This category needs an editor. We encourage you to help if you are qualified.
Volunteer, or read more about what this involves.
Related categories
Siblings:
47 found
Search inside:
(import / add options)   Sort by:
  1. J. McKenzie Alexander (2010). Robustness, Optimality, and the Handicap Principle. Biology and Philosophy 25 (5).
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Sam Baron (2013). Optimisation and Mathematical Explanation: Doing the Lévy Walk. Synthese (3):1-21.
    The indispensability argument seeks to establish the existence of mathematical objects. The success of the indispensability argument turns on finding cases of genuine extra-mathematical explanation (the explanation of physical facts by mathematical facts). In this paper, I identify a new case of extra-mathematical explanation, involving the search patterns of fully-aquatic marine predators. I go on to use this case to predict the prevalence of extra-mathematical explanation in science.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. John Beatty (1980). Optimal-Design Models and the Strategy of Model Building in Evolutionary Biology. Philosophy of Science 47 (4):532-561.
    The prevalence of optimality models in the literature of evolutionary biology is testimony to their popularity and importance. Evolutionary biologist R. C. Lewontin, whose criticisms of optimality models are considered here, reflects that "optimality arguments have become extremely popular in the last fifteen years, and at present represent the dominant mode of thought." Although optimality models have received little attention in the philosophical literature, these models are very interesting from a philosophical point of view. As will be argued, optimality models (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. M. Bensenane, A. Moussaoui & P. Auger (forthcoming). On the Optimal Size of Marine Reserves. Acta Biotheoretica.
    The excessive and unsustainable exploitation of our marine resources has led to the promotion of marine reserves as a fisheries management tool. Marine reserves, areas in which fishing is restricted or prohibited, can offer opportunities for the recovery of exploited stock and fishery enhancement. This study examines the impact of the creation of marine protected areas, from both economic and biological perspectives. The consequences of reserve establishment on the long-run equilibrium fish biomass and fishery catch levels are evaluated. We include (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Jonathan Birch (2014). Has Grafen Formalized Darwin? Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):175-180.
    One key aim of Grafen’s Formal Darwinism project is to formalize ‘modern biology’s understanding and updating of Darwin’s central argument’. In this commentary, I consider whether Grafen has succeeded in this aim.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. Jonathan Birch (2013). Samir Okasha and Ken Binmore (Eds) Evolution and Rationality: Decisions, Cooperation, and Strategic Behaviour. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (3):669-673.
  7. Pierre Blackburn (1992). The Latest on the Best: Essays on Evolution and Optimality John Dupré, Directeur de la Publication Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 1987, Xiv, 359 P., 27,50 $. [REVIEW] Dialogue 31 (01):135-.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Jean-Sébastien Bolduc & Frank Cézilly (2012). Optimality Modelling in the Real World. Biology and Philosophy 27 (6):851-869.
    In a recent paper, Potochnik (Biol Philos 24(2):183–197, 2009) analyses some uses of optimality modelling in light of the anti-adaptationism criticism. She distinguishes two broad classes of such uses (weak and strong) on the basis of assumptions held by biologists about the role and the importance of natural selection. This is an interesting proposal that could help in the epistemological characterisation of some biological practices. However, Potochnik’s distinction also rests on the assumption that all optimality modelling represent the selection dynamic (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Klaus Bonik, Wolfgang Friedrich Gutmann & D. Stefan Peters (1977). Optimierung Und Ökonomisierung Im Kontext Von Evolutionstheorie Und Phylogenetischer Rekonstruktion. Acta Biotheoretica 26 (2).
    The meaning of optimality and economy in phylogenetics and evolutionary biology is discussed.It can be shown that the prevailing concepts of optimality and economy are equivocal as they are not based on strict theoretical positions and as they have a variable meaning in different theoretical contexts. The ideas of optimality and economy can be considered to be identical with the expectation of a relatively simple order in a particular field of study. Although there exists no way of inferring one or (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Maarten Boudry & Massimo Pigliucci (2013). The Mismeasure of Machine: Synthetic Biology and the Trouble with Engineering Metaphors. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences (4):660-668.
