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  1. added 2019-06-07
    Inferência metafísica e a experiência do observável.Anjan Chakravartty - 2017 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 21 (2):189-207.
    Some strongly empiricist views of scientific knowledge advocate a rejection of metaphysics. On such views, scientific knowledge is described strictly in terms of knowledge of the observable world, demarcated by human sensory abilities, and no metaphysical considerations need arise. This paper argues that even these views require some recourse to metaphysics in order to derive knowledge from experience. Central here is the notion of metaphysical inference, which admits of different “magnitudes”, thus generating a spectrum of putative knowledge with more substantially (...)
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  2. added 2019-06-05
    Model-Based Theorizing in Cognitive Neuroscience.Elizabeth Irvine - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (1):143-168.
    Weisberg and Godfrey-Smith distinguish between two forms of theorising: data-driven ‘abstract direct representation’ and modeling. The key difference is that when using a data-driven approach, theories are intended to represent specific phenomena, so directly represent them, while models may not be intended to represent anything, so represent targets indirectly, if at all. The aim here is to compare and analyse these practices, in order to outline an account of model-based theorising that involves direct representational relationships. This is based on the (...)
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  3. added 2019-05-30
    Categories of Scientific Theories.Hans Halvorson & Dimitris Tsementzis - 2018 - In Elaine Landry (ed.), Categories for the Working Philosopher. Oxford University Press.
    We discuss ways in which category theory might be useful in philosophy of science, in particular for articulating the structure of scientific theories. We argue, moreover, that a categorical approach transcends the syntax-semantics dichotomy in 20th century analytic philosophy of science.
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  4. added 2019-05-30
    Scientific Theories.Hans Halvorson - 2016 - In Paul Humphreys (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Science. Oxford University Press. pp. 585-608.
    Since the beginning of the 20th century, philosophers of science have asked, "what kind of thing is a scientific theory?" The logical positivists answered: a scientific theory is a mathematical theory, plus an empirical interpretation of that theory. Moreover, they assumed that a mathematical theory is specified by a set of axioms in a formal language. Later 20th century philosophers questioned this account, arguing instead that a scientific theory need not include a mathematical component; or that the mathematical component need (...)
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  5. added 2019-05-17
    The Nature of Contingency: Quantum Physics as Modal Realism.Alastair Wilson - forthcoming - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Contingency is everywhere, but what is it? This book defends a radical new theory of contingency as a physical phenomenon. Drawing on the many-worlds approach to quantum theory and on cutting-edge metaphysics and philosophy of science, it argues that quantum theories are best understood as telling us about the space of genuine possibilities rather than as telling us solely about actuality. When quantum physics is taken seriously in the way first proposed by Hugh Everett III, it provides the resources for (...)
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  6. added 2019-05-10
    The Logical Problem and the Theoretician's Dilemma.Hayley Clatterbuck - 2018 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 97 (2):322-350.
    The theory-theory of human uniqueness posits that the capacity to theorize, in a way strongly analogous to theorizing in scientific practice, was a key innovation in the hominid lineage and was responsible for many of our unique cognitive traits. One of the central arguments that its proponents have used to support the claim that animals are not theorists, the logical problem, bears strong similarities to Hempel's theoretician's dilemma, which purports to show that theories are unnecessary. This similarity threatens to undermine (...)
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  7. added 2019-03-01
    Generalizing Empirical Adequacy II: Partial Structures.Sebastian Lutz - forthcoming - Synthese:1-30.
    I show that extant attempts to capture and generalize empirical adequacy in terms of partial structures fail. Indeed, the motivations for the generalizations in the partial structures approach are better met by the generalizations via approximation sets developed in “Generalizing Empirical Adequacy I”. Approximation sets also generalize partial structures.
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  8. added 2018-12-30
    On Morita Equivalence and Interpretability.Paul Anh Mceldowney - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-27.
    In a recent paper, Barrett & Halvorson (2016) define a notion of equiva- lence for first-order theories, which they call “Morita Equivalence.” To argue that Morita equivalence is a reasonable measure of “theoretical equivalence,” they make use of the claim that Morita extensions “say no more” than the theories they are extending. The goal of this paper is to challenge this central claim by raising objections to their argument for it and by showing why there is good reason to think (...)
