Results for 'Andy D. Mealor'

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  1.  41
    The Speed of Metacognition: Taking Time to Get to Know One’s Structural Knowledge.Andy D. Mealor & Zoltan Dienes - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):123-136.
    The time course of different metacognitive experiences of knowledge was investigated using artificial grammar learning. Experiment 1 revealed that when participants are aware of the basis of their judgments decisions are made most rapidly, followed by decisions made with conscious judgment but without conscious knowledge of underlying structure , and guess responses were made most slowly, even when controlling for differences in confidence and accuracy. In experiment 2, short response deadlines decreased the accuracy of unconscious but not conscious structural knowledge. (...)
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  2.  28
    Explicit Feedback Maintains Implicit Knowledge.Andy D. Mealor & Zoltan Dienes - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):822-832.
    The role of feedback was investigated with respect to conscious and unconscious knowledge acquired during artificial grammar learning . After incidental learning of training sequences, participants classified further sequences in terms of grammaticality and reported their decision strategy with or without explicit veridical feedback. Sequences that disobeyed the learning structure conformed to an alternative structure. Feedback led to an increase in the amount of reported conscious knowledge of structure but did not increase its accuracy. Conversely, feedback maintained the accuracy of (...)
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  3.  21
    Conscious and Unconscious Thought in Artificial Grammar Learning.Andy David Mealor & Zoltan Dienes - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):865-874.
    Unconscious Thought Theory posits that a period of distraction after information acquisition leads to unconscious processing which enhances decision making relative to conscious deliberation or immediate choice . Support thus far has been mixed. In the present study, artificial grammar learning was used in order to produce measurable amounts of conscious and unconscious knowledge. Intermediate phases were introduced between training and testing. Participants engaged in conscious deliberation of grammar rules, were distracted for the same period of time, or progressed immediately (...)
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  4.  19
    No-Loss Gambling Shows the Speed of the Unconscious.Andy Mealor & Zoltan Dienes - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):228-237.
    This paper investigates the time it takes unconscious vs. conscious knowledge to form by using an improved “no-loss gambling” method to measure awareness of knowing. Subjects could either bet on a transparently random process or on their grammaticality judgment in an artificial grammar learning task. A conflict in the literature is resolved concerning whether unconscious rather than conscious knowledge is especially fast or slow to form. When guessing , accuracy was above chance and RTs were longer than when feeling confident (...)
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  5.  36
    D. Z. Phillips' Contemplative Philosophy of Religion: Questions and Responses – Edited by Andy F. Sanders.Lars Hertzberg - 2009 - Philosophical Investigations 32 (4):381-384.
  6. Epistemic Modals, Relativism and Assertion.Andy Egan - 2007 - Philosophical Studies 133 (1):1--22.
    I think that there are good reasons to adopt a relativist semantics for epistemic modal claims such as ``the treasure might be under the palm tree'', according to which such utterances determine a truth value relative to something finer-grained than just a world (or a <world, time> pair). Anyone who is inclined to relativise truth to more than just worlds and times faces a problem about assertion. It's easy to be puzzled about just what purpose would be served by assertions (...)
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  7.  42
    Book ReviewsRichard D. Mohr, The Long Arc of Justice: Lesbian and Gay Marriage, Equality, and Rights.New York: Columbia University Press, 2005. Pp. 136. $22.95. [REVIEW]Andy Wible - 2006 - Ethics 116 (3):604-607.
  8. Review of Andy Clark, Being There: Putting Brain, Body, and World Together Again[REVIEW]Sean D. Kelly - 2000 - Mind 109 (433).
    The title of Andy Clark's book is, among other things, a reference to one of the central terms in Martin Heidegger's early work: "Dasein" (being there) is the word that Heidegger uses to refer to beings like ourselves. Clark is no Heidegger scholar, but the reference is deliberate; among the predecessors to his book he lists not only Heidegger himself, but also the American Heidegger scholar Hubert Dreyfus and the French Heideggerean phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty. This triumvirate has played an (...)
     
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  9. Seeing and Believing: Perception, Belief Formation and the Divided Mind.Andy Egan - 2008 - Philosophical Studies 140 (1):47 - 63.