    The scientific study of living organisms is permeated by machine and design metaphors. Genes are thought of as the ‘‘blueprint’’ of an organism, organisms are ‘‘reverse engineered’’ to discover their func- tionality, and living cells are compared to biochemical factories, complete with assembly lines, transport systems, messenger circuits, etc. Although the notion of design is indispensable to think about adapta- tions, and engineering analogies have considerable heuristic value (e.g., optimality assumptions), we argue they are limited in several important respects. In (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Mauricio Canals, Francisco F. Novoa & Mario Rosenmann (2004). A Simple Geometrical Pattern for the Branching Distribution of the Bronchial Tree, Useful to Estimate Optimality Departures. Acta Biotheoretica 52 (1).
    The design of the bronchial tree has largely been proposed as a model of optimal design from a physical-functional perspective. However, the distributive function of the airway may be more related to a geometrical than a physical problem. The bronchial tree must distribute a three dimensional volume of inspired air on a two dimensional alveolar surface, included in a limited volume. It is thus valid to ask whether an optimal bronchial tree from a physical perspective is also optimum from a (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Catherine Driscoll (2009). On Our Best Behavior: Optimality Models in Human Behavioral Ecology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 40 (2):133-141.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. John Dupre (ed.) (1987). The Latest on the Best: Essays on Evolution and Optimality. MIT Press.
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. W. J. Ewens (2011). What is the Gene Trying to Do? British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 62 (1):155-176.
    The aim of this paper is to offer a new biological interpretation of Fisher’s ‘Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection’ and from this to consider optimality properties of gene frequency changes. These matters are of continuing interest to biologists and philosophers alike. In particular, the extent to which biological evolution can be calculated from the ‘gene’s-eye’ point of view is also discussed. In this sense, the paper bears indirectly on the concepts of the unit of selection and of the ‘selfish gene’. (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Steven W. Gangestad & Jeffry A. Simpson (2000). Trade-Offs, the Allocation of Reproductive Effort, and the Evolutionary Psychology of Human Mating. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):624-636.
    This response reinforces several major themes in our target article: (a) the importance of sex-specific, within-sex variation in mating tactics; (b) the relevance of optimality thinking to understanding that variation; (c) the significance of special design for reconstructing evolutionary history; (d) the replicated findings that women's mating preferences vary across their menstrual cycle in ways revealing special design; and (e) the importance of applying market phenomena to understand the complex dynamics of mating. We also elaborate on three points: (1) Men (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Devin Henry, Optimality and Teleology in Aristotle's Natural Science.
    In this paper I examine the role of optimality reasoning in Aristotle’s natural science. By “optimality reasoning” I mean reasoning that appeals to some conception of “what is best” in order to explain why things are the way they are. We are first introduced to this pattern of reasoning in the famous passage at Phaedo 97b8-98a2, where (Plato’s) Socrates invokes “what is best” as a cause (aitia) of things in nature. This passage can be seen as the intellectual ancestor of (...)
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. Barbara L. Horan (1992). What Price Optimality? Biology and Philosophy 7 (1):89-109.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. Chakib Jerry & Nadia Raissi (forthcoming). Optimal Exploitation for a Commercial Fishing Model. Acta Biotheoretica.
    Abstract A two non-linear dynamic models, first one in two state variables and one control and the second one with three state variables and one control, are presented for the purpose of finding the optimal combination of exploitation, capital investment and price variation in the commercial fishing industry. This optimal combination is determined in terms of management policies. Exploitation, capital and price variation are controlled through the utilization rate of available capital. A novel feature in this model is that the (...)
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Harold Kincaid (2006). Evolutionary Social Science Beyond Culture. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):356-356.
    Mesoudi et al.'s case can be improved by expanding to compelling selectionist explanations elsewhere in the social sciences and by seeing that natural selection is an instance of general selectionist process. Obstacles include the common use of extreme idealizations and optimality evidence, the copresence of nonselectionist social processes, and the fact that selectionist explanations often presuppose other kinds of social explanations. (Published Online November 9 2006).
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. D. Levine & W. Elsberry (eds.) (1997). Optimality in Biological and Artificial Networks? Lawrence Erlbaum.
    This book is the third in a series based on conferences sponsored by the Metroplex Institute for Neural Dynamics, an interdisciplinary organization of neural ...
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Elisabeth A. Lloyd (2006). Response to Puts and Dawood's 'The Evolution of Female Orgasm: Adaptation or Byproduct?'--Been There. Twin Studies and Human Genetics 9 (4).
  22. A. R. Maryanski (1997). The Origin of Speech and its Implication for the Optimal Size of Human Groups. Critical Review 11 (2):233-249.
