Search results for 'Past' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Alia Al-Saji (2008). "A Past Which has Never Been Present": Bergsonian Dimensions in Merleau-Ponty's Theory of the Prepersonal. Research in Phenomenology 38 (1):41-71.score: 18.0
    Merleau-Ponty's reference to "a past which has never been present" at the end of "Le sentir" challenges the typical framework of the Phenomenology of Perception, with its primacy of perception and bodily field of presence. In light of this "original past," I propose a re-reading of the prepersonal as ground of perception that precedes the dichotomies of subject-object and activity-passivity. Merleau-Ponty searches in the Phenomenology for language to describe this ground, borrowing from multiple registers (notably Bergson, but also (...)
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  2. Alia Al-Saji (2007). The Temporality of Life: Merleau-Ponty, Bergson, and the Immemorial Past. Southern Journal of Philosophy 45 (2):177-206.score: 18.0
    Borrowing conceptual tools from Bergson, this essay asks after the shift in the temporality of life from Merleau-Ponty’s Phénoménologie de la perception to his later works. Although the Phénoménologie conceives life in terms of the field of presence of bodily action, later texts point to a life of invisible and immemorial dimensionality. By reconsidering Bergson, but also thereby revising his reading of Husserl, Merleau-Ponty develops a non-serial theory of time in the later works, one that acknowledges the verticality and irreducibility (...)
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  3. Ben Waters (2013). Methuselah’s Diary and the Finitude of the Past. Philosophia Christi 15 (2):463-69.score: 18.0
    William Lane Craig modified Bertrand Russell’s Tristram Shandy example in order to derive an absurdity that would demonstrate the finitude of the past. Although his initial attempt at such an argument faltered, further developments in the literature suggested that such an absurdity was indeed in the offing provided that a couple extra statements were also shown to be true. This article traces the development of a particular line of argument that arose from Craig’s Tristram Shandy example before advancing an (...)
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  4. Anita Mittwoch (2008). The English Resultative Perfect and its Relationship to the Experiential Perfect and the Simple Past Tense. Linguistics and Philosophy 31 (3):323-351.score: 18.0
    A sentence in the Resultative perfect licenses two inferences: (a) the occurrence of an event (b) the state caused by this event obtains at evaluation time. In this paper I show that this use of the perfect is subject to a large number of distributional restrictions that all serve to highlight the result inference at the expense of the event inference. Nevertheless, only the event inference determines the truth conditions of this use of the perfect, the result inference being a (...)
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  5. Krista Lawlor (2004). Reason and the Past: The Role of Rationality in Diachronic Self-Knowledge. Synthese 145 (3):467-495.score: 18.0
    Knowing one’s past thoughts and attitudes is a vital sort of self-knowledge. In the absence of memorial impressions to serve as evidence, we face a pressing question of how such self-knowledge is possible. Recently, philosophers of mind have argued that self-knowledge of past attitudes supervenes on rationality. I examine two kinds of argument for this supervenience claim, one from cognitive dynamics, and one from practical rationality, and reject both. I present an alternative account, on which knowledge of (...) attitudes is inferential knowledge, and depends upon contingent facts of one’s rationality and consistency. Failures of self-knowledge are better explained by the inferential account. (shrink)
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  6. Michael Freeman (2002). Past Wrongs and Liberal Justice. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 5 (2):201-220.score: 18.0
    Liberal theories of justice have often been unable to include the recognition of minority rights or of multiculturalism because of their emphasis on individuals. In contrast, recent theories of cultural recognition and minority rights have underestimated the tensions between group and individual rights. It is precisely the incorporation of past wrongs and their impact on present politics that can advance the liberal theory of justice for cultural minorities and their members.