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  9. added 2018-12-30
    Morita Equivalence.Thomas William Barrett & Hans Halvorson - 2016 - Review of Symbolic Logic 9 (3):556-582.
    Logicians and philosophers of science have proposed various formal criteria for theoretical equivalence. In this paper, we examine two such proposals: definitional equivalence and categorical equivalence. In order to show precisely how these two well-known criteria are related to one another, we investigate an intermediate criterion called Morita equivalence.
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  10. added 2018-09-19
    There Is No Conspiracy of Inertia.Ryan Samaroo - 2018 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 69 (4):957-982.
    I examine two claims that arise in Brown’s account of inertial motion. Brown claims there is something objectionable about the way in which the motions of free particles in Newtonian theory and special relativity are coordinated. Brown also claims that since a geodesic principle can be derived in Einsteinian gravitation, the objectionable feature is explained away. I argue that there is nothing objectionable about inertia and that while the theorems that motivate Brown’s second claim can be said to figure in (...)
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  11. added 2018-09-19
    Friedman׳s Thesis.Ryan Samaroo - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 52 (Part B):129-138.
    This essay examines Friedman's recent approach to the analysis of physical theories. Friedman argues against Quine that the identification of certain principles as ‘constitutive’ is essential to a satisfactory methodological analysis of physics. I explicate Friedman's characterization of a constitutive principle, and I evaluate his account of the constitutive principles that Newtonian and Einsteinian gravitation presuppose for their formulation. I argue that something close to Friedman's thesis is defensible.
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  12. added 2018-09-06
    Information Causality, the Tsirelson Bound, and the 'Being-Thus' of Things.Michael E. Cuffaro - forthcoming - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics.
    The principle of 'information causality' can be used to derive an upper bound---known as the 'Tsirelson bound'---on the strength of quantum mechanical correlations, and has been conjectured to be a foundational principle of nature. In this paper, however, I argue that the principle has not to date been sufficiently motivated to play this role; the motivations that have so far been given are either unsatisfactorily vague or else amount to little more than an appeal to intuition. I then consider how (...)
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  13. added 2018-08-24
    The Tool Box of Science: Tools for the Building of Models with a Superconductivity Example.Nancy Cartwright, Towfic Shomar & Mauricio Suárez - 1995 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 44:137-149.
    We call for a new philosophical conception of models in physics. Some standard conceptions take models to be useful approximations to theorems, that are the chief means to test theories. Hence the heuristics of model building is dictated by the requirements and practice of theory-testing. In this paper we argue that a theory-driven view of models can not account for common procedures used by scientists to model phenomena. We illustrate this thesis with a case study: the construction of one of (...)
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  14. added 2018-07-29
    We Are Not Witnesses to a New Scientific Revolution.Gregor Schiemann - 2014 - In A. Nordmann & H. Radder (eds.), Science Transformed? Debating Claims of an Epochal Break. Velbrück. pp. 31-42.
    Do the changes that have taken place in the structures and methods of the production of scientific knowledge and in our understanding of science over the past fifty years justify speaking of an epochal break in the development of science? Gregor Schiemann addresses this issues through the notion of a scientific revolution and claims that at present we are not witnessing a new scientific revolution. Instead, Schiemann argues that after the so-called Scientific Revolution in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, a (...)
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  15. added 2018-07-29
    An Epoch-Making Change in the Development of Science? A Critique of the “Epochal-Break-Thesis”.Gregor Schiemann - 2011 - In M. Carrier & A. Nordmann (eds.), Science in the Context of Application. Springer. pp. 431--453.
    In recent decades, several authors have claimed that an epoch-making change in the development of science is taking place. A closer examination of this claim shows that these authors take different – and problematic – concepts of an epochal break as their points of departure. In order to facilitate an evaluation of the current development of science, I would like to propose a concept of an epochal change according to which it is not necessarily a discontinuous process that typically begins (...)
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  16. added 2018-03-05
    Universality, Invariance, and the Foundations of Computational Complexity in the Light of the Quantum Computer.Michael Cuffaro - 2018 - In Sven Hansson (ed.), Technology and Mathematics: Philosophical and Historical Investigations. Springer. pp. 253-282.
