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Profile: Arto Laitinen (University of Tampere)
  1. Arto Laitinen, Heikki Ikäheimo &Amp.
    This book focuses on the connections between two contemporary, intensively debated fields of inquiry: Hegel-inspired theories of recognition (Anerkennung)i and analytical social ontologyii. The aim of the collection is to make philosophical progress by bringing together the substantially overlapping but in practice so far mostly isolated debates in these fields. If recognition has social ontological significance, as it seems to have, how does taking this seriously fit with the analyses put forward in contemporary social ontology (or, as it is sometimes (...)
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  2. Hartmut Rosa & Arto Laitinen, Interview.
    HR/AL: Professor Taylor, what are you working on these days? CT: Well, several things. One of the things I am working on is something I was lecturing this fall at the New School University, and that I have called ‘modern social imaginaries’. It is an attempt to understand western modernity in terms of the different ways in which people imagine their social existence. These imaginaries are a condition for new kinds of practices that are characteristic of modernity. This research is (...)
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  3. Arto Laitinen, A Critique of Charles Taylor's Notions of “Moral Sources” and “Constitutive Goods”.
    In this paper I argue that moral realism does not, pace Charles Taylor, need “moral sources” or “constitutive goods”, and adding these concepts distorts the basic insights of what can be called “cultural” moral realism.1 Yet the ideas of “moral topography” or “moral space” as well as the idea of “ontological background pictures” are valid, if separated from those notions. What does Taylor mean by these notions?
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  4. Arto Laitinen, Analyzing Recognition: Identification, Acknowledgement and Recognitive Attitudes Towards Persons.
    There is today a wide consensus that ‘recognition’ is something that we need a clear grasp of in order to understand the dynamics of political struggles, and, perhaps the constitution and dynamics of social reality more generally. Yet, the discussions on ‘recognition’ have so far often been conceptually rather inexplicit, in the sense that the very key concepts have remained largely unexplicated or undefined. Since the English word ‘recognition’ is far from unambiguous, it is possible, and to our mind also (...)
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  5. Arto Laitinen, Culturalist Moral Realism.
    In this paper I defend a ‘culturalist’ but nevertheless non-relativistic moral theory, taking Charles Taylor’s writings on this topic as my guide.1 Taylor is a realist concerning natural sciences, the ontology of persons and the ontology of goods (or meanings, significances or values). Yet, his realisms in these three areas differ significantly from one another, and therefore one has to be careful not to presuppose too rigid views of what realism must be like. Taylor’s moral realism can be called culturalist, (...)
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  6. Arto Laitinen, Charles Taylor and Paul Ricoeur on Self-Interpretations and Narrative Identity.
    In this chapter I discuss Charles Taylor's and Paul Ricoeur's theories of narrative identity and narratives as a central form of self-interpretation.1 Both Taylor and Ricoeur think that self-identity is a matter of culturally and socially mediated self-definitions, which are practically relevant for one's orientation in life.2 First, I will go through various characterisations that Ricoeur gives of his theory, and try to show to what extent they also apply to Taylor's theory. Then, I will analyse more closely Charles Taylor's, (...)
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  7. Arto Laitinen, Discussion.
    In the introduction to his Philosophical Papers 1&2 Charles Taylor assures us that his work, while encompassing a range of issues, follows a single, tightly knit agenda. He claims that the central questions concern "philosophical anthropology". Taylor's work on these questions has been presented piecemeal, in the form of articles and papers, and the student has had to imagine what a systematic monograph by Taylor on philosophical anthropology would look like. Neither Hegel, Sources of the Self, Ethics of Authenticity, Catholic (...)
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  8. Arto Laitinen, Strong Evaluations and Personal Identity.
    This paper examines Charles Taylor’s claim that personal identity is a matter of strong evaluations. Strong evaluations are in this paper analyzed as stable preferences, which are strongly identified with and which are based on qualitative distinctions concerning the non-instrumental value of options. In discussing the role of strong evaluations in personal identity, the focus is on "self-identity", not on the criteria of personhood or on the logical relation of identity. Two senses of self-identity can be distinguished: identity as practical (...)
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  9. Arto Laitinen, Sorting Out Aspects of Personhood.
    This paper examines how three central aspects of personhood — the capacities of individuals, their normative status, and the social aspect of being recognized — are related, and how personhood depends on them. The paper defends first of all a ‘basic view’that while actual recognition is among the constitutive elements of full personhood, it is the individual capacities (and not full personhood) which ground the basic moral and normative demands concerning treatment of persons. Actual recognition depends analyti- cally on such (...)
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  10. Arto Laitinen, Today and Tomorrow.