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  7. Ned Markosian (forthcoming). The Truth About the Past and the Future. In Fabrice Correia & Andrea Iacona (eds.), Around the Tree: Semantic and Metaphysical Issues Concerning Branching Time and the Open Future. Springer.score: 18.0
    This paper is about The Truthmaker Problem for Presentism. I spell out a solution to the problem that involves appealing to indeterministic laws of nature and branching semantics for past- and future-tensed sentences. Then I discuss a potential glitch for this solution, and propose a way to get around that glitch. Finally, I consider some likely objections to the view offered here, as well as replies to those objections.
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  8. Christoph Hoerl (1999). Memory, Amnesia, and the Past. Mind and Language 14 (2):227-51.score: 18.0
    This paper defends the claim that, in order to have a concept of time, subjects must have memories of particular events they once witnessed. Some patients with severe amnesia arguably still have a concept of time. Two possible explanations of their grasp of this concept are discussed. They take as their respective starting points abilities preserved in the patients in question: (1) the ability to retain factual information over time despite being unable to recall the past event or situation (...)
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  9. Peter Mark Ainsworth (2008). Cosmic Inflation and the Past Hypothesis. Synthese 162 (2):157 - 165.score: 18.0
    The past hypothesis is that the entropy of the universe was very low in the distant past. It is put forward to explain the entropic arrow of time but it has been suggested (e.g. [Penrose, R. (1989a). The emperor’s new mind. London:Vintage Books; Penrose, R. (1989b). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 571, 249–264; Price, H. (1995). In S. F. Savitt (Ed.), Times’s arrows today. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Price, H. (1996). Time’s arrow and Archimedes’ point. (...)
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  10. Sven Ove Hansson (2010). Past Probabilities. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 51 (2):207-223.score: 18.0
    The probability that a fair coin tossed yesterday landed heads is either 0 or 1, but the probability that it would land heads was 0.5. In order to account for the latter type of probabilities, past probabilities, a temporal restriction operator is introduced and axiomatically characterized. It is used to construct a representation of conditional past probabilities. The logic of past probabilities turns out to be strictly weaker than the logic of standard probabilities.
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  11. W. P. M. Meyer-Viol & H. S. Jones (2011). Reference Time and the English Past Tenses. Linguistics and Philosophy 34 (3):223-256.score: 18.0
    We offer a formal account of the English past tenses. We see the perfect as having reference time at speech time and the preterite as having reference time at event time. We formalize four constraints on reference time, which we bundle together under the term ‘perspective’. Once these constraints are satisfied at the different reference times of the perfect and preterite, the contrasting functions of these tenses are explained. Thus we can account formally for the ‘definiteness effect’ and the (...)
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  12. Penelope Mackie (2013). Counterfactuals and the Fixity of the Past. Philosophical Studies 168 (2):1-19.score: 18.0
    I argue that David Lewis’s attempt, in his ‘Counterfactual Dependence and Time’s Arrow’, to explain the fixity of the past in terms of counterfactual independence is unsuccessful. I point out that there is an ambiguity in the claim that the past is counterfactually independent of the present (or, more generally, that the earlier is counterfactually independent of the later), corresponding to two distinct theses about the relation between time and counterfactuals, both officially endorsed by Lewis. I argue that (...)
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  13. Kiene Brillenburg Wurth (2007). The Musicality of the Past: Sehnsucht, Trauma, and the Sublime. Journal of the Philosophy of History 1 (2):219-247.score: 18.0
    This paper argues that the sublime feeling can only announce itself as a paradoxical mixture of pain and pleasure in an experience of a lost or irrevocable past. Presenting the typical evanescence and inevitable deferral of the past in musical terms, this paper rewrites the sublime feeling as a musical feeling: a suspended feeling wavering in-between apparently opposite intensities of tension and respite. This suspended feeling is analyzed through a juxtaposition of the sublime with Sehnsucht, or the potentially (...)