    Computational complexity theory is a branch of computer science dedicated to classifying computational problems in terms of their difficulty. While computability theory tells us what we can compute in principle, complexity theory informs us regarding our practical limits. In this chapter I argue that the science of \emph{quantum computing} illuminates complexity theory by emphasising that its fundamental concepts are not model-independent, but that this does not, as some suggest, force us to radically revise the foundations of the theory. For model-independence (...)
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  17. added 2018-02-17
    The Semantic Conception and the Structuralist View of Theories: A Critique of Suppe’s Criticisms.Pablo Lorenzano - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (4):600-607.
    Different conceptions of scientific theories, such as the state spaces approach of Bas van Fraassen, the phase spaces approach of Frederick Suppe, the set-theoretical approach of Patrick Suppes, and the structuralist view of Joseph Sneed et al. are usually put together into one big family. In addition, the definite article is normally used, and thus we speak of the semantic conception of theories and of its different approaches . However, in The Semantic Conception of Theories and Scientific Realism , starting (...)
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  18. added 2017-11-09
    The Dappled World Perspective Refined.Karlis Podnieks - 2014 - The Reasoner 8 (1):3--4.
    The concept of the Dappled World Perspective was first proposed by Nancy Cartwright. I propose a new argument in favour of the Dappled World Perspective, and show how this Perspective can be refined in the model-based model of cognition. Limitations to modeling are not caused by limitations of human cognition, but are limitations built into the very structure of the Universe. At the level of models, we will always have only a patchwork of models, each very restricted in its application (...)
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  19. added 2017-09-04
    Bibliography of Structuralism III.Cláudio Abreu, Pablo Lorenzano & Ulises Moulines - 2013 - Metatheoria 3 (2):01-36.
    In two occasions a Bibliography of Structuralism has been published in Erkenntnis (1989, 1994). Since then a lot of water has flowed under the bridge and the structuralist program has shown a continuous development. The aim of the present bibliography is to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the publication of An Architectonic for Science –structuralism’s main reference work– and of its recent translation into Spanish by updating the previous bibliographies with titles which have appeared since 1994 as well as before (...)
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  20. added 2017-09-03
    Models of Intelligibility in Galileo's Mechanical Science.David Marshall Miller - 2017 - In Marcus Adams, Zvi Biener, Uljana Feest & Jaqueline Sullivan (eds.), Eppur Si Muove: Doing History and Philosophy of Science with Peter Machamer, A Collection of Essays in Honor of Peter Machamer. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 39-54.
    Based on an examination of Galileo’s mechanics, Peter Machamer and Andrea Woody (and Machamer alone in subsequent articles) proposed the scientific use of what they call models of intelligibility. As they define it, a model of intelligibility (MOI) is a concrete phenomenon that guides scientific understanding of problematic cases. This paper extends Machamer and Woody’s analysis by elaborating the semantic function of MOIs. MOIs are physical embodiments of theoretical representations. Therefore, they eliminate the interpretive distance between theory and phenomena, creating (...)
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  21. added 2016-09-12
    Bohr as a Phenomenological Realist.Towfic Shomar - 2008 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 39 (2):321-349.
    There is confusion among scholars of Bohr as to whether he should be categorized as an instrumentalist (see Faye 1991) or a realist (see Folse 1985). I argue that Bohr is a realist, and that the confusion is due to the fact that he holds a very special view of realism, which did not coincide with the philosophers’ views. His approach was sometimes labelled instrumentalist and other times realist, because he was an instrumentalist on the theoretical level, but a realist (...)
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  22. added 2016-09-02
    Modeling and Inferring in Science.Emiliano Ippoliti, Thomas Nickles & Fabio Sterpetti - 2016 - In Emiliano Ippoliti, Fabio Sterpetti & Thomas Nickles (eds.), Models and Inferences in Science. Springer. pp. 1-9.
    Science continually contributes new models and rethinks old ones. The way inferences are made is constantly being re-evaluated. The practice and achievements of science are both shaped by this process, so it is important to understand how models and inferences are made. But, despite the relevance of models and inference in scientific practice, these concepts still remain contro-versial in many respects. The attempt to understand the ways models and infer-ences are made basically opens two roads. The first one is to (...)
