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Malcolm Forster [23]Malcolm R. Forster [19]Michael N. Forster [15]Michael Forster [14]
M. Forster [2]M. C. Forster [1]M. N. Forster [1]Margaret Forster [1]

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Profile: Malcolm Forster (University of Wisconsin, Madison)
Profile: Michael Förster (Handelshochschule Leipzig (HHL))
  1. Marc Forster, Monster�s Ball.
    There is a vacuum in three generations of the Grotowski men�s lives�this becomes clear within the film�s first ten minutes. First Hank (Billy Bob Thornton) wakes alone in the middle of the night, vomits for no apparent reason, and makes a ritual trip to a lonely diner. Next Hank�s boy Sonny (Heath Ledger) perfunctorily screws a prostitute who�after they have finished�tells him "you look so sad." Finally, Buck�the eldest played by Peter Boyle�wanders through the house sucking breath from an (...)
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  2. Michael N. Forster, Herder's Importance As a Philosopher.
    Herder has been sufficiently neglected in recent times, especially among philosophers, to need a few words of introduction. He lived 1744-1803; he was a favorite student of Kant's, and a student and friend of Hamann's; he became a mentor to the young Goethe, on whose development he exercised a profound influence; and he worked, among other things, as a philosopher, literary critic, Bible scholar, and translator. As I mentioned, Herder has been especially neglected by philosophers (with two notable (...)
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  3. Malcolm Forster, Chapter 1: An Introduction to Philosophy of Science.
    Deductive logic is about the validity of arguments. An argument is valid when its conclusion follows deductively from its premises. Here’s an example: If Alice is guilty then Bob is guilty, and Alice is guilty. Therefore, Bob is guilty. The validity of the argument has nothing to do with what the argument is about. It has nothing to do with the meaning, or content, of the argument beyond the meaning of logical phrases such as if…then. Thus, any argument of the (...)
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  4. Malcolm Forster, Chapter 3: Simplicity and Unification in Model Selection.
    This chapter examines four solutions to the problem of many models, and finds some fault or limitation with all of them except the last. The first is the naïve empiricist view that best model is the one that best fits the data. The second is based on Popper’s falsificationism. The third approach is to compare models on the basis of some kind of trade off between fit and simplicity. The fourth is the most powerful: Cross validation testing.
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  5. Malcolm Forster, Chapter 2: Theories, Models, and Curves.
    The distinction itself is best explained as follows. At the empirical level (at the bottom), there are curves, or functions, or laws, such as PV = constant the Boyle’s example, or a = M/r 2 in Newton’s example. The first point is that such formulae are actually ambiguous as to the hypotheses they represent. They can be understood in two ways. In order to make this point clear, let me first introduce a terminological distinction between variables and parameters. Acceleration and (...)
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  6. Malcolm Forster, Discussion: Unification and Predictive Accuracy.
    Wayne Myrvold (2003) has captured an important feature of unified theories, and he has done so in Bayesian terms. What is not clear is whether the virtue of such unification is most clearly understood in terms of Bayesian confirmation. I argue that the virtue of such unification is better understood in terms of other truth-related virtues such as predictive accuracy.
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  7. Malcolm Forster, Many Kinds of Confirmation.
    Type 1: This process occurs for half of the population. For this segment of the population, there is 10% chance of developing the disease. There is a test for the disease such that 90% of the people who have the disease in this case will test positive (event E), while the false positive rate is 10%, which means that there is a 10% chance of testing positive for the disease when they do not have the disease.
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  8. Malcolm Forster, Percolation: An Easy Example of Renormalization.
    Kenneth Wilson won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1982 for applying renormalization group, which he learnt from quantum field theory (QFT), to problems in statistical physics—the induced magnetization of materials (ferromagnetism) and the evaporation and condensation of fluids (phase transitions). See Wilson (1983). The renormalization group got its name from its early applications in QFT. There, it appeared to be a rather ad hoc method of subtracting away unwanted infinities. The further allegation was that the procedure is so horrendously (...)
