics, classical relativistic point mechanics, quantum field theory, and classical field theory. Special attention is given to the open question of the relationship between local independence (...)
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  18. Alexander Bach (1988). The Concept of Indistinguishable Particles in Classical and Quantum Physics. Foundations of Physics 18 (6):639-649.
    The consequences of the following definition of indistinguishability are analyzed. Indistinguishable classical or quantum particles are identical classical or quantum particles in a state characterized by a probability measure, a statistical operator respectively, which is invariant under any permutation of the particles. According to this definition the particles of classical Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics are indistinguishable.
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  19. Massimiliano Badino (forthcoming). Bridging Conceptual Gaps: The Kolmogorov-Sinai Entropy. Isonomía. Revista de Teoría y Filosofía Del Derecho.
    The Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy is a fairly exotic mathematical concept which has recently aroused some interest on the philosophers’ part. The most salient trait of this concept is its working as a junction between such diverse ambits as statistical mechanics, information theory and algorithm theory. In this paper I argue that, in order to understand this very special feature of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, is essential to reconstruct its genealogy. Somewhat surprisingly, this story takes us as far back as the beginning of (...)
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  20. C. D. Bailey (2002). The Unifying Laws of Classical Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 32 (1):159-176.
    It is shown that, at the time of Euler and Lagrange, a belief led to an assumption. The assumption is applied to derive the principle of least action from the vis viva. The assumption is also applied to derive Hamilton's principles from the vis viva. It is shown that Hamilton, in his 1834 paper, countered the assumption of the earlier mathematicians. Finally, Hamilton's law, completely independent of the principle of least action and Hamilton's principles, is obtained to verify the foregoing (...)
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  21. Cecil D. Bailey (1983). Hamilton's Law or Hamilton's Principle: A Response to Ulvi Yurtsever. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 13 (5):539-544.
    The law of varying action and Hamilton's principle of classical mechanics are discussed. It is now clear that the law of varying action, introduced by Hamilton in his papers of 1834 and 1935, was never recognized by either the mathematicians or other scientists who followed him. Why this occurred is discussed in this paper.
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  22. Cecil D. Bailey (1981). On a More Precise Statement of Hamilton's Principle. Foundations of Physics 11 (3-4):279-296.
    It has been recognized in the literature of the calculus of variations that the classical statement of the principle of least action (Hamilton's principle for conservative systems) is not strictly correct. Recently, mathematical proofs have been offered for what is claimed to be a more precise statement of Hamilton's principle for conservative systems. According to a widely publicized version of this more precise statement, the action integral for conservative systems is a minimum for discrete systems for small time intervals only (...)
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  23. Franz Balsiger & Alex Burri (1990). Sind Die Klassische Mechanik Und Die Spezielle Relativitätstheorie Kommensurabel? Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 21 (1):157-162.
    In its first part, this paper shows why a recently made attempt to reduce the special theory of relativity to Newtonian kinematics is bound to fail. In the second part, we propose a differentiated notion of incommensurability which enables us to amend the contention that the special theory of relatively and Newtonian kinematics are “incommensurable”.
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  24. Thomas William Barrett (2015). On the Structure of Classical Mechanics. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (4):801-828.
    The standard view is that the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations of classical mechanics are theoretically equivalent. Jill North, however, argues that they are not. In particular, she argues that the state-space of Hamiltonian mechanics has less structure than the state-space of Lagrangian mechanics. I will isolate two arguments that North puts forward for this conclusion and argue that neither yet succeeds. 1 Introduction2 Hamiltonian State-space Has less Structure than Lagrangian State-space2.1 Lagrangian state-space is metrical2.2 Hamiltonian state-space is symplectic2.3 Metric > (...)
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  25. A. O. Barut & N. Ünal (1993). On Poisson Brackets and Symplectic Structures for the Classical and Quantum Zitterbewegung. Foundations of Physics 23 (11):1423-1429.