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  23. added 2016-08-26
    Are Natural Selection Explanatory Models a Priori?José Díez & Pablo Lorenzano - 2015 - Biology and Philosophy 30 (6):787-809.
    The epistemic status of Natural Selection has seemed intriguing to biologists and philosophers since the very beginning of the theory to our present times. One prominent contemporary example is Elliott Sober, who claims that NS, and some other theories in biology, and maybe in economics, are peculiar in including explanatory models/conditionals that are a priori in a sense in which explanatory models/conditionals in Classical Mechanics and most other standard theories are not. Sober’s argument focuses on some “would promote” sentences that (...)
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  24. added 2016-08-26
    Philosophical theorizing about science in the twentieth century (and what has elapsed of the 21st century)).Pablo Lorenzano - 2011 - Discusiones Filosóficas 12 (19):131 - 154.
    Scientific activity produces results of various types. In particular, science produces a special kind of knowledge or knowledges, assumed to be different from knowledge or common sense knowledge, from everyday experience and formulated in ordinary language; a more systematized knowledge, with greater range and accuracy, and intersubjectively controllable. To produce this kind of knowledge (or knowledge), we introduce new concepts, formulate hypotheses and laws and, ultimately, construct theories, being the result of a practice or specific activity, considering science as (perhaps), (...)
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  25. added 2016-08-26
    Introducción - Introduction - Introdução.Jose Diez, Jose Falguera & Pablo Lorenzano - 2011 - Metatheoria 1 (2):1-7.
    It is the Introduction to Metatheoria’s Special Issue in homage to Joseph D. Sneed, in the fortieth anniversary of the publication of Sneed’s The Logical Structure of Mathematical Physics (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1971, 2nd revised ed. 1979) first edition, which marks the birth of metatheoretical structuralism.
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  26. added 2016-08-26
    Fundamental Laws and Laws of Biology.Pablo Lorenzano - 2006 - In Gerhard Ernst & Karl-Georg Niebergall (eds.), Philosophie der Wissenschaft – Wissenschaft der Philosophie. Festschrift für C.Ulises Moulines zum 60. Geburstag. Mentis. pp. 129-155.
    In this paper, I discuss the problem of scientific laws in general and laws of biology in particular. After reviewing the debate around the existence of laws in biology, I examine the subject in the light of the structuralist notion of a fundamental law and argue for the law of matching as the fundamental law of genetics.
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  27. added 2016-08-26
    Classical Genetics and the Theory-Net of Genetics.Pablo Lorenzano - 2000 - In Joseph D. Sneed, Wolfgang Balzer & C.-Ulises Moulines (eds.), Structuralist Knowledge Representation: Paradigmatic Examples. Rodopi. pp. 75-251.
    This article presents a reconstruction of the so-called classical, formal or Mendelian genetics, which is intended to be more complete and adequate than existing reconstructions. This reconstruction has been carried out with the instruments, duly modified and extended with respect to the case under consideration, of the structuralist conception of theories. The so-called Mendel’s Laws, as well as linkage genetics and gene mapping are formulated in a precise manner while the global structure of genetics is represented as a theory-net. These (...)
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  28. added 2016-08-26
    Structuralist Knowledge Representation: Paradigmatic Examples.P. Lorenzano, W. Balzer, C. U. Moulines & J. Sneed - 2000 - In Joseph D. Sneed, Wolfgang Balzer & C.-U. Moulines (eds.), Structuralist Knowledge Representation: Paradigmatic Examples. Rodopi.
    Contents: Foreword. Wolfgang BALZER and C. ULISES MOULINES: Introduction. José A. DÍEZ CALZADA: Structuralist Analysis of Theories of Fundamental Measurement. Adolfo GARCÍA DE LA SIENRA and Pedro REYES: The Theory of Finite Games in Extensive Form. Hans Joachim BURSCHEID und Horst STRUVE: The Theory of Stochastic Fairness - its Historical Development, Formulation and Justification. Wolfgang BALZER and Richard MATTESSICH: Formalizing the Basis of Accounting. Werner DIEDERICH: A Reconstruction of Marxian Economics. Bert HAMMINGA and Wolfgang BALZER: The Basic Structure of Neoclassical (...)
