The cognitive unbinding paradigm suggests that the synthesis of neural information is attenuated by general anesthesia. Here, we analyzed the functional organization of brain activities in the conscious and anesthetized states, based on functional segregation and integration. Electroencephalography recordings were obtained from 14 subjects undergoing induction of general anesthesia with propofol. We quantified changes in mean information integration capacity in each band of the EEG. After induction with propofol, mean information integration capacity was reduced most prominently in the γ band (...) of the EEG . Furthermore, we demonstrate that loss of consciousness is reflected by the breakdown of the spatiotemporal organization of γ waves. We conclude that induction of general anesthesia with propofol reduces the capacity for information integration in the brain. These data directly support the information integration theory of consciousness and the cognitive unbinding paradigm of general anesthesia. (shrink)
Frontoparietal connectivity has been suggested to be important in conscious processing and its interruption is thought to be one mechanism of general anesthesia. Data in animals demonstrate that feedforward processing of information may persist during the anesthetized state, while feedback processing is inhibited. We investigated the directionality and functional organization of frontoparietal connectivity in 10 human subjects anesthetized with propofol on two separate occasions. Multichannel electroencephalography and a computational method of assessing directed functional connectivity were employed. We demonstrate that directed (...) feedback connectivity is diminished with loss of consciousness and returns with responsiveness to verbal command. We also applied the Dendrogram classification method to assess the global organization of directed functional connectivity during consciousness and anesthesia. We demonstrate a state-specific hierarchy and subject-specific subhierarchy in functional organization. These data support the hypothesis that specific states of human consciousness are defined by specific states of frontoparietal connectivity. (shrink)
BackgroundThis study aimed to identify the healthcare providers’ experience and perspectives toward end-of-life care decisions focusing on end-of-life discussion and physician’s order of life-sustaining treatment documentation in Korea which are major parts of the Life-Sustaining Treatment Act.MethodsA cross-sectional survey was conducted using a questionnaire developed by the authors. A total of 474 subjects—94 attending physicians, 87 resident physicians, and 293 nurses—participated in the survey, and the data analysis was performed in terms of frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation using the (...) SPSS 24.0 program.ResultsStudy results showed that respondents were aware of terminal illness and physician’s order of life-sustaining treatment in Korea well enough except for some details. Physicians reported uncertainty in terminal state diagnosis and disease trajectory as the most challenging. Study participants regarded factors (related to relationships and communications) on the healthcare providers’ side as the major impediment to end-of-life discussion. Study respondents suggested that simplification of the process and more staff are required to facilitate end-of-life discussion and documentation.ConclusionBased on the study results, adequate education and training for better end-of-life discussion are required for future practice. Also, a simple and clear procedure for completing a physician’s order of life-sustaining treatment in Korea should be prepared and legal and ethical advice would be required. Since the enactment of the Life-Sustaining Treatment Act, several revisions already have been made including disease categories, thus continuous education to update and support clinicians is also called for. (shrink)
This paper deals with the sudden change in the mood, themes and style of Korean literature in the 1990s, which was brought on by the inauguration of the first civilian government in three decades and the lifting of the oppressive shadow of military dictatorship. Under military dictatorship, serious Korean writers all felt obligated to be the conscience of the nation, so the emphasis of their works tended to be on social and political injustice and the lives of the exploited workers (...) or helpless and powerless citizens. Their tone, therefore, was that of harsh protest. However, with the demise of military dictatorship, Korean writers felt free to focus on personal relationships and the inner psyche. Shin Kyoung-suuk and Choi Yoon are just two among the many new talents who emerged in the Korean literary scene since the end of the 1980s. They awakened the deep-seated repression of the Korean psyche and fueled the exuberance of psychic liberation. (shrink)