    Abstract In Grooming, Gossip and the Evolution of Language, Robin Dunbar argues that speech developed from primate vocalizations as a replacement for grooming. Dunbar convincingly shows that language is just a highly developed form of primate communication. But Dunbar's thesis about the relationship between speech and optimal group size is problematic: his focus on strong ties leads him to overlook the integrative force of weak?tie networks.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. John M. McNamara (1993). State-Dependent Life-History Equations. Acta Biotheoretica 41 (3).
    Matrix population models provide a natural tool to analyse state-dependent life-history strategies. Reproductive value and the intrinsic rate of natural increase under a strategy, and the optimal life-history strategy can all be easily characterised using projection matrices. The resultant formulae, however, are not directly comparable with the corresponding formulae for age structured populations such as Lotka's equations and Fisher's formula for reproductive value. This is because formulae involving projection matrices lose track of what happens to an individual over its lifetime (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. Roberta L. Millstein (2002). Review of Steven Hecht Orzack, Elliot Sober (Eds.), Adaptationism and Optimality. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2002 (5).
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Erik Nuyts (1994). On the Copulation Duration of the Yellow Dung Fly (Scathophaga Stercoraria). Acta Biotheoretica 42 (4).
    We model the optimal copulation duration in the yellow dungflyScathophaga stercoraria, assuming that males optimize their reproductive success per day. The independent state-variables of a male are the actual sperm reserves, the female encounterrate and the time of the day. We used stochastic dynamic programming to predict the optimal copulation duration. The model predicts that copulation duration should increase (i) for larger males, (ii) for males with a better previous diet (iii) for males accepting more females (iv) for males staying (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Samir Okasha (2011). Optimal Choice in the Face of Risk: Decision Theory Meets Evolution. Philosophy of Science 78 (1):83-104.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. Samir Okasha & Cedric Paternotte (2012). Group Adaptation, Formal Darwinism and Contextual Analysis. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 25 (6):1127–1139.
    We consider the question: under what circumstances can the concept of adaptation be applied to groups, rather than individuals? Gardner and Grafen (2009, J. Evol. Biol.22: 659–671) develop a novel approach to this question, building on Grafen's ‘formal Darwinism’ project, which defines adaptation in terms of links between evolutionary dynamics and optimization. They conclude that only clonal groups, and to a lesser extent groups in which reproductive competition is repressed, can be considered as adaptive units. We re-examine the conditions under (...)
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. Kevin M. Passino (forthcoming). The Sunk-Cost Effect as an Optimal Rate-Maximizing Behavior. Acta Biotheoretica.
    Optimal foraging theory has been criticized for underestimating patch exploitation time. However, proper modeling of costs not only answers these criticisms, but it also explains apparently irrational behaviors like the sunk-cost effect. When a forager is sure to experience high initial costs repeatedly, the forager should devote more time to exploitation than searching in order to minimize the accumulation of said costs. Thus, increased recognition or reconnaissance costs lead to increased exploitation times in order to reduce the frequency of future (...)
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. Theodore Pavlic & Kevin Passino (2011). The Sunk-Cost Effect as an Optimal Rate-Maximizing Behavior. Acta Biotheoretica 59 (1):53-66.
    Optimal foraging theory has been criticized for underestimating patch exploitation time. However, proper modeling of costs not only answers these criticisms, but it also explains apparently irrational behaviors like the sunk-cost effect. When a forager is sure to experience high initial costs repeatedly, the forager should devote more time to exploitation than searching in order to minimize the accumulation of said costs. Thus, increased recognition or reconnaissance costs lead to increased exploitation times in order to reduce the frequency of future (...)
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. A. M. Perault-Staub, P. Tracqui & J. F. Staub (1992). Modelling of in Vivo Calcium Metabolism. I. Optimal Cooperation Between Constant and Rhythmic Behaviours. Acta Biotheoretica 40 (2-3).
    The relevance of nonlinear dynamics to calcium metabolism led us to reevaluate the role of Ca-regulating hormones in Ca homeostasis. We suggest that, firstly, the main Ca metabolic functions in rat-bone and gut - are organized as dynamic entities able to generate various temporal expressions, including self-oscillating patterns and, secondly, Ca homeostasis results from interaction between both metabolic and hormonal oscillators. Following this schema, a major role for the hormonal system, with its circadian pattern, could be to act directly on (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. Massimo Pigliucci & Jonathan Kaplan (2000). The Fall and Rise of Dr. Pangloss: Adaptationism and the Spandrels Paper 20 Years Later. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15 (2):66-77.