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  9. Malcolm Forster, Philosophy of the Quantitative Sciences.
    Deductive logic is about the property of arguments called validity. An argument has this property when its conclusion follows deductively from its premises. Here’s an example: If Alice is guilty then Bob is guilty, and Alice is guilty. Therefore, Bob is guilty. The important point is that the validity of this argument has nothing to do with the content of the argument. Any argument of the following form (called modus ponens) is valid: If P then Q, and P, therefore Q. (...)
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  10. Malcolm Forster, The Asymmetry Between Backwards and Forwards Regression.
    Suppose that the true structural equation is Y = X + U, where U is n(0,1), X is n(0,1), and X and U µ be the mean of X, y µ the mean of Y, x σ the standard deviation of are independent. Now let x..
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  11. Malcolm Forster, The Evolution of Inference.
    A and B in signaling games (Lewis 1969). Members of the population, such as our prehistoric pair, are occasionally faced with the following ‘game’. Let one of the players be the receiver and the other the sender. The receiver needs to know whether B is true or not, but only possesses information about whether A is true or not. In some environmental contexts, A is sufficient for B, in others it is not. The sender knows nothing about A or B, (...)
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  12. Malcolm Forster, The Einsteinian Prediction of the Precession of Mercury's Perihelion.
    Puzzle solving in normal science involves a process of accommodation—auxiliary assumptions are changed, and parameter values are adjusted so as to eliminate the known discrepancies with the data. Accommodation is often contrasted with prediction. Predictions happen when one achieves a good fit with novel data without accommodation. So, what exactly is the distinction, and why is it important? The distinction, as I understand it, is relative to a model M and a data set D, where M is a set of (...)
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  13. Malcolm Forster, The Whewell-Mill Debate in a Nutshell.
    What is induction? John Stuart Mill (1874, p. 208) defined induction as the operation of discovering and proving general propositions. William Whewell (in Butts, 1989, p. 266) agrees with Mill’s definition as far as it goes. Is Whewell therefore assenting to the standard concept of induction, which talks of inferring a generalization of the form “All As are Bs” from the premise that “All observed As are Bs”? Does Whewell agree, to use Mill’s example, that inferring “All humans are mortal” (...)
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  14. Malcolm Forster, Unification and Evidence.
    The Value of Good Illustrative Examples: In order to speak as generally as possible about science, philosophers of science have traditionally formulated their theses in terms of elementary logic and elementary probability theory. They often point to real scientific examples without explaining them in detail and/or use artificial examples that fail to fit with intricacies of real examples. Sometimes their illustrative examples are chosen to fit their framework, rather than the science. Frequently these are non-scientific examples, which distances the discussion (...)
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  15. Malcolm Forster, William Whewell (1794-1866).
    Whewell, William (b Lancaster, England, 24 May 1794; d Cambridge, England, 6 March 1866) Born the eldest son of a carpenter, William Whewell rose to become Master of Trinity College, Cambridge and a central figure in Victorian science. After attending the grammar school at Heversham in Westmorland, Whewell entered Trinity College, Cambridge and graduated Second Wrangler. He became a Fellow of the College in 1817, took his M.A. degree in 1819, and his D.D. degree in 1844.
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  16. Michael Forster, Das Geistige Tierreich.
    Der Titel meines Vortrags bezieht sich nicht auf heftige Auseinandersetzungen in der heutigen Hegelrezeption, sondern auf den gleichnamigen Abschnitt der Phänomenologie des Geistes von 1807: “Das geistige Tierreich und der Betrug oder die Sache selbst.” Dieser verhältnismäßig wenig beachtete und womöglich noch weniger verstandene Abschnitt ist meines Erachtens einer der wichtigsten im ganzen Buch. Ich möchte deshalb heute versuchen seine Bedeutung etwas aufzuklären.
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  17. Michael Forster, Hegelian Vs. Kantian Interpretations of Pyrrhonism: Revolution or Reaction?