Abstract This study was designed to investigate the factors affecting ethical practices of public relations professionals in public relations firms. In particular, the following organizational ethics factors were examined: (1) presence of ethics code, (2) top management support for ethical practice, (3) ethical climate, and (4) perception of the association between career success and ethical practice. Analysis revealed that the presence of an ethics code along with top management support and a non-egoistic ethical climate within public relations firms significantly influenced (...) public relations professionals' ethical practices. Content Type Journal Article Category Original Paper Pages 1-19 DOI 10.1007/s13520-011-0013-1 Authors Eyun-Jung Ki, Department of Advertising and Public Relations, College of Communication and Information Sciences, The University of Alabama, Box 870172, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0172, USA Junghyuk Lee, Division of Communication Arts, Kwangwoon University, Seoul, South Korea Hong-Lim Choi, School of Communication, Sun Moon University, 100, Kalsan-ri, Tangjeong-myeon, Asan-si, Chungnam 336-708, South Korea Journal Asian Journal of Business Ethics Online ISSN 2210-6731 Print ISSN 2210-6723. (shrink)
Our competitive, service-oriented societies are taking a toll on the late-modern individual. Rather than improving life, multitasking, "user-friendly" technology, and the culture of convenience are producing disorders that range from depression to attention deficit disorder to borderline personality disorder. Byung-Chul Han interprets the spreading malaise as an inability to manage negative experiences in an age characterized by excessive positivity and the universal availability of people and goods. Stress and exhaustion are not just personal experiences, but social and historical phenomena (...) as well. Denouncing a world in which every against-the-grain response can lead to further disempowerment, he draws on literature, philosophy, and the social and natural sciences to explore the stakes of sacrificing intermittent intellectual reflection for constant neural connection. (shrink)
Western thinking has long been dominated by essence, by a preoccupation with that which dwells in itself and delimits itself from the other. By contrast, Far Eastern thought is centred not on essence but on absence. The fundamental topos of Far Eastern thinking is not being but 'the way' (dao), which lacks the solidity and fixedness of essence. The difference between essence and absence is the difference between being and path, between dwelling and wandering. 'A Zen monk should be without (...) fixed abode, like the clouds, and without fixed support, like water', said the Japanese Zen master Dōgen. Drawing on this fundamental distinction between essence and absence, Byung-Chul Han explores the differences between Western and Far Eastern philosophy, aesthetics, architecture and art, shedding fresh light on a culture of absence that may at first sight appear strange and unfamiliar to those in the West whose ways of thinking have been shaped for centuries by the preoccupation with essence. (shrink)
Transparency is the order of the day. It is a term, a slogan, that dominates public discourse about corruption and freedom of information. Considered crucial to democracy, it touches our political and economic lives as well as our private lives. Anyone can obtain information about anything. Everything—and everyone—has become transparent: unveiled or exposed by the apparatuses that exert a kind of collective control over the post-capitalist world. Yet, transparency has a dark side that, ironically, has everything to do with a (...) lack of mystery, shadow, and nuance. Behind the apparent accessibility of knowledge lies the disappearance of privacy, homogenization, and the collapse of trust. The anxiety to accumulate ever more information does not necessarily produce more knowledge or faith. Technology creates the illusion of total containment and the constant monitoring of information, but what we lack is adequate interpretation of the information. In this manifesto, Byung-Chul Han denounces transparency as a false ideal, the strongest and most pernicious of our contemporary mythologies. (shrink)