    On many of the idealized models of human cognition and behavior in use by philosophers, agents are represented as having a single corpus of beliefs which (a) is consistent and deductively closed, and (b) guides all of their (rational, deliberate, intentional) actions all the time. In graded-belief frameworks, agents are represented as having a single, coherent distribution of credences, which guides all of their (rational, deliberate, intentional) actions all of the time. It's clear that actual human beings don't live up (...)
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  10.  12
    Henk Zandvoort. Models of Scientific Development and the Case of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1986. Pp. Xiii + 305. ISBN 90-277-2351-6. £49.50, Dfl. 115.00. [REVIEW]Andy Pickering - 1987 - British Journal for the History of Science 20 (4):481-482.
  11.  78
    Epistemic Modality Edited by Andy Egan and Brian Weatherson. [REVIEW]D. Gregory - 2013 - Analysis 73 (1):186-188.
  12.  39
    Surfing Uncertainty: Prediction, Action and the Embodied Mind, by Andy Clark: New York: Oxford University Press, 2016, Pp. Xviii + 401, £19.99. [REVIEW]Daniel D. Hutto - 2018 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 96 (1):186-189.
  13.  10
    Knowledge and Ignorance of Self in Platonic Philosophy, Edited by James M. Ambury and Andy German.D. Muñoz-Hutchinson - 2021 - International Journal of the Platonic Tradition 15 (1):99-102.
  14.  16
    Erasing and Blurring Memories: The Differential Impact of Interference on Separate Aspects of Forgetting.Sol Z. Sun, Celia Fidalgo, Morgan D. Barense, Andy C. H. Lee, Jonathan S. Cant & Susanne Ferber - 2017 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 146 (11):1606-1630.
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  15. Linguistic Anchors in the Sea of Thought?Andy Clark - 1996 - Pragmatics and Cognition 4 (1):93-103.
    Andy Clark is currently Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Philosophy/Neuroscience/Psychology program at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri. He is the author of two books MICROCOGNITION (MIT Press/Bradford Books 1989) and ASSOCIATIVE ENGINES (MIT Press/Bradford Books, 1993) as well as numerous papers and four edited volumes. He is an ex- committee member of the British Society for the Philosophy of Science and of the Society for Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behavior. Awards include a visiting Fellowship (...)
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  16. A Case Where Access Implies Qualia?Andy Clark - 2000 - Analysis 60 (1):30-37.
    Block (1995) famously warns against the confusion of.
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  17. Concerning Ibn 'Arabi’s Account of Knowlegde of God Al Haqq.Andi Herawati - 2013 - Kanz Philosophia : A Journal for Islamic Philosophy and Mysticism 3 (2):219.
    This paper reveals the concept of ma'rifa developed by Ibn al-'Arabi (d.1260), , especially in his magnum opus, Fuṣūṣ al-Ḥikam, the late work considered to the synthesis of his doctrine of metaphysics represented through the wisdom of each prophet; their uniqueness of divinely inspired and their epitome of spiritual perception, concerning the knowledge of God. It shows the transformative role of the prophet’s messages involving in the deeper creative process of divine-human dialogue, calling and response, that is repeatedly mentioned in (...)
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  18. Criticism, Contact with Reality and Truth.Andy F. Sanders - 1996 - Tradition and Discovery 23 (3):24-37.
    Partly in reply to D. Cannon’s critique of my analytical reconstruction of Polanyi’s post-critical theory of knowledge, I argue that there are good reasons for not appropriating Polanyi’s programme of self-identication and the confessional rhetoric which may be derived from it. Arguing that “post-critical”should not be identified with an uncritical dogmatism, I then go on to suggest that the theory of tacit knowing had best be elaborated further by drawingon the work of J. Searle and M. Johnson. Finally, I make (...)
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  19.  18
    The Validated Circular Shape Space: Quantifying the Visual Similarity of Shape.Aedan Y. Li, Jackson C. Liang, Andy C. H. Lee & Morgan D. Barense - forthcoming - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.
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  20.  17
    “They Sweat for Science”: The Harvard Fatigue Laboratory and Self-Experimentation in American Exercise Physiology.Andi Johnson - 2015 - Journal of the History of Biology 48 (3):425-454.