    This paper concerns a surprisingly sharp disagreement about the nature of ancient Pyrrhonism which first emerges clearly in Kant and Hegel, but which continues in contemporary interpretations. The paper begins by explaining the character of this disagreement, then attempts to adjudicate it in the light of the ancient texts.
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  18. Michael Forster, The Liberal Temper in Classical German Philosophy: Freedom of Thought and Expression.
    Consideration of the German philosophy and political history of the past century might well give the impression, and often does give foreign observers the impression, that liberalism, including in particular commitment to the ideal of free thought and expression, is only skin-deep in Germany. Were not Heidegger's disgust at Gerede (which of course really meant the free speech of the Weimar Republic) and Gadamer's defense of "prejudice" and "tradition" more reflective of the true instincts of German philosophy than, say, the (...)
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  19. Prasanta S. Bandyopadhyay & Malcolm Forster (eds.) (forthcoming). Handbook of the Philosophy of Statistics. Elsevier.
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  20. Prasanta S. Bandyopadhyay & Malcolm Forster (eds.) (forthcoming). Philosophy of Statistics, Handbook of the Philosophy of Science, Volume 7. Elsevier.
  21. Malcolm R. Forster, I. A. Kieseppä, Dan Hausman, Alexei Krioukov, Stephen Leeds, Alan Macdonald & Larry Shapiro (forthcoming). The Conceptual Role of 'Temperature'in Statistical Mechanics: Or How Probabilistic Averages Maximize Predictive Accuracy. Philosophy of Science.
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  22. Michael Forster & Kristin Gjesdal (eds.) (forthcoming). Oxford Handbook of German Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century. Oxford University Press.
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  23. Kristin Gjesdal & Michael Forster (eds.) (forthcoming). The Oxford Handbook of 19th Century Philosophy. oxford University Press.
     
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  24. M. N. Forster (2013). The German Historicist Tradition, by Frederick C. Beiser. Mind 122 (485):257-262.
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  25. Michael N. Forster (2012). Kant's Philosophy of Language? Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 74 (3):485.
  26. Malcolm R. Forster (2011). Scientific Evidence. In Steven French & Juha Saatsi (eds.), Continuum Companion to the Philosophy of Science. Continuum. 179.
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  27. Michael N. Forster (2011). German Philosophy of Language: From Schlegel to Hegel and Beyond. Oxford University Press.
    This book not only sets the historical record straight but also champions the Herderian tradition for its philosophical depth and breadth.
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  28. Michael N. Forster (2011). Herder's Philosophy of Language, Interpretation, and Translation. Review of Metaphysics 56 (2):323-356.
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  29. Michael Forster & Wolfgang Welsch (2011). The Continuity of Evolution and the Special Character of Humans: Concluding Overview. In. In Welsch Wolfgang, Singer Wolf & Wunder Andre (eds.), Interdisciplinary Anthropology. Springer. 157--169.
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  30. Malcolm R. Forster (2010). Miraculous Consilience of Quantum Mechanics. In. In Ellery Eells & James Fetzer (eds.), The Place of Probability in Science. Springer. 201--228.
  31. Michael Forster (2010). Wittgenstein on Family Resemblance Concepts. In Arif Ahmed (ed.), Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press.
     
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  32. Michael N. Forster (2010). After Herder: Philosophy of Language in the German Tradition. Oxford University Press.
    In the course of developing these historical points, this book also shows that Herder and his tradition are in many ways superior to dominant trends in more ...
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  33. Margaret Forster, Tim Loughran & Bill McDonald (2009). Commonality in Codes of Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 90 (2):129 - 139.
    We create a database of company codes of ethics from firms listed on the Standard & Poor's 500 Index and, separately, a sample of small firms. The SEC believes that "ethics codes do, and should, vary from company to company." Using textual analysis techniques, we measure the extent of commonality across the documents. We find substantial levels of common sentences used by the firms, including a few cases where the codes of ethics are essentially identical. We consider these results in (...)
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  34. Michael Forster (2009). Kant and Skepticism. Princeton University Press.
    This book puts forward a much-needed reappraisal of Immanuel Kant's conception of and response to skepticism, as set forth principally in the Critique of Pure Reason.