Zen Buddhism is a form of Mahāyāna Buddhism that originated in China and is strongly focused on meditation. It is characteristically sceptical towards language and distrustful of conceptual thought, which explains why Zen Buddhist sayings are so enigmatic and succinct. But despite Zen Buddhism’s hostility towards theory and discourse, it is possible to reflect philosophically on Zen Buddhism and bring out its philosophical insights. In this short book, Byung-Chul Han seeks to unfold the philosophical force inherent in Zen Buddhism, (...) delving into the foundations of Far Eastern thought to which Zen Buddhism is indebted. Han does this comparatively by confronting and contrasting the insights of Zen Buddhism with the philosophies of Plato, Leibniz, Fichte, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Kierkegaard, Heidegger and others, showing that Zen Buddhism and Western philosophy have very different ways of understanding religion, subjectivity, emptiness, friendliness and death. This important work by one of the most widely read philosophers and cultural theorists of our time will be of great value to anyone interested in comparative philosophy and religion. (shrink)
Gracias a su escritura concisa, sin rodeos y amena, el filósofo surcoreano Byung-Chul Han expone una reflexión en torno al concepto de dolor en la actualidad. Esta obra asume un rasgo interesante en su composición y es el hecho de haber sido acabada y publicada en el transcurso de la pandemia de la covid-19 en su versión original en alemán. Aunque a través de los once breves apartados que componen la obra, Han entra en diálogo con pensadores contemporáneos como (...) Adorno, Heidegger, Nietzsche, Freud, Benjamin, Hegel y Levinas, entre otros, aparece un interlocutor, de principio a fin: se trata del filósofo alemán del siglo XX Ernst Jünger con su ensayo Sobre el dolor escrito en 1934. (shrink)
The Cold Moon occurs in late December, auguring the arrival of the winter sol stice. Approaching the winter solstice of his own life, Roger Rosenblatt offers a book dedicated to the three most important lessons he has learned over his many years: an appreciation of being alive, a recognition of the gift and power of love, and the necessity of excercising responsibility toward one another. Rosenblatt's poetic reflections on these vital life lessons offer a tonic for these perilous and (...) fearful times, and attest to the value of our very existence. Cold Moon: a book to offer purpose, to focus the attention on life's essentials, and to lift the spirit. (shrink)
Tento článek se zabývá kritickým shrnutím stěžejních myšlenek a úvah vyjádřených v knize Vyhořelá společnost. Autorem pěti esejů, jež tvoří tuto knihu, je německy píšící filozof pocházející z korejského Soulu Byung-Chul Han. Myšlenky tohoto autora jsou podrobně rozpracovány v eseji Společnost únavy, který byl do knihy logicky zařazen na první místo. Ústřední myšlenkou tohoto pojednání, a vlastně celého souboru autorových úvah, je stávající úbytek negativity, jenž obklopuje současného člověka a jenž ústí do přemíry pozitivity a vzniku společnosti výkonu. Výsledkem (...) této okolnosti je dle Hana fakt, že současný člověk se stává sám sobě vykořisťovatelem. Tento ústřední motiv dále rozvádí následující čtyři eseje. Autor článku se staví kriticky k některým Hanovým tezím a zároveň nachází paralely k Hanovým hlavním myšlenkám v díle Mít či být? Ericha Fromma. Autor především zpochybňuje Hanův konstrukt paradoxní svobody a rovněž rozporuje Hanem ohlašovaný konec virové epochy. (shrink)
The primary purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the dynamic capabilities embedded in ESG management, which are being pursued by global companies, and corporate performance amid increasing uncertainty. Furthermore, the secondary purpose is to examine the function of environmental uncertainty moderating the DCs-performance relationship. Concerning the analysis tool, this study employs topic modeling with Word2Vec embedding that analyzes unstructured data. This was employed as an alternative method beyond the limitations of the traditional approach, i.e., survey or (...) interview. A DCs dictionary was constructed by redesigning the 12 detailed dimensions of Teece’s DCs into 10 dimensions, and then time series scores of individual global companies were extracted by applying this dictionary to the sustainability reports of 97 companies. Sustainability reports of 153 companies among Fortune Global 500 companies announced in 2020 were originally collected, but in the process of collecting additional financial data about these companies from OSIRIS, a total of only 97 companies was selected in the end due to omission of data. A fixed effect panel analysis was conducted, and the main findings are as follows: First, the DCs embedded in ESG management have a positive or negative direct effect on corporate performance. In particular, a statistically significant relationship was not observed in the innovation