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  29. added 2016-08-26
    Hacia una reconstrucción estructural de la genética clásica y de sus relaciones con el mendelismo.Pablo Lorenzano - 1998 - Episteme 3 (5):89-117.
    The present paper is framed within one of the predominant currents of contemporary philosophy of science, which is based in case studies, in order to construct a solid, non-speculative, metatheory. In this paper classical genetics is formally analized and reconstructed with the instruments, duly modified and extended in accordance with the considered case, of the structuralist view of theories, in such a way that that theory can be characterized as a refinement of an earlier introduced model of genetics, which determines (...)
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  30. added 2016-08-26
    Sobre las Leyes en la Biologia.Pablo Lorenzano - 1998 - Episteme 3 (7):261- 272.
    The aim of the present communication is to contribute to the discussion about the existence of laws in biology. In order of it the argumentation of J.J.C. Smart against their existence and the discussion of it made by M. Ruse and R. Munson are first reconstructed. The examination of this controversy shows that, despite of the differences between the first of the authors mentioned and the other two in relation to the problem of laws in biology, the three share the (...)
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  31. added 2016-08-26
    Geschichte Und Struktur der Klassischen Genetik.Pablo Lorenzano - 1995
    Der orthodoxen Interpretation zufolge wird die Genetik als eine Disziplin dargestellt, deren Geschichte (von ihrem vermuteten Ursprung mit dem Werk Mendels an über die Werke der sogenannten «Wiederentdecker» de Vries, Correns und Tschermak und des englischen Mendelianers Bateson bis hin zur Arbeit Morgans) kontinuierlich, kumulativ und linear verlaufen sei. Im ersten Teil des Buches wird hingegen die Diskontinuität dieses Prozesses betont. Innerhalb der strukturalistischen Auffassung wissenschaftlicher Theorien wird die klassische Genetik im zweiten Teil in einer Weise rekonstruiert und formal analysiert, (...)
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  32. added 2016-07-21
    Angela N. H. Creager, Elizabeth Lunbeck and M. Norton Wise , Science Without Laws: Model Systems, Cases, Exemplary Narratives. Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-8223-4068-3. £12.99. [REVIEW]Jacob Stegenga - 2009 - British Journal for the History of Science 42 (4):626.
  33. added 2016-03-16
    Alternative Interpretationen der Repräsentationstheorie der Messung.Michael Heidelberger - 1994 - In Ulla Wessels & Georg Meggle (eds.), Analyomen / Analyomen: Proceedings of the 1st Conference. De Gruyter. pp. 310-323.
    Four different interpretations of measurement are distinguished that are compatible with the formal frame of the representational theory of measurement: (1) the classical interpretation, the additive, (3) the operationalis, (4) the correlative one.
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  34. added 2015-11-05
    SUR LA NOTION DE THÉORIE CLOSE DE WERNER HEISENBERG À LA LUMIÈRE DU SECOND WITTGENSTEIN.Frédérique Laurent & François-Igor Pris - 2015 - APRIORI. Серия: Гуманитарные науки 6:1-35.
    Nous interprétons les vues philosophiques de Werner Heisenberg comme un pragmatisme et un réalisme non-métaphysique de type Wittgensteinien. La « théorie close » est une règle (concept) Wittgensteinienne. À la différence d’Alisa Bokulich qui donne raison à la position de Paul Dirac sur la nature des relations entre les théories physiques différentes, nous favorisons plutôt celle de Heisenberg. Notre position interprétant Heisenberg va aussi à l’encontre de celle de Popper: le critère d’une théorie scientifique établie (close) est sa non-falsifiabilité. -/- (...)
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  35. added 2015-10-06
    Better Theories.Howard Darmstadter - 1975 - Philosophy of Science 42 (1):20-27.
    It is argued that a better theory neither (I) proves better at enabling us to realize our goals, nor (II) enables us to make more accurate predictions than a worse theory. (I) fails because it, tacitly, erroneously assumes, in talking of our goals, that individual preferences for theories can be aggregated into a social preference ordering; (II) fails because it cannot distinguish between important and unimportant predictions. Neither of these failures can be patched up by appealing to the notion of (...)