    In many scientific fields, the practice of self-experimentation waned over the course of the twentieth century. For exercise physiologists working today, however, the practice of self-experimentation is alive and well. This paper considers the role of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory and its scientific director, D. Bruce Dill, in legitimizing the practice of self-experimentation in exercise physiology. Descriptions of self-experimentation are drawn from papers published by members of the Harvard Fatigue Lab. Attention is paid to the ethical and practical justifications for (...)
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  21.  2
    No Detectable Electroencephalographic Activity After Clinical Declaration of Death Among Tibetan Buddhist Meditators in Apparent Tukdam, a Putative Postmortem Meditation State.Dylan T. Lott, Tenzin Yeshi, N. Norchung, Sonam Dolma, Nyima Tsering, Ngawang Jinpa, Tenzin Woser, Kunsang Dorjee, Tenzin Desel, Dan Fitch, Anna J. Finley, Robin Goldman, Ana Maria Ortiz Bernal, Rachele Ragazzi, Karthik Aroor, John Koger, Andy Francis, David M. Perlman, Joseph Wielgosz, David R. W. Bachhuber, Tsewang Tamdin, Tsetan Dorji Sadutshang, John D. Dunne, Antoine Lutz & Richard J. Davidson - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Recent EEG studies on the early postmortem interval that suggest the persistence of electrophysiological coherence and connectivity in the brain of animals and humans reinforce the need for further investigation of the relationship between the brain’s activity and the dying process. Neuroscience is now in a position to empirically evaluate the extended process of dying and, more specifically, to investigate the possibility of brain activity following the cessation of cardiac and respiratory function. Under the direction of the Center for Healthy (...)
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  22. Minds, Brains and Tools.Andy Clark - 2002 - In Hugh Clapin (ed.), Philosophy of Mental Representation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    The selected texts for this discussion were two recent pieces by Dennett (.
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  23.  1
    Towards a New Literary Humanism.Andy Mousley (ed.) - 2011 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Machine generated contents note: -- List of Contributors -- Acknowledgments -- Introduction: Towards a New Literary Humanism; A. Mousley -- PART I: LITERATURE_AS ERSATZ_THEOLOGY: DEEP SELVES -- Introduction; A. Mousley -- Faith, Feeling, Reality: Anne Brontë as an Existentialist Poet; R. Styler -- Virginia Woolf, Sympathy and Feeling for the Human; K. Martin -- Being Human and being Animal in Twentieth-Century Horse-Whispering Writings: 'Word-Bound Creatures' and 'the Breath of Horses'; E. Graham_ -- Judith Butler and the Catachretic Human; I. Arteel (...)
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  24.  36
    Belief, Opinion and Consciousness.Andy Clark - 1990 - Philosophical Psychology 3 (1):139-154.
    Abstract The paper considers two recent accounts of the difference between human and animal thought. One deflationary account, due to Daniel Dennett, insists that the only real difference lies in our ability to use words and sentences to give artificial precision and determinacy to our mental contents. The other, due to Paul Smolensky, conjectures that we at times deploy a special purpose device (the Conscious Rule Interpreter) whose task is to deal with public, symbolically coded data and commands. Both these (...)
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  25.  87
    Superman and the Duck/Rabbit: A Reply to Gordon and Bringsjord.Andy Clark - 1988 - Analysis 48 (1):54-57.
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  26.  2
    Infantologies. An EPAT Collective Writing Project.Michael A. Peters, E. Jayne White, Marek Tesar, Andrew Gibbons, Sonja Arndt, Niina Rutanen, Sheila Degotardi, Andi Salamon, Kim Browne, Bridgette Redder, Jennifer Charteris, Kiri Gould, Alison Warren, Andrea Delaune, Olivera Kamenarac, Nina Hood & Sean Sturm - forthcoming - Educational Philosophy and Theory:1-19.
    Infantologies is a collective writing project designed to express and summarise important ideas, approaches and forms of advocacy in a short and condensed method, in order to present a network of d...
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  27. What Is a Cognitive System? In Defense of the Conditional Probability of Co-Contribution Account.Robert D. Rupert - 2019 - Cognitive Semantics 5 (2):175-200.