oriented capabilities, whereas a statistically significant positive relationship was observed in the customer oriented capabilities. Second, uncertainty moderates the relationship between DCs and corporate performance positively or negatively. Interestingly, the moderating effect of uncertainty only appears in the function of the sensing and reconfiguring capabilities. From this, it can be seen that the function of DCs, which is embedded in the ESG management of global companies, is limited due to the imbalance between the sensing-seizing-reconfiguring capabilities. These findings imply that, despite the positive function of DCs embedded in ESG management, costs and benefits occur at the same time, and DCs can improve performance only if there is an organizational adaptation strategy suitable for uncertainty. Accordingly, business managers need to recognize the importance of pursuing sensing-seizing-reconfiguring capabilities in a balanced way to improve corporate performance through ESG management under uncertainty. (shrink)
The most famous korean Poet Jiha Kim had turned toward the thoughts for life in the beginning of eighties in Korea. I will here introduce the causes and the basis of his thoughts. It has been recognized already that Korean traditional philosophy of DongHak (the learning in the East Asia) and the western philosophies, ie the theology of liberation, the philosophy of Bergson or Deleuze had influenced much to his thoughts for life. But the most determinate basis of his thoughts, (...) I think is the experiences in the movements for democracy in Korea. His thoughts represent the dear believes which the mass have won since the seventies.These believes resides in the not exhausting life powers of the Minjung (Peoples repressed and alienated). His thoughts has succeed to the modern philosophy of democratic resistance but also criticised the severe problems of modern philosophies. After the democratic movement in Korea there has taken place the cultural revolution movements in Korea by new generations, which can not be adjoined to the previous democratic movements without the thoughts for life of Jiha Kim. (shrink)
This overview of the philosophy of certainty will distinguish two types of certainty, specify controversial theses about certainty from recent literature, and explain some of the arguments for and against those theses.
The Moon Points Back comprises essays by both established scholars in Buddhist and Western philosophy and young scholars contributing to cross-cultural philosophy. It continues the program of Pointing at the Moon, integrating the approaches and insights of contemporary logic and analytic philosophy along with those of Buddhist Studies in order to engage with Buddhist ideas in a contemporary voice.The essays in the volume focus on the Buddhist notion of emptiness, exploring its relationship to core philosophical issues concerning the (...) self, the nature of reality, logic, and epistemology. The volume closes with reflections on methodological issues raised by bringing together traditional Buddhist philosophy and contemporary analytic philosophy.The Moon Points Back demonstrates convincingly that integration of Buddhist philosophy with contemporary analytic philosophy and logic allows for novel understandings of and insights into Buddhist philosophical thought. It also shows how Buddhist philosophers can contribute to debates in contemporary Western philosophy and how contemporary philosophers and logicians can engage with Buddhist material. (shrink)
Outside directors’ regular board meeting attendance is important in improving the effectiveness of a governance system. Such attendance is evidence of their commitment to the firm as key other players in monitoring and decision making. Using a unique dataset for Korean firms, and three-level random coefficients models, we find that, foreign outside directors, an independent appointment process, professional knowledge of business operations and accumulated firm-specific knowledge are important factors that affect outside directors’ attendance of board meetings. The results also confirm (...) that both outside directors’ personal characteristics and the social context are crucial in understanding their board meeting attendance. Further analysis shows that a positive corporate environment that supports the outside director system encourages outside directors’ attendance at board meetings. (shrink)
Philosophers commonly say that beliefs come in degrees. Drawing from the literature, I make precise three arguments for this claim: an argument from degrees of confidence, an argument from degrees of firmness, and an argument from natural language. I show that they all fail. I also advance three arguments that beliefs do not come in degrees: an argument from natural language, an argument from intuition, and an argument from the metaphysics of degrees. On the basis of these arguments, I conclude (...) that beliefs do not come in degrees. (shrink)