    Twenty years have passed since Gould and Lewontin published their critique of ‘the adaptationist program’ – the tendency of some evolutionary biologists to assume, rather than demonstrate, the operation of natural selection. After the ‘Spandrels paper’, evolutionists were more careful about producing just-so stories based on selection, and paid more attention to a panoply of other processes. Then came reactions against the excesses of the anti-adaptationist movement, which ranged from a complete dismissal of Gould and Lewontin’s contribution to a positive (...)
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Aurel I. Popescu (1998). Bionics, Biological Systems and the Principle of Optimal Design. Acta Biotheoretica 46 (4).
    The living world is an exciting and inexhaustible source of high performance solutions to the multitude of biological problems, which were attained as a result of a natural selection, during the millions and millions years evolution of life on Earth. This work presents and comments some examples of high performances of living beings, in the light of the universal principle governing the realm of living matter: Optimal Design Principle. At the same time, the transfer of these optimal solutions, from living (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. Angela Potochnik (2010). Explanatory Independence and Epistemic Interdependence: A Case Study of the Optimality Approach. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (1):213-233.
    The value of optimality modeling has long been a source of contention amongst population biologists. Here I present a view of the optimality approach as at once playing a crucial explanatory role and yet also depending on external sources of confirmation. Optimality models are not alone in facing this tension between their explanatory value and their dependence on other approaches; I suspect that the scenario is quite common in science. This investigation of the optimality approach thus serves as a case (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. Angela Potochnik (2009). Optimality Modeling in a Suboptimal World. Biology and Philosophy 24 (2):183-197.
    The fate of optimality modeling is typically linked to that of adaptationism: the two are thought to stand or fall together (Gould and Lewontin, Proc Relig Soc Lond 205:581–598, 1979; Orzack and Sober, Am Nat 143(3):361–380, 1994). I argue here that this is mistaken. The debate over adaptationism has tended to focus on one particular use of optimality models, which I refer to here as their strong use. The strong use of an optimality model involves the claim that selection is (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. Angela Potochnik (2007). Optimality Modeling and Explanatory Generality. Philosophy of Science 74 (5):680-691.
    The optimality approach to modeling natural selection has been criticized by many biologists and philosophers of biology. For instance, Lewontin (1979) argues that the optimality approach is a shortcut that will be replaced by models incorporating genetic information, if and when such models become available. In contrast, I think that optimality models have a permanent role in evolutionary study. I base my argument for this claim on what I think it takes to best explain an event. In certain contexts, optimality (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. Carolyn Price (2002). Rationality, Biology and Optimality. Biology and Philosophy 17 (5):613-634.
    A historical theory of rational norms claims that, if we are supposed to think rationally, this is because it is biologically normal for us to do so. The historical theorist is committed to the view that we are supposed to think rationally only if, in the past, adult humans sometimes thought rationally. I consider whether there is any plausible model of rational norms that can be adopted by the historical theorist that is compatible with the claim that adult human beings (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. Collin Rice (2012). Optimality Explanations: A Plea for an Alternative Approach. Biology and Philosophy 27 (5):685-703.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. Collin Rice & Joshua Smart (2011). Interdisciplinary Modeling: A Case Study of Evolutionary Economics. Biology and Philosophy 26 (5):655-675.
    Biologists and economists use models to study complex systems. This similarity between these disciplines has led to an interesting development: the borrowing of various components of model-based theorizing between the two domains. A major recent example of this strategy is economists’ utilization of the resources of evolutionary biology in order to construct models of economic systems. This general strategy has come to be called evolutionary economics and has been a source of much debate among economists. Although philosophers have developed literatures (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. Robert C. Richardson (2003). Adaptationism, Adaptation, and Optimality. Biology and Philosophy 18 (5):695-713.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  40. Alirio Rosales (2005). John Maynard Smith and the Natural Philosophy of␣Adaptation. Biology and Philosophy 20 (5):1027-1040.