    The symplectic structures (brackets, Hamilton's equations, and Lagrange's equations) for the Dirac electron and its classical model have exactly the same form. We give explicitly the Poisson brackets in the dynamical variables (x μ,p μ,v μ,S μv). The only difference is in the normalization of the Dirac velocities γμγμ=4 which has significant consequences.
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  26. David Batchelor (2002). Erratum: “Semiclassical Models for Virtual Antiparticle Pairs, the Unit of Charge E, and the QCD Couplings Αs”. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 32 (2):333-333.
    New semiclassical models of virtual antiparticle pairs are used to compute the pair lifetimes, and good agreement with the Heisenberg lifetimes from quantum field theory (QFT) is found. The modeling method applies to both the electromagnetic and color forces. Evaluation of the action integral of potential field fluctuation for each interaction potential yields ≈ℏ/2 for both electromagnetic and color fluctuations, in agreement with QFT. Thus each model is a quantized semiclassical representation for such virtual antiparticle pairs, to good approximation. When (...)
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  27. H. Bates (1943). Thousandth Classical Weekly. Classical World: A Quarterly Journal on Antiquity 37:233-234.
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  28. Robert W. Batterman (1991). Chaos, Quantization, and the Correspondence Principle. Synthese 89 (2):189 - 227.
  29. D. A. Baur (1914). Classical Articles in Non-Classical Periodicals. Classical World: A Quarterly Journal on Antiquity 8:120.
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  30. Christopher Belanger (2013). On Two Mathematical Definitions of Observational Equivalence: Manifest Isomorphism and Epsilon-Congruence Reconsidered. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 44 (2):69-76.
    In this article I examine two mathematical definitions of observational equivalence, one proposed by Charlotte Werndl and based on manifest isomorphism, and the other based on Ornstein and Weiss’s ε-congruence. I argue, for two related reasons, that neither can function as a purely mathematical definition of observational equivalence. First, each definition permits of counterexamples; second, overcoming these counterexamples will introduce non-mathematical premises about the systems in question. Accordingly, the prospects for a broadly applicable and purely mathematical definition of observational equivalence (...)
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  31. Ori Belkind (2007). Newton's Conceptual Argument for Absolute Space. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 21 (3):271 – 293.
    While many take Newton's argument for absolute space to be an inference to the best explanation, some argue that Newton is primarily concerned with the proper definition of true motion, rather than with independent existence of spatial points. To an extent the latter interpretation is correct. However, all prior interpretations are mistaken in thinking that 'absolute motion' is defined as motion with respect to absolute space. Newton is also using this notion to refer to the quantity of motion (momentum). This (...)
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  32. Delphine Bellis (2013). Carlo Borghero.Les Cartésiens Face À Newton. Turnhout: Brepols, 2011. Pp. 156. $64.88. [REVIEW] Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 3 (2):364-367.
  33. Gordon Belot (2007). The Representation of Time and Change in Mechanics. In John Earman & Jeremy Butterfield (eds.), Philosophy of Physics. Elsevier 133--227.
    This chapter is concerned with the representation of time and change in classical (i.e., non-quantum) physical theories. One of the main goals of the chapter is to attempt to clarify the nature and scope of the so-called problem of time: a knot of technical and interpretative problems that appear to stand in the way of attempts to quantize general relativity, and which have their roots in the general covariance of that theory. The most natural approach to these questions is via (...)
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  34. Gordon Belot & John Earman (1997). Chaos Out of Order: Quantum Mechanics, the Correspondence Principle and Chaos. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 28 (2):147-182.
  35. Gordon Belot & Lina Jansson (2010). Alisa Bokulich, Reexamining the Quantum-Classical Relation: Beyond Reductionism and Pluralism , Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2008) ISBN 978-0-521-85720-8 Pp. X+195. [REVIEW] Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 41 (1):81-83.