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  35. Michael N. Forster (2009). A Wittgensteian Anti-Platonism. The Harvard Review of Philosophy 16 (1):58-85.
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  36. Michael Forster, Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  37. Michael Forster, Johann Gottfried Von Herder. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  38. Cristina Bicchieri, Jason McKenzie Alexander, Kevin T. Kelly, Kevin Js Zollman, Malcolm R. Forster, Predrag Šustar, Patrick Forber, Kenneth Reisman, Jay Odenbaugh & Yoichi Ishida (2007). 10. Philosophy of Chemistry. Philosophy of Science 74 (5).
     
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  39. Malcolm Forster (2007). A Philosopher's Guide to Empirical Success. Philosophy of Science 74 (5):588-600.
    The simple question, what is empirical success? turns out to have a surprisingly complicated answer. We need to distinguish between meritorious fit and ‘fudged fit', which is akin to the distinction between prediction and accommodation. The final proposal is that empirical success emerges in a theory dependent way from the agreement of independent measurements of theoretically postulated quantities. Implications for realism and Bayesianism are discussed. ‡This paper was written when I was a visiting fellow at the Center for Philosophy of (...)
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  40. Michael Forster (2007). Hermeneutics. In Brian Leiter & Michael Rosen (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Continental Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    For the purpose of this article, "hermeneutics" means the theory of interpretation, i.e. the theory of achieving an understanding of texts, utterances, and so on (it does not mean a certain twentieth-century philosophical movement). Hermeneutics in this sense has a long history, reaching back at least as far as ancient Greece. However, new focus was brought to bear on it in the modern period, in the wake of the Reformation with its displacement of responsibility for interpreting the Bible from the (...)
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  41. Michael Forster (2007). Socrates' Profession of Ignorance. Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 32:1-35.
     
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  42. Michael N. Forster (2007). Menschen und andere Tiere. Über das Verhältnis von Mensch und Tier bei Tomasello. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 55 (5):761-767.
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  43. Malcolm Forster (2006). Ellery Eells, 1953-2006. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 80 (2):108 - 109.
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  44. Malcolm R. Forster (2006). Counterexamples to a Likelihood Theory of Evidence. Minds and Machines 16 (3):319-338.
    The likelihood theory of evidence (LTE) says, roughly, that all the information relevant to the bearing of data on hypotheses (or models) is contained in the likelihoods. There exist counterexamples in which one can tell which of two hypotheses is true from the full data, but not from the likelihoods alone. These examples suggest that some forms of scientific reasoning, such as the consilience of inductions (Whewell, 1858. In Novum organon renovatum (Part II of the 3rd ed.). The philosophy of (...)
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  45. Michael Forster (2006). Socratic Refutation. Rhizai. A Journal for Ancient Philosophy and Science 1:7-57.
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  46. Michael N. Forster (2006). Socrates' Demand for Definitions. Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 31:1-47.
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  47. Michael N. Forster (2005). Schleiermacher's Hermeneutics. The Harvard Review of Philosophy 13 (1):100-122.
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  48. Michael N. Forster (2005). Wittgenstein on the Arbitrariness of Grammar. Princeton University Press.
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  49. Malcolm Forster (2004). The Debate Between Whewell and Mill on the Nature of Scientific Induction. In Dov M. Gabbay, John Woods & Akihiro Kanamori (eds.), Handbook of the History of Logic. Elsevier. 10--93.
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  50. Malcolm R. Forster & Alexey Kryukov (2003). The Emergence of the Macroworld: A Study of Intertheory Relations in Classical and Quantum Mechanics. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1039-1051.
    Classical mechanics is empirically successful because the probabilistic mean values of quantum mechanical observables follow the classical equations of motion to a good approximation (Messiah 1970, 215). We examine this claim for the one‐dimensional motion of a particle in a box, and extend the idea by deriving a special case of the ideal gas law in terms of the mean value of a generalized force used to define “pressure.” The examples illustrate the importance of probabilistic averaging as a method of (...)
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