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  14. Christoph Hoerl & Teresa McCormack (2005). Joint Reminiscing as Joint Attention to the Past. In Naomi Eilan, Christoph Hoerl, Johannes Roessler & Teresa McCormack (eds.), Joint Attention: Communication and Other Minds: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.score: 18.0
    We identify a particular type of causal reasoning ability that we believe is required for the possession of episodic memories, as it is needed to give substance to the distinction between the past and the present. We also argue that the same causal reasoning ability is required for grasping the point that another person's appeal to particular past events can have in conversation. We connect this to claims in developmental psychology that participation in joint reminiscing plays a key (...)
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  15. Michèle Cohen, Johanna Etner & Meglena Jeleva (2008). Dynamic Decision Making When Risk Perception Depends on Past Experience. Theory and Decision 64 (2-3):173-192.score: 18.0
    The aim of the paper is to propose a preferences representation model under risk where risk perception can be past experience dependent. A first step consists in considering a one period decision problem where individual preferences are no more defined only on decisions but on pairs (decision, past experience). The obtained criterion is used in the construction of a dynamic choice model under risk. The paper ends with an illustrative example concerning insurance demand. It appears that our model (...)
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  16. J. Campbell (1994). Past, Space, and Self. MIT Press.score: 15.0
    In this book John Campbell shows that the general structural features of human thought can be seen as having their source in the distinctive ways in which we...
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  17. Leszek Koczanowicz (1997). Memory of Politics and Politics of Memory. Reflections on the Construction of the Past in Post-Totalitarian Poland. Studies in East European Thought 49 (4):259-270.score: 15.0
  18. Andrew Naylor (1966). On Remembering an Unreal Past. Analysis 26 (March):122-128.score: 15.0
    Against Russell’s skeptical conjecture, that the world and its entire population came into existence five minutes ago, it is argued that any one of the following is logically incompatible with the conjunction of the other two: ostensible memories of certain events, records of such events, and the non-occurrence of these same events. This conclusion is reached through a critical examination of (1) the arguments advanced by Norman Malcolm in trying to show that Russell’s “hypothesis” does not express a logical possibility, (...)
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  19. Paul T. Brockelman (1975). Of Memory and Things Past. International Philosophical Quarterly 15 (September):309-325.score: 15.0
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  20. Norman Malcolm (1963). Memory and the Past. The Monist 47 (2):247-266.score: 15.0
  21. John O. Nelson (1963). The Validation of Memory and Our Conception of a Past. Philosophical Review 72 (January):35-47.score: 15.0
  22. Deana Jovanovic (2011). On Gender, Subjectivities and Experiences: Facing the Past and Feminist Politics of Solidarity. Filozofija I Drustvo 22 (1):219-243.score: 15.0
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  23. Katherine E. Baker & Irene Mackintosh (1955). The Influence of Past Associations Upon Attributive Color Judgments. Journal of Experimental Psychology 49 (4):281.score: 15.0
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  24. K. W. Braly (1933). The Influence of Past Experience in Visual Perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology 16 (5):613.score: 15.0
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  25. Anita R. Cunitz & Bruce M. Ross (1966). Remembrance of Lines Past. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (4):558.score: 15.0
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  26. S. Djang (1937). The Role of Past Experience in the Visual Apprehension of Masked Forms. Journal of Experimental Psychology 20 (1):29.score: 15.0
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  27. M. Henle (1942). An Experimental Investigation of Past Experience as a Determinant of Visual Form Perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology 30 (1):1.score: 15.0
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  28. Lucas Palladino (2013). Usos del pasado territorial en el proceso de comunalización de los Comechingones del Pueblo de La Toma, Córdoba, ArgentinaUses of territorial past in the process of communalization by Comechingones, Pueblo de La Toma, Cordoba, Argentina. Corpus.score: 15.0
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  29. Alia Al-Saji (2004). The Memory of Another Past: Bergson, Deleuze and a New Theory of Time. [REVIEW] Continental Philosophy Review 37 (2):203-239.score: 12.0
    Through the philosophies of Bergson and Deleuze, my paper explores a different theory of time. I reconstitute Deleuze’s paradoxes of the past in Difference and Repetition and Bergsonism to reveal a theory of time in which the relation between past and present is one of coexistence rather than succession. The theory of memory implied here is a non-representational one. To elaborate this theory, I ask: what is the role of the “virtual image” in Bergson’s Matter and Memory? Far (...)