  36. Vieri Benci (1999). Quantum Phenomena in a Classical Model. Foundations of Physics 29 (1):1-28.
    This work is part of a program which has the aim to investigate which phenomena can be explained by nonlinear effects in classical mechanics and which ones require the new axioms of quantum mechanics. In this paper, we construct a nonlinear field equation which admits soliton solutions. These solitons exibit a dynamics which is similar to that of quantum particles.
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  37. Vieri Benci & Donato Fortunato (1998). A New Variational Principle for the Fundamental Equations of Classical Physics. Foundations of Physics 28 (2):333-352.
    In this paper we introduce a variational principle from which the fundamental equations of classical physics can be deduced. This principle permits a sort of unification of the gravitational and the electromagnetic fields. The basic point of this variational principle is that the world-line of a material point is parametrized by a parameter a which carries some physical information, namely it is related to the rest mass and to the charge. In particular, the (inertial) rest mass will not be (...)
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  38. G. W. Bennett (1917). Classical Articles in Non-Classical Periodicals. Classical World: A Quarterly Journal on Antiquity 11:167.
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  39. M. K. Bennett & D. J. Foulis (1990). Superposition in Quantum and Classical Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 20 (6):733-744.
    Using the mathematical notion of an entity to represent states in quantum and classical mechanics, we show that, in a strict sense, proper superpositions are possible in classical mechanics.
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  40. J. D. Bernal (1972). The Extension of Man: A History of Physics Before the Quantum. Cambridge,M.I.T. Press.
  41. M. Berry (2010). Alisa Bokulich * Reexamining the Quantum-Classical Relation: Beyond Reductionism and Pluralism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (4):889-895.
  42. Domenico Bertoloni Meli (2004). The Foundation of Newtonian Scholarship. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 35 (3):667-669.
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  43. Robert C. Bishop (2003). On Separating Predictability and Determinism. Erkenntnis 58 (2):169--88.
    There has been a long-standing debate about the relationshipof predictability and determinism. Some have maintained that determinism impliespredictability while others have maintained that predictability implies determinism. Manyhave maintained that there are no implication relations between determinism andpredictability. This summary is, of course, somewhat oversimplified and quick at least in thesense that there are various notions of determinism and predictability at work in thephilosophical literature. In this essay I will focus on what I take to be the Laplacean visionfor determinism and (...)
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  44. Ph Blanchard (1984). Trapping for Newtonian Diffusion Processes. In Heinrich Mitter & Ludwig Pittner (eds.), Stochastic Methods and Computer Techniques in Quantum Dynamics. Springer-Verlag 185--209.
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  45. D. I. Blokhint͡sev (1968). The Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics. New York, Humanities.
  46. D. Bohm & B. J. Hiley (1981). On a Quantum Algebraic Approach to a Generalized Phase Space. Foundations of Physics 11 (3-4):179-203.
    We approach the relationship between classical and quantum theories in a new way, which allows both to be expressed in the same mathematical language, in terms of a matrix algebra in a phase space. This makes clear not only the similarities of the two theories, but also certain essential differences, and lays a foundation for understanding their relationship. We use the Wigner-Moyal transformation as a change of representation in phase space, and we avoid the problem of “negative probabilities” by regarding (...)
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  47. Niels Bohr (1931). Maxwell and Modern Theoretical Physics. Nature 128:691--692.
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  48. Peter Bokulich (2005). Niels Bohr's Generalization of Classical Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 35 (3):347-371.
    We clarify Bohr’s interpretation of quantum mechanics by demonstrating the central role played by his thesis that quantum theory is a rational generalization of classical mechanics. This thesis is essential for an adequate understanding of his insistence on the indispensability of classical concepts, his account of how the quantum formalism gets its meaning, and his belief that hidden variable interpretations are impossible.
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  49. Borchert (ed.) (2006). Philosophy of Science. MacMillan.
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  50. Johan Christiaan Boudri (2002). What Was Mechanical About Mechanics the Concept of Force Between Metaphysics and Mechanics From Newton to Lagrange. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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