The inconclusiveness of previous research on the association between gender diverse boards and corporate social performance has led us to revisit the question in light of stakeholder management and institutional theories. Given that corporate social responsibility is a multidimensional concept, we test the influence of GDB on various groups of stakeholders. By considering the interaction between stakeholders’ power and directors’ personal motivations toward the prioritization of stakeholders’ claims, we find that GDB are positively related to CSR dimensions that are related (...) to less powerful stakeholders such as the environment, contractors, and the community. However, GDB do not appear to have a significant impact on CSR dimensions that are associated with stakeholders who benefit from more institutionalized power, such as employees and customers. (shrink)
After decades of single issue movements and identity politics on the U.S. left, the series of large demonstrations beginning in 1999 in Seattle have led many to wonder if activist politics can now come together around a common theme of global justice. This book pursues the prospects for progressive political movements in the 21st century with case studies of ten representative movements, including the anti-globalization forces, environmental interest groups, and new takes on the peace movement.
Este artigo procura avaliar a contribuição de Claude Bernard para o desenvolvimento da psicologia experimental. Em oposição aos filósofos mentalistas tradicionais, Bernard concebeu a psicologia como um capítulo especial da fisiologia, que trata das funções do cérebro. A doutrina de Bernard sobre a natureza da psicologia é aqui considerada em relação com a obra de I. P. Pavlov, que exerceu grande influência no campo da psicologia experimental, e com o tipo de psicologia empírica desenvolvida por Théodule Ribot, na França, (...) imediatamente após a época de Bernard. (shrink)
RESUMO O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar, tomando por referência a filosofia de Henri Bergson e a fisiologia experimental de Claude Bernard, dois esforços análogos, ainda que sem relação direta em suas origens, em face de imperativos que se colocam ao sujeito do conhecimento que se ocupa da vida. Tentaremos mostrar, autorizados pelo próprio Bergson, no interior de determinada prática científica representada pela fisiologia experimental de Claude Bernard, uma atitude diante dos fatos orgânicos que não é o monopólio (...) de uma filosofia que se ocupa da verificação das condições e dos limites do conhecimento da vida, problemática que, na filosofia francesa do século XX, encontra em L’Évolution créatrice uma expressão incontornável. ABSTRACT The purpose of this article is to present, taking as reference Henri Bergson’s philosophy and Claude Bernard’s experimental physiology, two analogous efforts, despite a lack of direct relation in terms of their origins, resulting from some obligations posed to the subject of knowledge who takes life as a matter of theoretical analysis. Authorized by Bergson himself, we will try to show, within a scientific practice represented by Claude Bernard’s experimental physiology, an attitude towards organic facts that is not the monopoly of a philosophy which seeks to elucidate the conditions and limits of life knowledge, a theoretical problem which, in the twentieth century French philosophy finds in the Creative Evolution its essential expression. (shrink)
Husserl saw the Cartesian critique of scepticism as one of the eternal merits of Descartes’ philosophy. In doing so, he accepted the legitimacy of the very idea of a universal doubt, and sought to present as an alternative to it a renewed, specifically phenomenological concept of self-evidence, making it possible to obtain an unshakable foundation for the edifice of knowledge. This acceptance of the skeptical problem underlies his entire conceptual framework, both before and after the transcendental turn, and especially the (...) immanence/transcendence distinction, i.e., the very basis of intentionality. In taking as its starting point an analysis of perception, the article puts forth a certain number of phenomenological arguments in order to put into question the validity of the skeptical problem and, therefore, of the Husserlian conceptual framework; it defends, in the first place, a disjunctive conception of perception and, in the second place, a holism of experience. (shrink)
RESUMO: Tendo como eixo organizador o debate acerca da noção de direitos do homem e do cidadão e a eficácia destes no que se refere à luta política por novos direitos, o artigo investiga o caráter inovador da democracia moderna. Em sua abordagem do tema, C. Lefort combate três teses: a de que a defesa de direitos humanos universais representaria um perigo à política vigorosa, instituída em Estados benevolentes; a de que esses direitos seriam a expressão mais acabada da ideologia (...) do individualismo burguês e corresponderiam a formalidades vazias, cujo sentido seria apenas o de escamotear a violência social e sacralizar privilégios; e, por fim, a tese segundo a qual as instituições democráticas visariam somente a reproduzir as relações de propriedade e força vigentes no capitalismo e não permitiriam que as contradições sociais fossem expressas ou mesmo resolvidas no campo da política. Trata-se de retomar a filosofia política proposta por C. Lefort, a qual enfatiza o caráter inédito da democracia moderna, para então explicitar, contrariando tais críticas, a perspectiva histórica de luta por direitos aberta pela invenção democrática. ABSTRACT: Having as the central theme the debate about the notion of human and citizen rights and the effectiveness of these in relation to the political struggle for new rights, this article investigates the innovative character of modern democracy. In his approach to the subject, C. Lefort argues three theses: the idea that the defense of universal human rights represents a danger to vigorous politics in benevolent States; the thesis which says that these rights would be the most complete expression of the ideology of bourgeois individualism and correspond to empty formalities whose meaning would be simply to hide social violence and enshrine privileges; and, finally, the argument that democratic institutions would aim to only reproduce the property relations and forces existing in capitalism and not allow the expression of social contradictions or their resolution in the field of politics. The article reviews the political philosophy proposed by Lefort, which emphasizes the unprecedented nature of representative democracy, and then explains the historical perspective of struggle for rights opened by the democratic invention. (shrink)
A prolonged confrontation between Yahoo! Inc. and French activists who demand the removal of Nazi items from auction sites as well as restricted access to neo-Nazis sites is described and analyzed. We present the case up to the decision of Yahoo! Inc. to remove the items from yahoo.com following a French court's verdict against the firm. Using a business ethics approach, we distinguish legal, technical, philosophical and managerial issues involved in the case and their management by Yahoo! We conclude on (...) the difficulty of governing relations with society from corporate and legal affairs departments at the headquarters level, and on the clash of two visions over the regulation of social freedom. (shrink)