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  36. added 2015-08-31
    What is the Status of the Hardy-Weinberg Law Within Population Genetics?Pablo Lorenzano - 2014 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 17:159-172.
    The aim of this paper is to further develop van Fraassen’s diagnosis, expanding a previous analysis of the fundamental law of classical genetics and the status of the so-called ‘Mendel’s laws’.6 According to this diagnosis the Hardy-Weinberg law: 1) cannot be considered as axiom (or fundamental law) for classical population genetics, since it is a law that describes an equilibrium that 2) holds only under certain special conditions, and 3) only determines a subclass of models, 4) whose generalized form (and (...)
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  37. added 2015-08-31
    Reconstrucción estructuralista de la teoría del movimiento circular de la sangre, de William Harvey.Joaquín Barutta & Pablo Lorenzano - 2012 - Scientiae Studia 10 (2):219-241.
    En las investigaciones sobre fisiología cardiovascular desarrolladas por William Harvey es posible distinguir entre dos teorías que responden a preguntas diferentes. La primera de ellas, que denominamos teoría del movimiento circular de la sangre, intenta dar una respuesta al problema sobre la cantidad de sangre que se mueve dentro del sistema. La segunda pretende dar cuenta de las causas de que la sangre se mueva y la denominamos teoría de las causas del movimiento de la sangre. En este trabajo, presentamos (...)
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  38. added 2015-08-22
    A Theory of Scientific Study.Robert W. P. Luk - 2017 - Foundations of Science 22 (1):11-38.
    This paper presents a theory of scientific study which is regarded as a social learning process of scientific knowledge creation, revision, application, monitoring and dissemination with the aim of securing good quality, general, objective, testable and complete scientific knowledge of the domain. The theory stipulates the aim of scientific study that forms the basis of its principles. It also makes seven assumptions about scientific study and defines the major participating entities. It extends a recent process model of scientific study into (...)
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  39. added 2015-03-23
    Three Dogmas on Scientific Theory.Massimiliano Badino - manuscript
    Most philosophical accounts on scientific theories are affected by three dogmas or ingrained attitudes. These dogmas have led philosophers to choose between analyzing the internal structure of theories or their historical evolution. In this paper, I turn these three dogmas upside down. I argue (i) that mathematical practices are not epistemically neutral, (ii) that the morphology of theories can be very complex, and (iii) that one should view theoretical knowledge as the combination of internal factors and their intrinsic historicity.
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  40. added 2015-02-19
    Science Religion and the Limits of Reason.Raymond Aaron Younis - 2010 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 15 (2):317-335.
  41. added 2015-02-19
    Shattering the Mirror of Nature. [REVIEW]Raymond Aaron Younis - 1998 - Metascience 7 (1):216-221.
  42. added 2015-01-13
    The Imaginative Character of Pragmatic Inquiry.Brendan Hogan - 2008 - Cognitio Estudos 5 (2).
    John Dewey’s lifelong labor to articulate an alternative account of logic from -/- the ‘abstract thought’ predominant in discussions of logic culminates in his 1938 Logic: the -/- theory of inquiry. In this text Dewey argues that all inquiry involves the instantiation of a general -/- pattern of inquiry. Articulating the role of imagination in the general pattern of inquiry is crucial -/- to illuminating the practical character and theoretical scope of this activity. Specifically, the -/- agency of the inquirer (...)
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  43. added 2014-12-23
    Reconsidering the Carnap-Kuhn Connection.Jonathan Y. Tsou - 2015 - In Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions - 50 Years On. Springer Verlag.
    Recently, some philosophers of science (e.g., Gürol Irzik, Michael Friedman) have challenged the ‘received view’ on the relationship between Rudolf Carnap and Thomas Kuhn, suggesting that there is a close affinity (rather than opposition) between their philosophical views. In support of this argument, these authors cite Carnap and Kuhn’s similar views on incommensurability, theory-choice, and scientific revolutions. Against this revisionist view, I argue that the philosophical relationship between Carnap and Kuhn should be regarded as opposed rather than complementary. In particular, (...)