    The Philosophy Now series promises to combine rigorous analysis with authoritative expositions. Ruth Abbey’s book lives up to this demand by being a clear, reliable and more than up-to-date introduction to Charles Taylor’s philosophy. Although it is an introductory book, the amount of footnotes and references ought to please those who want to study the original texts more closely. Abbey’s book is structured thematically: morality, selfhood, politics and epistemology get 50 pages each. The focus is on the internal coherence of (...)
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  11. Arto Laitinen (forthcoming). Oikeus toimia väärin. Ajatus.
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  12. Arto Laitinen (2014). Against Representations with Two Directions of Fit. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 13 (1):179-199.
    The idea that there are representations with a double direction of fit has acquired a pride of place in contemporary debates on the ontology of institutions. This paper will argue against the very idea of anything at all having both directions of fit. There is a simple problem which has thus far gone unnoticed. The suggestion that there are representations with both directions of fit amounts to a suggestion that, in cases of discrepancy between a representation and the world, both (...)
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  13. Arto Laitinen (2012). Misrecognition, Misrecognition, and Fallibility. Res Publica 18 (1):25-38.
    Misrecognition from other individuals and social institutions is by its dynamic or ‘logic’ such that it can lead to distorted relations-to-self, such as self-hatred, and can truncate the development of the central capabilities of persons. Thus it is worth trying to shed light on how mis recognition differs from adequate recognition, and on how mis recognition might differ from other kinds of mistreatment and disregard. This paper suggests that mis recognition (including nonrecognition) is a matter of inadequate responsiveness to the (...)
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  14. Heikki Ikäheimo & Arto Laitinen (eds.) (2011). Recognition and Social Ontology. Brill.
    This unique collection examines the connections between two complementary approaches to philosophical social theory: Hegel-inspired theories of recognition (Anerkennung), and analytical social ontology.
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  15. Arto Laitinen (2011). Paul Ricoeur's Surprising Take on Recognition. Études Ricoeuriennes / Ricoeur Studies 2 (1):35-50.
    This essay examines Paul Ricœur’s views on recognition in his book The Course of Recognition . It highlights those aspects that are in some sense surprising, in relation to his previous publications and the general debates on Hegelian Anerkennung and the politics of recognition. After an overview of Ricœur’s book, the paper examines the meaning of “recognition” in Ricœur’s own proposal, in the dictionaries Ricœur uses, and in the contemporary debates. Then it takes a closer look at the ideas of (...)
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  16. Arto Laitinen (2010). Maeve Cooke, Re-Presenting the Good Society (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006), Hardback, Isbn 0-262-03347-X, 264 Pages, $35.00. [REVIEW] Critical Horizons 8 (2).
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  17. Arto Laitinen (2010). Charles Taylor, a Secular Age. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 13 (3):353-355.
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  18. Arto Laitinen (2010). Seen to Be Done: The Roots and Fruits of Public Equality. [REVIEW] Res Publica 16 (1):83-88.
    What is the ethical basis for democracy? What reasons do we have to go along with democratic decisions even when we disagree with them? When can we justly ignore democratic decisions? These three questions are intimately connected: understanding what is ultimately important about democracy helps us to understand the authority of democratic decisions over our personal views, and the limits of such authority. Thomas Christiano’s ambitious new book, The Constitution of Equality, aims to provide such an understanding through a discussion (...)
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  19. Arto Laitinen & Constantine Sandis (eds.) (2010). Hegel on Action. Palgrave Macmillan.
    This volume focuses on Hegel's philosophy of action in connection to current concerns. Including key papers by Charles Taylor, Alasdair MacIntyre, and John McDowell, as well as eleven especially commissioned contributions by leading scholars in the field, it aims to readdress the dialogue between Hegel and contemporary philosophy of action. Topics include: the nature of action, reasons and causes; explanation and justification of action; social and narrative aspects of agency; the inner and the outer; the relation between intention, planning, and (...)
     
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  20. Arto Laitinen & Constantine Sandis (2010). Introduction : Hegel and Contemporary Philosophy of Action. In Arto Laitinen & Constantine Sandis (eds.), Hegel on Action. Palgrave Macmillan.
    The aim of this book is to provide an in-depth account of Hegel’s writings on human action as they relate to contemporary concerns in the hope that it will encourage fruitful dialogue between Hegel scholars and those working in the philosophy of action. During the past two decades, preliminary steps towards such a dialogue were taken, but many paths remain uncharted. The book thus serves as both a summative document of past interaction and a promissory note of things to come. (...)
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  21. Arto Laitinen (2009). Recognition, Needs and Wrongness Two Approaches. European Journal of Political Theory 8 (1):13-30.