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  30. Gabor Forrai (ed.) (2005). Intentionality: Past and Future (Value Inquiry Book Series, Volume 173). New York: Rodopi NY.score: 12.0
    The present volume has grown out of a conference organized jointly by the History of Philosophy Department of the University of Miskolc and the History and Philosophy of Science Department of Eötvös Loránd University (Budapest), which took place in June 2002. The aim of the conference was to explore the various angles from which intentionality can be studied, how it is related to other philosophical issues, and how it figures in the works of major philosophers in the past. It (...)
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  31. David Wallace (forthcoming). The Logic of the Past Hypothesis. In Barry Loewer, Eric Winsberg & Brad Weslake (eds.), Currently-unnamed volume discussing David Albert's "Time and Chance".score: 12.0
    I attempt to get as clear as possible on the chain of reasoning by which irreversible macrodynamics is derivable from time-reversible microphysics, and in particular to clarify just what kinds of assumptions about the initial state of the universe, and about the nature of the microdynamics, are needed in these derivations. I conclude that while a “Past Hypothesis” about the early Universe does seem necessary to carry out such derivations, that Hypothesis is not correctly understood as a constraint on (...)
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  32. Mathias Frisch (2010). Does a Low-Entropy Constraint Prevent Us From Influencing the Past? In Andreas Hüttemann & Gerhard Ernst (eds.), Time, Chance, and Reduction: Philosophical Aspects of Statistical Mechanics. Cambridge University Press. 13--33.score: 12.0
    David Albert (2000) and Barry Loewer (2007) have argued that the temporal asymmetry of our concept of causal influence or control is grounded in the statistical mechanical assumption of a low-entropy past. In this paper I critically examine Albert's and Loewer's accounts.
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  33. Ned Markosian (1995). The Open Past. Philosophical Studies 79 (1):95 - 105.score: 12.0
    This paper is about the open future response to fatalistic arguments. I first present a typical fatalistic argument and then spell out the open future response as a response to that argument. Then I raise the question of how the open future response can be independently justified. I consider some possible ways in which the response might be defended, and I try to show that none of these is a plausible, non-question-begging defense. Next I formulate what I take to be (...)
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  34. Allan Hazlett (2011). How the Past Depends on the Future. Ratio 24 (2):167-175.score: 12.0
    It is often said that, according to common sense, there is a fundamental asymmetry between the past and future; namely, that the past is closed and the future is open. Eternalism in the ontology of time is often seen as conflicting with common sense on this point. Here I argue against the claim that common sense is committed to this fundamental asymmetry between the past and the future, on the grounds that facts about the past often (...)
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  35. Chris Heathwood (2005). The Real Price of the Dead Past: A Reply to Forrest and to Braddon-Mitchell. Analysis 65 (287):249–251.score: 12.0
    Non-presentist A-theories of time (such as the growing block theory and the moving spotlight theory) seem unacceptable because they invite skepticism about whether one exists in the present. To avoid this absurd implication, Peter Forrest appeals to the "Past is Dead hypothesis," according to which only beings in the objective present are conscious. We know we're present because we know we're conscious, and only present beings can be conscious. I argue that the dead past hypothesis undercuts the main (...)
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  36. Peter Goldie (2003). One's Remembered Past: Narrative Thinking, Emotion, and the External Perspective. Philosophical Papers 32 (3):301-319.score: 12.0
    Abstract Narrative thinking has a very important role in our ordinary everyday lives?in our thinking about fiction, about the historical past, about how things might have been, and about our own past and our plans for the future. In this paper, which is part of a larger project, I will be focusing on just one kind of narrative thinking: the kind that we sometimes engage in when we think about, evaluate, and respond emotionally to, our own past (...)