In this paper, I present and defend a novel account of doubt. In Part 1, I make some preliminary observations about the nature of doubt. In Part 2, I introduce a new puzzle about the relationship between three psychological states: doubt, belief, and confidence. I present this puzzle because my account of doubt emerges as a possible solution to it. Lastly, in Part 3, I elaborate on and defend my account of doubt. Roughly, one has doubt if and only if (...) one believes one might be wrong; I argue that this is superior to the account that says that one has doubt if and only if one has less than the highest degree of confidence. (shrink)
In order to keep matters brief, I shall assume knowledge of my Mind paper and Sungho Choi’s paper printed before this brief response (Noordhof 1999; Choi 2002). Sungho Choi claims that the example I gave to motivate my formulation of the ‘actual events’ clause fails to motivate it and that the formulation, in fact, contains a redundant element, namely my appeal to supersets. I think he is right that my example doesn’t work. However, I think he is (...) wrong that the actual events clause contains a redundant element. The second case he discusses provides the motivation we need. (shrink)
This paper examines Choi Myeonggil’s understanding of the Daxue, based on the “Daehakgieui” 大學記疑 and “Daehakgwangyeon” 大學管見 where Choi’s view on the Daxue is well expressed. In the “Daehakgieui” Choi questions Zhu Xi’s Daxuezhangju system as well as his interpretation of the Daxue. In addition, the “Daehakgwangyeon” conveys Choi’s unique view on the Daxue. With an aim to elucidate the particular aspects of Choi’s understanding of the Daxue, this paper analyzes these two texts focusing on (...) two main subjects: the system of the Daxue and the philosophical discussions of the Daxue. Endorsing the system of the old text version of the Daxue, Choi Myeonggil criticizes Zhu Xi’s Daxuezhangju system and justifies his criticism by advancing reasoned arguments. Choi is in line with Wang Shouren in that he accepts the system of the old text version of the Daxue; however, Wang regards the old text version as the definitive edition whereas Choi considers that it is littered with flaws. Regarding the philosophical discussions of the Daxue, this paper examines four concepts formulated in the Daxue: sangangling 三綱領, zhizhi erhou youding 知止而后有定, gewu 格物, and chengyi 誠意. Choi raises objections to Zhu’s interpretation of these four concepts, and makes his own interpretation supported by logical evidence in challenging of Zhu’s. Through the above discussion, this paper demonstrates that Choi Myeonggil gained a systematic understanding of the Daxue in an independent and critical manner. At the time of Choi, it was virtually forbidden to present one’s original idea while defying Zhu Xi’s authority. Considering this oppressive academic atmosphere of the Joseon dynasty, Choi’s interpretation of the Daxue assumes profound significance in Korean history of thought of Confucian classics. (shrink)
En la recensión se presenta la obra de Byung-Chul Han, quien a través de una serie de comparaciones entre el budismo Zen y la filosofía moderna occidental pretende señalar la riqueza del pensamiento oriental y las posibilidades que brinda al desarrollo de la filosofía contemporánea.
Recensión de la obra de Byung-Chul Han "El aroma del tiempo", donde analiza la visión aceptada de una aceleración del tiempo moderno, a través de autores como Lyotard, Baudrillard o Arendt, señalando que, más que ésta, debe considerarse la pérdida de un fundamento, de un elemento ordenador del tiempo. De este modo, no se padece tanto una aceleración de los tiempos como una ausencia de sentido, de dirección, que posibilite así la experiencia de una duración.
The standardization of the display of intimacy implies that transparency is normalized in the information society. Social practices are bringing the idea of emancipation to the technological field. This carries significant but unquestioned socio-political expectations that are associated with powerful cybercompanies. Byung-Chul Han treats these issues in his political texts. He argues that transparency is a neoliberal device which does not help solve the problems of citizenship, and it even involves a “depoliticization”. My intention is to carry out a (...) critical review of his texts, and highlight their convergences with other authors dedicated to the philosophy of technology. (shrink)