    A theory of cognitive systems individuation is presented and defended. The approach has some affinity with Leonard Talmy's Overlapping Systems Model of Cognitive Organization, and the paper's first section explores aspects of Talmy's view that are shared by the view developed herein. According to the view on offer -- the conditional probability of co-contribution account (CPC) -- a cognitive system is a collection of mechanisms that contribute, in overlapping subsets, to a wide variety of forms of intelligent behavior. Central to (...)
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  28.  7
    Formes de l’art contemporainjoseph beuys, Andy warhol : La rencontre.Didier Stathopoulos - 2013 - Philosophique 16.
    « La forme est sans doute quelque chose de la réalité, mais quelque chose qui se transmet à la faveur d’une relation causale qui met en rapport l’intelligible et le sensible : le premier est la cause du second, qu’il déter­mine comme tel, au moyen de la forme. ». Jean-François Pradeau : « Platon : les formes intelligibles ». Presses Universitaires de France, 2001. P. 53. Transmission, relation causale et mise en rapport qu'il faudrait compléter par dialogue et participation pour (...)
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  29.  42
    Science Made Up: Constructivist Sociology of Scientific Knowledge.D. Stump - unknown
    Part of the work for this paper was done during the tenure of a fellowship at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. I am grateful for financial support provided by the National Science Foundation, Grant #BNS-8011494, and for the assistance of the staff of the Center. I also want to thank David Bloor, Stephen Downes, David Hull and Andy Pickering for offering good advice and criticism, some of which I have heeded.
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  30. Cognitive Systems and the Supersized Mind. [REVIEW]Robert D. Rupert - 2011 - Philosophical Studies 152 (3):427 - 436.
    In Supersizing the Mind: Embodiment, Action, and Cognitive Extension (Clark, 2008), Andy Clark bolsters his case for the extended mind thesis and casts a critical eye on some related views for which he has less enthusiasm. To these ends, the book canvasses a wide range of empirical results concerning the subtle manner in which the human organism and its environment interact in the production of intelligent behavior. This fascinating research notwithstanding, Supersizing does little to assuage my skepticism about the (...)
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  31. Supersizing the Mind: Embodiment, Action, and Cognitive Extension. [REVIEW]Robert D. Rupert - 2009 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 30 (4).
    For well over two decades, Andy Clark has been gleaning theoretical lessons from the leading edge of cognitive science, applying a combination of empirical savvy and philosophical instinct that few can match. Clark’s most recent book, Supersizing the Mind: Embodiment, Action, and Cognitive Extension, brilliantly expands his oeuvre. It offers a well-informed and focused survey of research in the burgeoning field of situated cognition, a field that emphasizes the contribution of environmental and non-neural bodily structures to the production of (...)
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  32. Keeping HEC in CHEC.Robert D. Rupert - manuscript
    According to the hypothesis of extended cognition (HEC, hereafter), human cognitive processing extends beyond the boundary of the human organism.1 As I understand HEC, it is a claim in the..
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  33. Supersizing the Mind: Embodiment, Action, and Cognitive Extension.R. D. Rupert - 2012 - Philosophical Review 121 (2):304-308.
    For well over two decades, Andy Clark has been gleaning theoretical lessons from the leading edge of cognitive science, applying a combination of empirical savvy and philosophical instinct that few can match. Clark’s most recent book, Supersizing the Mind: Embodiment, Action, and Cognitive Extension, brilliantly expands his oeuvre. It offers a well-informed and focused survey of research in the burgeoning field of situated cognition, a field that emphasizes the contribution of environmental and non-neural bodily structures to the production of (...)
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  34. The Over-Extended Mind.U. M. D. Cole - unknown
    There’s a possibly more interesting general question: does technology transform and extend the mind and our mental powers? In a widely discussed 1998 paper titled “The Extended Mind”, Andy Clark and David Chalmers argue that mind and cognition can extend outside the head and can include items and processes in the world. In their thought experiment, Otto has alzheimer’s syndrome but does not lose his ability to function because he records information he learns in a notebook that he always (...)
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  35.  36
    Ultraproducts Which Are Not Saturated.H. Jerome Keisler - 1967 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 32 (1):23-46.