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  37. David Sanson, Once Present, Now Past.score: 12.0
    If reality is temporary, then reality changes, and if reality changes, the past has explanatory work to do, and it cannot do that work unless it is no longer real. This tells against the Moving Now Theory, the Growing Block Theory, and any form of Presentism that attempts to understand the past in terms of the present, including Tensed Properties Presentism and Tensed Facts Presentism. It tells in favor of a form Presentism that allows us to appeal to (...)
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  38. Josh Parsons (2005). Truthmakers, the Past, and the Future. In Helen Beebee & Julian Dodd (eds.), Truthmakers: The Contemporary Debate. Clarendon.score: 12.0
    I want to join Dummett in saying that the reality of the past (and, by analogy, the reality of the future) is an issue of realism versus anti-realism: (Dummett 1969) If you affirm the reality of the past, you are a realist about the past. If you deny the reality of the past, you are an anti-realist about the past. (And likewise, in each case, for the future). It makes sense to think of these issues (...)
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  39. Anton Froeyman (2012). Frank Ankersmit and Eelco Runia: The Presence and the Otherness of the Past. Rethinking History 16 (3):393-415.score: 12.0
    This paper consists of two parts. In the first part, I give an in-depth comparison and analysis of the theories of Frank Ankersmit and Eelco Runia, in which I highlight their most important resemblances and differences. What both have in common is their notion of the presence of the past as a ‘presence in absence’. They differ, however, with respect to the character of this past and the role representation plays in making it present. Second, I also argue (...)
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  40. Rudolf Bernet (2005). A Present Folded Back on the Past (Bergson). Research in Phenomenology 35 (1):55-76.score: 12.0
    In Matter and Memory, Bergson examines the relationship between perception and memory, the status of consciousness in its relation to the brain, and more generally, a possible conjunction of matter and mind. Our reading focuses in particular on his understanding of the evanescent presence of the present and of its debt vis-à-vis the "unconscious" consciousness of a "virtual" past. We wish to show that the Bergsonian version of a critique of "the metaphysics of presence" is, for all that, an (...)
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  41. Craig Callender, The Past Hypothesis Meets Gravity.score: 12.0
    The Past Hypothesis is the claim that the Boltzmann entropy of the universe was extremely low when the universe began. Can we make sense of this claim when *classical* gravitation is included in the system? I first show that the standard rationale for not worrying about gravity is too quick. If the paper does nothing else, my hope is that it gets the problems induced by gravity the attention they deserve in the foundations of physics. I then try to (...)
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  42. Luca Moretti (2008). Dummett and the Problem of the Vanishing Past. Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations 7:37-47.score: 12.0
    Dummett has recently presented his most mature and sophisticated version of justificationism, i.e. the view that meaning and truth are to be analysed in terms of justifiability. In this paper, I argue that this conception does not resolve a difficulty that also affected Dummett’s earlier version of justificationism: the problem that large tracts of the past continuously vanish as their traces in the present dissipate. Since Dummett’s justificationism is essentially based on the assumption that the speaker has limited (i.e. (...)
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  43. Peter Forrest (2004). The Real but Dead Past: A Reply to Braddon-Mitchell. Analysis 64 (4):358–362.score: 12.0
    In "How Do We Know It Is Now Now?" David Braddon-Mitchell (Analysis 2004) develops an objection to the thesis that the past is real but the future is not. He notes my response to this, namely that the past, although real, is lifeless and (a fortiori?) lacking in sentience. He argues, however, that this response, which I call 'the past is dead hypothesis', is not tenable if combined with 'special relativity'. My purpose in this reply is to (...)