    `Due recognition is a vital human need', argues Charles Taylor. In this article I explore this oft-quoted claim from two complementary and equally appealing perspectives. The bottom—up approach is constructed around Axel Honneth's theory of recognition, and the top—down approach is exemplified by T. M. Scanlon's brief remarks about mutual recognition. The former can be summed up in the slogan `wronging by misrecognizing', the latter in the slogan `misrecognizing by wronging'. Together they provide two complementary readings of the claim that (...)
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  22. Frederick Neuhouser, Jay Bernstein, Michael Quante, Ludwig Siep, Terry Pinkard, Daniel Brudney, Andreas Wildt, Nancy Fraser, Axel Honneth, Emmanuel Renault, Hans-Christoph Schmidt am Busch, Jean-Philippe Deranty & Arto Laitinen (2009). The Philosophy of Recognition: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. Lexington Books.
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  23. Nicholas H. Smith & Arto Laitinen (2009). Taylor on Solidarity. Thesis Eleven 99 (1):48-70.
    After characterizing Taylor’s general approach to the problems of solidarity, we distinguish and reconstruct three contexts of solidarity in which this approach is developed: the civic, the socio-economic, and the moral. We argue that Taylor’s distinctive move in each of these contexts of solidarity is to claim that the relationship at stake poses normatively justified demands, which are motivationally demanding, but insufficiently motivating on their own. On Taylor’s conception, we need some understanding of extra motivational sources which explain why people (...)
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  24. Arto Laitinen (2007). Dimensions of Personhood. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (5-6):6-16.
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  25. Arto Laitinen (2007). Personales Leben Und Menschlicher Tod: Personale Identität Als Prinzip der Biomedizinischen Ethik, by Michael Quante. [REVIEW] European Journal of Philosophy 15 (2):306–313.
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  26. Arto Laitinen (2007). Re-Presenting the Good Society. Critical Horizons 8 (2):263-266.
     
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  27. Arto Laitinen (2007). Sorting Out Aspects of Personhood:Capacities, Normativity and Recognition. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (s 5-6):248-270.
    This paper examines how three central aspects of personhood -- the capacities of individuals, their normative status, and the social aspect of being recognized -- are related, and how personhood depends on them. The paper defends first of all a 'basic view' that while actual recognition is among the constitutive elements of full personhood, it is the individual capacities (and not full personhood) which ground the basic moral and normative demands concerning treatment of persons. Actual recognition depends analytically on such (...)
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  28. Arto Laitinen (2006). Interpersonal Recognition and Responsiveness to Relevant Differences. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 9 (1):47-70.
    This essay defends a three-dimensional response-model theory of recognition of persons, and discusses the related phenomenon of recognition of reasons, values and principles. The theory is three-dimensional in endorsing recognition of the equality of persons and two kinds of relevant differences: merits and special relationships. It defends a ‘response-model’ which holds that adequacy of recognition of persons is a matter of adequate responsiveness to situation-specific reasons and requirements. This three-dimen- sional response-model is compared to Peter Jones’s view, which draws the (...)
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  29. Arto Laitinen (2004). Hegel on Intersubjective and Retrospective Determination of Intention. Bulletin of the Hegel Society of Great Britain 49 (50):54-72.
     
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  30. Arto Laitinen, Social Equality, Recognition, and Preconditions of Good Life. Social Inequality Today.
    In this paper I analyze interpersonal and institutional recognition and discuss the relation of different types of recognition to various principles of social justice (egalitarianism, meritarianism, legitimate favouritism, principles of need and free exchange). Further, I try to characterize contours of good autonomous life, and ask what kind of preconditions it has. I will distinguish between five kinds of preconditions: psychological, material, cultural, intersubjective and institutional. After examining what the role of recognition is among such preconditions, and how they figure (...)
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  31. Arto Laitinen (2002). Interpersonal Recognition: A Response to Value or a Precondition of Personhood? Inquiry 45 (4):463 – 478.
    This article suggests first that the concept of interpersonal recognition be understood in a multidimensional (as opposed to one-dimensional), practical (as opposed to symbolic), and strict (as opposed to broad) way. Second, it is argued that due recognition be seen as a reason-governed response to evaluative features, rather than all normativity and reasons being seen as generated by recognition. This can be called a response-model, or, more precisely, a value-based model of due recognition. A further suggestion is that there is (...)
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  32. Arto Laitinen & Nicholas Hugh Smith (2002). Perspectives on the Philosophy of Charles Taylor. Acta Philosophica Fennica.
    The essays in this volume offer a range of new perspectives on Charles Taylor's philosophy. Part one addresses key metaphilosophical themes such as the role of transcendental arguments, the critique of representationalism, and the dialectics of Enlightenment. Part two critically examines Taylor's views on personhood, selfhood and interpersonal recognition. Part three discusses issues in Taylor's moral and political theory, including the nature of his moral realism, his theory of modernity, and his critical appropriation of the liberal tradition. The book concludes (...)
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