    In this paper we continue our study, begun in [5], of the connection between ultraproducts and saturated structures. IfDis an ultrafilter over a setI, andis a structure, the ultrapower ofmoduloDis denoted byD-prod. The ultrapower is important because it is a method of constructing structures which are elementarily equivalent to a given structure. Our ultimate aim is to find out what kinds of structure are ultrapowers of. We made a beginning in [5] by proving that, assuming the generalized continuum hypothesis, for (...)
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  36.  6
    A Companion to Cognitive Science.George Graham & William Bechtel (eds.) - 1998 - Blackwell.
    Part I: The Life of Cognitive Science:. William Bechtel, Adele Abrahamsen, and George Graham. Part II: Areas of Study in Cognitive Science:. 1. Analogy: Dedre Gentner. 2. Animal Cognition: Herbert L. Roitblat. 3. Attention: A.H.C. Van Der Heijden. 4. Brain Mapping: Jennifer Mundale. 5. Cognitive Anthropology: Charles W. Nuckolls. 6. Cognitive and Linguistic Development: Adele Abrahamsen. 7. Conceptual Change: Nancy J. Nersessian. 8. Conceptual Organization: Douglas Medin and Sandra R. Waxman. 9. Consciousness: Owen Flanagan. 10. Decision Making: J. Frank Yates (...)
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  37.  60
    Bioethics at the Movies.Sandra Shapshay (ed.) - 2009 - Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Bioethics at the Movies explores the ways in which popular films engage basic bioethical concepts and concerns. Twenty philosophically grounded essays use cinematic tools such as character and plot development, scene-setting, and narrative-framing to demonstrate a range of principles and topics in contemporary medical ethics. The first section plumbs popular and bioethical thought on birth, abortion, genetic selection, and personhood through several films, including The Cider House Rules, Citizen Ruth, Gattaca, and I, Robot. In the second section, the contributors examine (...)
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  38. Andy Clark Cognitive Complexity and the Sensorimotor Frontier.Andy Clark - 2006 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 80 (1):43–65.
  39.  18
    Structure, Vital Form and the Cyborg.Dorothea Olkowski - 2016 - Chiasmi International 18:183-197.
    In his 1997 book, Being There: Putting Brain, Body and World Together Again, Andy Clark advocates ‘embodied, active cognition,’ to discuss the manner in which an autonomous, embodied agent interacts with its environment. The implication is that since our minds as well as our bodies are matter, and otherwise nothing special, it is inevitable that we humans are natural born cyborgs and the human-machine interface will before long become completely transparent to the point of being invisible. In his critique (...)
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  40.  40
    La mente extendida. [REVIEW]Miguel Ángel Sebastián - 2014 - Dianoia 59 (72):169-172.
    KRK ediciones publica la traducción al español del ya clásico texto de Andy Clark y David Chalmers 'La Mente Extendida' en su versión aparecida en la antología de textos Philosophy of Mind: classical and contemporary readings, editada por D. Chalmers en 2002 para Oxford University Press. La traducción va precedida de una interesante introducción al debate que surge a partir de la publicación original del texto en Analysis en 1998, a cargo de Ángel García Rodríguez y Francisco Calvo Garzón, (...)
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  41.  12
    Application of Topological Degree Method for Solutions of Coupled Systems of Multipoints Boundary Value Problems of Fractional Order Hybrid Differential Equations.Muhammad Iqbal, Yongjin Li, Kamal Shah & Rahmat Ali Khan - 2017 - Complexity 2017:1-9.
    We established the theory to coupled systems of multipoints boundary value problems of fractional order hybrid differential equations with nonlinear perturbations of second type involving Caputo fractional derivative. The proposed problem is as follows:D cαxt-ft,xt=gt,yt,Iαyt,t∈J=[0,1],D cαyt-ft,yt=gt,xt,Iαxt,t∈J=0,1,D cpx0=ψxη1,x′0=0,…,xn-20=0,D cpx1=ψxη2,D cpy0=ψyη1,y′0=0,…,yn-20=0,D cpy1=ψyη2, wherep,η1,η2∈0,1,ψis linear,D cαis Caputo fractional derivative of orderα, withn-1<α≤n,n∈N, andIαis fractional integral of orderα. The nonlinear functionsf,gare continuous. For obtaining sufficient conditions on existence and uniqueness of positive solutions to the above system, we used the technique of topological degree theory. (...)