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  44. added 2014-09-17
    The Structure of Scientific Theories.Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2015 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Scientific inquiry has led to immense explanatory and technological successes, partly as a result of the pervasiveness of scientific theories. Relativity theory, evolutionary theory, and plate tectonics were, and continue to be, wildly successful families of theories within physics, biology, and geology. Other powerful theory clusters inhabit comparatively recent disciplines such as cognitive science, climate science, molecular biology, microeconomics, and Geographic Information Science (GIS). Effective scientific theories magnify understanding, help supply legitimate explanations, and assist in formulating predictions. Moving from their (...)
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  45. added 2014-06-30
    Broadening the Scope of American Philosophy at the Turn of a New Millennium.Anne Schulherr Waters - 2001 - American Philosophical Association Newsletter on American Indians in Philosophy.
    This paper argues that Renaissance ideas of great thinkers like Copernicus and Galileo were already integrated in indigenous thought and life. And this, indigenous thought rather than the European import commonly labelled "American" philosophy, is Turtle Island philosophy, or "American philosophy," and should be properly named and rightfully recognized as such, throughout the Americas. Waters argues that in the USA, articulating the metaphysics and epistemology of survival experience of American Indigenous, African Indigenous, and other global indigenous cultures may philosophically lead (...)
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  46. added 2014-04-01
    Generalizing Empirical Adequacy I: Multiplicity and Approximation.Sebastian Lutz - 2014 - Synthese 191 (14):3195-3225.
    I provide an explicit formulation of empirical adequacy, the central concept of constructive empiricism, and point out a number of problems. Based on one of the inspirations for empirical adequacy, I generalize the notion of a theory to avoid implausible presumptions about the relation of theoretical concepts and observations, and generalize empirical adequacy with the help of approximation sets to allow for lack of knowledge, approximations, and successive gain of knowledge and precision. As a test case, I provide an application (...)
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  47. added 2014-03-30
    Desarrollos actuales de la metateoría estructuralista: Problemas y discusiones. [REVIEW]Santiago Ginnobili - 2004 - Análisis Filosófico 24 (1):111-113.
    Un aspecto poco estudiado del argumento de Michael Sandel en contra del carácter neutral de la justicia como equidad, es el modo en que funda sus conclusiones en el entendimiento que tiene de otros tres aspectos de la concepción rawlsiana de justicia: su carácter deontológico, el equilibrio reflexivo, y la posición original. Nuestro objetivo es mostrar que Sandel no ha cometido cuatro errores independientes, sino que poseer un entendimiento equivocado del carácter deontológico de la teoría lo ha llevado a caracterizar (...)
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  48. added 2013-12-25
    THE ACOUSTO-MECHANOTRONICS OF HUMAN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND COMMUNICATION.Varanasi Ramabrahmam - 2009 - In Proceedings of Eighteenth National Symposium on Ultrasonics, at VIT University, Vellore, December, 21-23, 2009. pp. 87-103.
    The insight and ideas available in the Upanishads, the Advaita philosophy, the SphotaVada and the Sabdabrahma Siddhanta on the theory of language acquisition and communication by humans will be translated and presented in modern scientific terms. The acousto-mechanotronics involved therein will be elaborated and four modes of language acquisition and communication will be elucidated. The reversible becoming phenomenon inherent in the language theory will be described. The transformations of sound energy uttered /heard through transducers and reversible transformations of tuned infrasonic (...)
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  49. added 2013-10-09
    Classificatory Theory in Data-Intensive Science: The Case of Open Biomedical Ontologies.Sabina Leonelli - 2012 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 26 (1):47 - 65.
    Knowledge-making practices in biology are being strongly affected by the availability of data on an unprecedented scale, the insistence on systemic approaches and growing reliance on bioinformatics and digital infrastructures. What role does theory play within data-intensive science, and what does that tell us about scientific theories in general? To answer these questions, I focus on Open Biomedical Ontologies, digital classification tools that have become crucial to sharing results across research contexts in the biological and biomedical sciences, and argue that (...)
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  50. added 2013-09-28
    Empirically Adequate but Observably False Theories.Sebastian Lutz - manuscript
    I show that a theory may be empirically adequate according to van Fraassen's definition even though it can be observationally determined that the theory is false. I suggest a modification of empirical adequacy that avoids this result.
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