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  44. Lawrence W. Barsalou (2010). Grounded Cognition: Past, Present, and Future. Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (4):716-724.score: 12.0
    Thirty years ago, grounded cognition had roots in philosophy, perception, cognitive linguistics, psycholinguistics, cognitive psychology, and cognitive neuropsychology. During the next 20 years, grounded cognition continued developing in these areas, and it also took new forms in robotics, cognitive ecology, cognitive neuroscience, and developmental psychology. In the past 10 years, research on grounded cognition has grown rapidly, especially in cognitive neuroscience, social neuroscience, cognitive psychology, social psychology, and developmental psychology. Currently, grounded cognition appears to be achieving increased acceptance throughout (...)
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  45. Ian Hodder (ed.) (1995). Interpreting Archaeology: Finding Meaning in the Past. Routledge.score: 12.0
    Interpretive Archaeologies provides a forum for debate between varied approaches to studying the past. It reflects the profound shift in the direction of archaeological study in the last fifteen years. The book argues that archaeologists must understand their own subjective approaches to the material they study as well as recognize how past researchers imposed their value systems on the evidence they presented. The book's authors, drawn from Europe, North America, Asia and Australasia, represent many different strands of archaeology. (...)
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  46. Peter Goldie (2011). Empathy with One's Past. Southern Journal of Philosophy 49 (s1):193-207.score: 12.0
    This paper presents two ideas in connection with the notion of empathic access to one's past, where this notion is understood as consisting of memories of one's past from the inside, plus a fundamental sympathy for those remembered states. The first idea is that having empathic access is a necessary condition for one's personal identity and survival. I give reasons to reject this view, one such reason being that it in effect blocks off the possibility of profound personal (...)
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  47. Natasa Rakic (1997). Past, Present, Future, and Special Relativity. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48 (2):257-280.score: 12.0
    The open future view is the common-sense view that there is an ontological difference between the past, the present, and the future in the sense that the past and the present are real, whereas the future is not yet a part of reality. In this paper we develop a theory in which the open future view is consistently combined with special relativity. Technically, the heart of our contribution is a logical conservativity result showing that, although the open future (...)
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  48. Michael C. Corballis (2008). Time on Our Hands: How Gesture and the Understanding of the Past and Future Helped Shape Language. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (5):517-517.score: 12.0
    Recognising that signed languages are true languages adds to the variety of forms that languages can take. Such recognition also allows one to differentiate those aspects of language that depend on the medium (voiced or signed) from those that depend on more cognitive aspects. At least some aspects of language, such as symbolic representation, time markers, and generativity, may derive from the communication of the products of mental time travel, and from the sharing of remembered past and planned future (...)
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  49. Michael R. Kelly (2008). Husserl, Deleuzean Bergsonism and the Sense of the Past in General. Husserl Studies 24 (1):15-30.score: 12.0
    Those familiar with contemporary continental philosophy know well the defenses Husserlians have offered of Husserl’s theory of inner time-consciousness against post-modernism’s deconstructive criticisms. As post-modernism gives way to Deleuzean post-structuralism, Deleuze’s Le bergsonisme has grown into the movement of Bergsonism. This movement, designed to present an alternative to phenomenology, challenges Husserlian phenomenology by criticizing the most “important… of all phenomenological problems.” Arguing that Husserl’s theory of time-consciousness detailed a linear succession of iterable instants in which the now internal to consciousness (...)
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  50. Alasdair Richmond (2010). Time Travel, Parahistory and the Past Artefact Dilemma. Philosophy 85 (3):369-373.score: 12.0
    In 1987, Roy Sorensen coined the term 'parahistory' to denote the study of genuinely anachronistic artefacts delivered by time travel.¹ 'Parahistory' would thus stand to history rather as parapsychology is claimed to stand to psychology, i.e. the parahistorian would study historical data that were obtained through channels that orthodox science does not recognise. How might one establish credentials as a time traveller? What sort of evidence could a time-traveller point to in support of claims that would presumably command a great (...)
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