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  42.  90
    Teaching & Learning Guide For: The Aesthetics of Nature.Glenn Parsons - 2008 - Philosophy Compass 3 (5):1106-1112.
    Traditionally, analytic philosophers writing on aesthetics have given short shrift to nature. The last thirty years, however, have seen a steady growth of interest in this area. The essays and books now available cover central philosophical issues concerning the nature of the aesthetic and the existence of norms for aesthetic judgement. They also intersect with important issues in environmental philosophy. More recent contributions have opened up new topics, such as the relationship between natural sound and music, the beauty of animals, (...)
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  43. Supersizing the Mind: Embodiment, Action, and Cognitive Extension.Andy Clark (ed.) - 2008 - Oxford University Press.
  44.  22
    Surfing Uncertainty: Prediction, Action, and the Embodied Mind.Andy Clark - 2016 - Oxford University Press USA.
    How is it that thoroughly physical material beings such as ourselves can think, dream, feel, create and understand ideas, theories and concepts? How does mere matter give rise to all these non-material mental states, including consciousness itself? An answer to this central question of our existence is emerging at the busy intersection of neuroscience, psychology, artificial intelligence, and robotics.In this groundbreaking work, philosopher and cognitive scientist Andy Clark explores exciting new theories from these fields that reveal minds like ours (...)
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  45. Disputing About Taste.Andy Egan - 2010 - In Ted Warfield & Richard Feldman (eds.), Disagreement. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 247-286.
    “There’s no disputing about taste.” That’s got a nice ring to it, but it’s not quite the ring of truth. While there’s definitely something right about the aphorism – there’s a reason why it is, after all, an aphorism, and why its utterance tends to produce so much nodding of heads and muttering of “just so” and “yes, quite” – it’s surprisingly difficult to put one’s finger on just what the truth in the neighborhood is, exactly. One thing that’s pretty (...)
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  46. Duty and the Beast: Should We Eat Meat in the Name of Animal Rights?Andy Lamey - 2019 - Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    The moral status of animals is a subject of controversy both within and beyond academic philosophy, especially regarding the question of whether and when it is ethical to eat meat. A commitment to animal rights and related notions of animal protection is often thought to entail a plant-based diet, but recent philosophical work challenges this view by arguing that, even if animals warrant a high degree of moral standing, we are permitted - or even obliged - to eat meat. (...) Lamey provides critical analysis of past and present dialogues surrounding animal rights, discussing topics including plant agriculture, animal cognition, and in vitro meat. He documents the trend toward a new kind of omnivorism that justifies meat-eating within a framework of animal protection, and evaluates for the first time which forms of this new omnivorism can be ethically justified, providing crucial guidance for philosophers as well as researchers in culture and agriculture. (shrink)
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  47. Being There: Putting Brain, Body, and World Together Again.Andy Clark - 1997 - MIT Press.
    In treating cognition as problem solving, Andy Clark suggests, we may often abstract too far from the very body and world in which our brains evolved to guide...
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  48.  27
    Explaining Behaviour: Reasons in a World of Causes.Andy Clark - 1990 - Philosophical Quarterly 40 (158):95-102.
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  49.  40
    Being There: Putting Brain, Body, and World Together Again.Andy Clark - 1996 - MIT Press.
    In Being There, Andy Clark weaves these several threads into a pleasing whole and goes on to address foundational questions concerning the new tools and..
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  50. Epistemic Modals in Context.Andy Egan, John Hawthorne & Brian Weatherson - 2005 - In Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds.), Contextualism in Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 131-170.
    A very simple contextualist treatment of a sentence containing an epistemic modal, e.g. a might be F, is that it is true iff for all the contextually salient community knows, a is F. It is widely agreed that the simple theory will not work in some cases, but the counterexamples produced so far seem amenable to a more complicated contextualist theory. We argue, however, that no contextualist theory can capture the evaluations speakers naturally make of sentences containing epistemic modals. If (...)
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