    One of the most remarkable aspects of John Maynard Smith’s work was the fact that he devoted time both to doing science and to reflecting philosophically upon its methods and concepts. In this paper I offer a philosophical analysis of Maynard Smith’s approach to modelling phenotypic evolution in relation to three main themes. The first concerns the type of scientific understanding that ESS and optimality models give us. The second concerns the causal–historical aspect of stability analyses of adaptation. The third (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. Marco Solinas (2012). L'impronta dell'inutilità. Dalla teleologia di Aristotele alle genealogie di Darwin. ETS.
    The book aims to offer a contribution to the historiographical and conceptual reconfiguration of the evolutionary revolution in the light of the centuries-old tenets of the Aristotelian biological tradition. Darwin’s breakthrough constitutes a thorough overturning of the fixist, essentialist and teleological framework created by Aristotle, a framework still dominant in the 17th Century world of Harvey and Ray, as well as Galileo, and then hegemonic until Linnaeus and Cuvier. This change is exemplified in the morphological analysis of useless parts, such (...)
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42. J. M. Tchuenche, S. A. Khamis, F. B. Agusto & S. C. Mpeshe (2011). Optimal Control and Sensitivity Analysis of an Influenza Model with Treatment and Vaccination. Acta Biotheoretica 59 (1):1-28.
    We formulate and analyze the dynamics of an influenza pandemic model with vaccination and treatment using two preventive scenarios: increase and decrease in vaccine uptake. Due to the seasonality of the influenza pandemic, the dynamics is studied in a finite time interval. We focus primarily on controlling the disease with a possible minimal cost and side effects using control theory which is therefore applied via the Pontryagin’s maximum principle, and it is observed that full treatment effort should be given while (...)
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  43. John M. T. Thompson & Giles W. Hunt (1977). A Bifurcation Theory for the Instabilities of Optimization and Design. Synthese 36 (3):315 - 351.
    The world I grew up in believed that change and development in life are part of a continuous process of cause and effect, minutely and patiently sustained throughout the millenniums. With the exception of the initial act of creation ..., the evolution of life on earth was considered to be a slow, steady and ultimately demonstrable process. No sooner did I begin to read history, however, than I began to have my doubts. Human society and living beings, it seemed to (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44. Wim J. van der Steen (1998). Methodological Problems in Evolutionary Biology. XI. Optimal Foraging Theory Revisited. Acta Biotheoretica 46 (4).
    Optimality theory, particularly optimal foraging theory (OFT), has spurned controversy over decades. I argue that the controversy results from conceptual pitfalls. The focus in this article is on pitfalls underlying the concept of constraint. Constraints in OFT models are a means to distinguish between possible and impossible behaviours. I argue that the seemingly innocuous notion of (im)possibility is tricky. It is indeed linked here with troublesome philosophical problems concerning free will. To steer away from such problems in OFT, we need (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  45. Oscar Vilarroya (2002). ``Two'' Many Optimalities. Biology and Philosophy 17 (2):251-270.
    In evolutionary biology, a trait is said to be optimal if it maximizes the fitness of the organism, that is, if the trait allows the organism to survive and reproduce better than any other competing trait would. In engineering, a design is said to be optimal if it complies with its functional requirements as well as possible. Cognitive science is both a biological and engineering discipline and hence it uses both notions of optimality. Unfortunately, the lack of a clear methodological (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46. Kim Wallen & Elisabeth A. Lloyd (2011). Female Sexual Arousal: Genital Anatomy and Orgasm in Intercourse. Hormones and Behavior 59:780-792.
    In men and women sexual arousal culminates in orgasm, with female orgasm solely from sexual intercourse often regarded as a unique feature of human sexuality. However, orgasm from sexual intercourse occurs more reliably in men than in women, likely reflecting the different types of physical stimulation men and women require for orgasm. In men, orgasms are under strong selective pressure as orgasms are coupled with ejaculation and thus contribute to male reproductive success. By contrast, women's orgasms in intercourse are highly (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47. Gart Zweers (1991). Transformation of Avian Feeding Mechanisms: A Deductive Method. Acta Biotheoretica 39 (1).
    A methodology is proposed as a tool for explanation of form in zoomorphology, in particular its design, diversity, and transformation. An alternate use of descriptive, inductive/comparative, and deductive methods is suggested. The basic concepts required are summarized. Following an extensive anatomical analysis a specific deductive methodology is developed, comprising three major parts: 1) Formal analysis of systems, using optimal design. 2) Transformation of an initial system's model by simulating modifications via maximizing the model for specific functional requirements. 3) Testing by (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation