Results for 'Helen E. Ross'

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  1.  71
    Berkeley, helmholtz, the moon illusion, and two visual systems.Helen E. Ross - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (1):116-117.
    Berkeley and Helmholtz proposed different indirect mechanisms for size perception: Berkeley, that size was conditioned to various cues, independently of perceived distance; Helmholtz, that it was unconsciously calculated from angular size and perceived distance. The geometrical approach cannot explain size-distance paradoxes (e.g., moon illusion). The dorsal/ventral solution is dubious for close displays and untestable for far displays.
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  2.  42
    Neurological models of size scaling.Helen E. Ross - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (4):425-425.
    Lehar argues that a simple Neuron Doctrine cannot explain perceptual phenomena such as size constancy but he fails to discuss existing, more complex neurological models. Size models that rely purely on scaling for distance are sparse, but several models are also concerned with other aspects of size perception such as geometrical illusions, relative size, adaptation, perceptual learning, and size discrimination.
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  3.  33
    Unwarranted popularity of a power function for heaviness estimates.Helen E. Ross - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):159-160.
  4.  32
    Weight and mass as psychophysical attributes.Helen E. Ross - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):606-607.
    In terms of physics, mass is the fixed attribute of an object while weight varies with the accelerative force. Neither weight nor mass are simple sensory stimuli as both involve the integration of sensory and motor information with higher cognitive processes. Studies of apparent heaviness yield only vague information about sensorimotor mechanisms.
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  5.  19
    Active and passive head and body movements.Helen E. Ross - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (2):329-330.
  6.  28
    Foreshortening affects both uphill and downhill slope perception at far distances.Helen E. Ross - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (5):563-564.
    Perceived slope varies with the viewing distance, and is consistent with the effects of foreshortening. Distant viewing makes uphill slopes appear steeper and downhill slopes flatter than does near viewing. These effects are obvious to skiers and climbers in mountainous country. They have also been measured in outdoor experiments with controlled viewing distances. There are many other sources of slope illusions.
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  7.  73
    Introduction: Contexts for a Comparative Relativism.Casper Bruun Jensen, Barbara Herrnstein Smith, G. E. R. Lloyd, Martin Holbraad, Andreas Roepstorff, Isabelle Stengers, Helen Verran, Steven D. Brown, Brit Ross Winthereik, Marilyn Strathern, Bruce Kapferer, Annemarie Mol, Morten Axel Pedersen, Eduardo Viveiros de Castro, Matei Candea, Debbora Battaglia & Roy Wagner - 2011 - Common Knowledge 17 (1):1-12.
    This introduction to the Common Knowledge symposium titled “Comparative Relativism” outlines a variety of intellectual contexts where placing the unlikely companion terms comparison and relativism in conjunction offers analytical purchase. If comparison, in the most general sense, involves the investigation of discrete contexts in order to elucidate their similarities and differences, then relativism, as a tendency, stance, or working method, usually involves the assumption that contexts exhibit, or may exhibit, radically different, incomparable, or incommensurable traits. Comparative studies are required to (...)
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  8. New books. [REVIEW]C. D. Broad, G. Galloway, Godfrey H. Thomson, W. Leslie Mackenzie, G. A. Johnston, M. L., Arthur Robinson, A. E. Taylor, L. J. Russell, W. D. Ross, R. M. MacIver, Herbert W. Blunt, A. Wolf, Helen Wodehouse & B. Bosanquet - 1914 - Mind 23 (90):274-306.
  9.  17
    Signal and noise. Biological signal transduction (1991). Edited by E. M. Ross and K. W. A. Wirtz. Springer Verlag, Berlin. 540pp. DM 260. ISBN 3‐4 540‐51773‐1. [REVIEW]Helen Saibil - 1992 - Bioessays 14 (9):648-649.
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  10.  57
    I_— _Helen E. Longino.Helen E. Longino - 1997 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 71 (1):19-35.
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  11. Feminist epistemology as a local epistemology: Helen E. Longino.Helen E. Longino - 1997 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 71 (1):19–36.
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  12. Pornography, oppression, and freedom : a closer look.Helen E. Longino - 2009 - In Steven M. Cahn (ed.), Exploring ethics: an introductory anthology. New York: Oxford University Press.
  13. Evidence and hypothesis: An analysis of evidential relations.Helen E. Longino - 1979 - Philosophy of Science 46 (1):35-56.
    The subject of this essay is the dependence of evidential relations on background beliefs and assumptions. In Part I, two ways in which the relation between evidence and hypothesis is dependent on such assumptions are discussed and it is shown how in the context of appropriately differing background beliefs what is identifiable as the same state of affairs can be taken as evidence for conflicting hypotheses. The dependence of evidential relations on background beliefs is illustrated by discussions of the Michelson-Morley (...)
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  14. Science as Social Knowledge: Values and Objectivity in Scientific Inquiry.Helen E. Longino - 1990 - Princeton University Press.
  15.  24
    The Fate of Knowledge.Helen E. Longino - 2002 - Princeton University Press.
    Helen Longino seeks to break the current deadlock in the ongoing wars between philosophers of science and sociologists of science--academic battles founded on disagreement about the role of social forces in constructing scientific knowledge. While many philosophers of science downplay social forces, claiming that scientific knowledge is best considered as a product of cognitive processes, sociologists tend to argue that numerous noncognitive factors influence what scientists learn, how they package it, and how readily it is accepted. Underlying this disagreement, (...)
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  16.  83
    Studying Human Behavior: How Scientists Investigate Aggression and Sexuality.Helen E. Longino - 2013 - University of Chicago Press.
    In Studying Human Behavior, Helen E. Longino enters into the complexities of human behavioral research, a domain still dominated by the age-old debate of “nature versus nurture.” Rather than supporting one side or another or attempting..
  17. The Fate of Knowledge.Helen E. Longino - 2001 - Princeton University Press.
    "--Richard Grandy, Rice University "This is the first compelling diagnosis of what has gone awry in the raging 'science wars.
  18. What's Social about Social Epistemology?Helen E. Longino - 2022 - Journal of Philosophy 119 (4):169-195.
    Much work performed under the banner of social epistemology still centers the problems of the individual cognitive agent. AU distinguishes multiple senses of "social," some of which are more social than others, and argues that different senses are at work in various contributions to social epistemology. Drawing on work in history and philosophy of science and addressing the literature on testimony and disagreement in particular, this paper argues for a more thoroughgoing approach in social epistemology.
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  19.  51
    Feminism and Philosophy: Perspectives on Difference and Equality.Helen E. Longino & Moira Gatens - 1993 - Philosophical Review 102 (3):405.
    Summarizes author’s contextual empiricism and uses it to analyze the difference between neuro-endocrinological accounts of presumed behavioral sex differences and neuro-selectionist accounts. Contextual empiricism is a philosophical approach that both shows how feminist critique works in the sciences and makes a contribution to general philosophy of science.
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  20. Reply to Philip Kitcher.Helen E. Longino - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (4):573-577.
  21. Gender, politics, and the theoretical virtues.Helen E. Longino - 1995 - Synthese 104 (3):383 - 397.
    Traits like simplicity and explanatory power have traditionally been treated as values internal to the sciences, constitutive rather than contextual. As such they are cognitive virtues. This essay contrasts a traditional set of such virtues with a set of alternative virtues drawn from feminist writings about the sciences. In certain theoretical contexts, the only reasons for preferring a traditional or an alternative virtue are socio-political. This undermines the notion that the traditional virtues can be considered purely cognitive.
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  22.  59
    Culture theorizing past and present: trends and challenges.Helen E. R. Vandenberg - 2010 - Nursing Philosophy 11 (4):238-249.
    Over the past several decades, nurses have been increasingly theorizing about the relationships between culture, health, and nursing practice. This culture theorizing has changed over time and has recently been subject to much critical examination. The purpose of this paper is to identify the challenges impeding nurses' ability to build theory about the relationships between culture and health. Through a historical overview, I argue that continued support for the essentialist view of culture can maintain a limited view of complex race (...)
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  23. Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Values in Science: Rethinking the Dichotomy.Helen E. Longino - 1996 - In Lynn Hankinson Nelson & Jack Nelson (eds.), Feminism, Science, and the Philosophy of Science. pp. 39--58.
    Underdetermination arguments support the conclusion that no amount of empirical data can uniquely determine theory choice. The full content of a theory outreaches those elements of it (the observational elements) that can be shown to be true (or in agreement with actual observations).2 A number of strategies have been developed to minimize the threat such arguments pose to our aspirations to scientific knowledge. I want to focus on one such strategy: the invocation of additional criteria drawn from a pool of (...)
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  24. Conceptual structure.Helen E. Moss, Lorraine K. Tyler & Taylor & I. Kirsten - 2009 - In Gareth Gaskell (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Psycholinguistics. Oxford University Press.
     
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  25.  65
    Inferring.Helen E. Longino - 1978 - Philosophy Research Archives 4:17-26.
    This paper is a discussion of the nature of inferring and focusses on the relation between reasons for belief and causes of belief. Two standard approaches to the analysis of inference, the epistemological and the psychological, are identified and discussed. While both approaches incorporate insights concerning, inference, counterexamples show that neither provides by itself an adequate account. A third account is developed and recommended on the grounds that it encompasses the essential insights of the rejected analyses while being immune to (...)
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  26. Can There Be A Feminist Science?Helen E. Longino - 1987 - Hypatia 2 (3):51 - 64.
    This paper explores a number of recent proposals regarding "feminist science" and rejects a content-based approach in favor of a process-based approach to characterizing feminist science. Philosophy of science can yield models of scientific reasoning that illuminate the interaction between cultural values and ideology and scientific inquiry. While we can use these models to expose masculine and other forms of bias, we can also use them to defend the introduction of assumptions grounded in feminist political values.
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  27. In Search Of Feminist Epistemology.Helen E. Longino - 1994 - The Monist 77 (4):472-485.
    The proposal of anything like a feminist epistemology has, I think, two sources. Feminist scholars have demonstrated how the scientific cards have been stacked against women for centuries. Given that the sciences are taken as the epitome of knowledge and rationality in modern Western societies, the game looks desperate unless some ways of knowing different from those that have validated misogyny and gynephobia can be found. Can we know the world without hating ourselves? This is one of the questions at (...)
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  28.  79
    Comments on science and social responsibility: A role for philosophy of science?Helen E. Longino - 1997 - Philosophy of Science 64 (4):179.
    Each of the three papers offers a different model for the role philosophers of science might play in consideration of the relations of science to society. These comments address common themes in the three papers, articulate further questions for each, and suggest some historical shifts that require different forms of philosophical engagement now than in the early part of the century.
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  29. How values can be good for science.Helen E. Longino - 2004 - In Peter K. Machamer & Gereon Wolters (eds.), Science, Values, and Objectivity. University of Pittsburgh Press. pp. 127--142.
  30.  67
    Intense, Passionate, Romantic Love: A Natural Addiction? How the Fields That Investigate Romance and Substance Abuse Can Inform Each Other.Helen E. Fisher, Xiaomeng Xu, Arthur Aron & Lucy L. Brown - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
  31.  84
    What Do We Measure When We Measure Aggression?Helen E. Longino - 2001 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 32 (4):685-704.
    Biological research on aggression is increasingly consulted for possible answers to the social problems of crime and violence. This paper reviews some contrasting approaches to the biological understanding of behavior—behavioral genetic, social-environmental, physiological, developmental—as a prelude to arguing that approaches to aggression are beset by vagueness and imprecision in their definitions and disunity in their measurement strategies. This vagueness and disunity undermines attempts to compare and evaluate the different approaches empirically. Nevertheless, the definitions reveal commitments to particular metaphysical views concerning (...)
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  32.  50
    Feminist Epistemology.Helen E. Longino - 1999 - In John Greco & Ernest Sosa (eds.), The Blackwell Guide to Epistemology. Malden, Mass.: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 325–353.
    Feminist epistemology is both a paradox and a necessity. Epistemology is a highly general inquiry – into the meaning of knowledge claims and attributions, into conditions for the possibility of knowledge, into the nature of truth and justification, and so on. Feminism is a family of positions and inquiries characterized by some common sociopolitical interests centering on the abolition of sexual and gender inequality. What possible relation could there be between these two sets of activity? Furthermore, feminist inquiry results in (...)
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  33. Science and the Common Good: Thoughts on Philip Kitcher’s S cience, Truth, and Democracy.Helen E. Longino - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (4):560-568.
    In Science, Truth, and Democracy, Philip Kitcher develops the notion of well-ordered science: scientific inquiry whose research agenda and applications are subject to public control guided by democratic deliberation. Kitcher's primary departure from his earlier views involves rejecting the idea that there is any single standard of scientific significance. The context-dependence of scientific significance opens up many normative issues to philosophical investigation and to resolution through democratic processes. Although some readers will feel Kitcher has not moved far enough from earlier (...)
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  34. Lucy Hutchinson (1620-1681).Sarah C. E. Ross - 2023 - In Marnie Hughes-Warrington & Daniel Woolf (eds.), History from loss: a global introduction to histories written from defeat, colonization, exile and imprisonment. New York: Routledge.
     
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  35.  69
    Biological effects of low level radiation: Values, dose-response models, risk estimates.Helen E. Longino - 1989 - Synthese 81 (3):391 - 404.
    Predictions about the health risks of low level radiation combine two sorts of measures. One estimates the amount and kinds of radiation released into the environment, and the other estimates the adverse health effects. A new field called health physics integrates and applies nuclear physics to cytology to supply both these estimates. It does so by first determining the kinds of effects different types of radiation produce in biological organisms, and second, by monitoring the extent of these effects produced by (...)
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  36. Feminism and philosophy of science.Helen E. Longino - 1990 - Journal of Social Philosophy 21 (2-3):150-159.
  37.  52
    What Can She Know?: Feminist Theory and the Construction of Knowledge.Helen E. Longino - 1994 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 54 (2):495-496.
  38.  59
    Interpretation Versus Explanation in the Critique of Science.Helen E. Longino - 1997 - Science in Context 10 (1):113-128.
  39.  44
    Gender, sexuality research, and the flight from complexity.Helen E. Longino - 1994 - Metaphilosophy 25 (4):285-292.
    Research on sexual orientation attempts to reduce it to a monocausal phenomenon, whether that be biology (genes, hormones) or social environment (parenting patterns). None of these fully accounts for the diversity of erotic attraction and behavior, and indeed these reductionist strategies either misrepresent many forms of sexual behavior or erase them from our ontology. Understanding is better served by first acknowledging the variety of roles of sexual interaction in human life, rather than treating sex as a single kind of phenomenon.
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  40. Chapter 12. Lucy Hutchinson.Sarah C. E. Ross - 2023 - In Marnie Hughes-Warrington & Daniel Woolf (eds.), History from loss: a global introduction to histories written from defeat, colonization, exile and imprisonment. New York: Routledge.
     
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  41. Human Inference: Strategies and Shortcomings of Social Judgment.Richard E. Nisbett & Lee Ross - 1980 - Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall.
  42.  74
    Lust, attraction, and attachment in mammalian reproduction.Helen E. Fisher - 1998 - Human Nature 9 (1):23-52.
    This paper proposes that mammals exhibit three primary emotion categories for mating and reproduction: (1) the sex drive, or lust, characterized by the craving for sexual gratification; (2) attraction, characterized by increased energy and focused attention on one or more potential mates, accompanied in humans by feelings of exhilaration, “intrusive thinking” about a mate, and the craving for emotional union with this mate or potential mate; and (3) attachment, characterized by the maintenance of close social contact in mammals, accompanied in (...)
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  43.  20
    Disciplines of Education: Their Role in the Future of Education Research. Edited by John Furlong and Martin Lawn.Helen E. Lees - 2012 - British Journal of Educational Studies 60 (1):109-110.
  44.  23
    Overcoming ethical barriers to research.Helen E. Machin & Steven M. Shardlow - 2018 - Research Ethics 14 (3):1-9.
    Researchers engaged in studies about ‘hidden social groups’ are likely to face several ethical challenges. Using a study with undocumented Chinese migrants in the UK, challenges involved in obtaining approval by a university research ethics committee are explored. General guidance about how to resolve potential research ethics issues, with particular reference to ‘hidden social groups’, prior to submission to a research ethics committee is presented.
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  45. Navigating the Social Turn in Philosophy of Science.Helen E. Longino - 2009 - Filozofia 64 (4):312-323.
    Over the last three decades the role of social values in science has been the topic issue in the disputes of the philosophers of science against the representatives of science studies. Due to the key status of sciences in developed countries and societies it is necessary, so the author, not only to acknowledge, that cognitive and epistemic practices have their social dimensions, but also to make the practices of the research communities themselves open for critical examination from different perspectives. In (...)
     
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  46.  49
    Data, Please.Helen E. Longino - 2013 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 3 (1):144-146.
    A call for serious study of the status of women in the philosophy of science subfield, study that goes beyond simple demographic data to more sophisticated bibliometric data that looks at inclusion in textbooks, citation patterns, the history of topic and idea attribution, etc.
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  47.  20
    Evidence in the sciences of behavior.Helen E. Longino - 2005 - In Peter Achinstein (ed.), Scientific Evidence: Philosophical Theories & Applications. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  48.  38
    What's Really Wrong with Quantitative Risk Assessment?Helen E. Longino - 1986 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:376 - 383.
    Quantitative risk assessment suffers from a variety of problems--some internal and others external. Dale Hattis proposes that the problems of risk assessment can be cured by the development of risk assessment theory. I agree that theory can help address some of the internal problems, such as the failure to date to take the interaction of hazardous substances with other substances in the environment into account. I argue that the external problems such as the manipulation of inherent uncertainties by the politically (...)
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  49. A world of books.Helen E. Haines - 1975 - In Barbara McCrimmon (ed.), American library philosophy: an anthology. Hamden, Conn.: Shoe String Press. pp. 141--9.
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  50. Norms and naturalism: Comments on Miriam Solomon's social empiricism.Helen E. Longino - 2008 - Perspectives on Science 16 (3):pp. 241-245.
    Miriam Solomon's social empiricism is marked by emphasis on community level rationality in science and the refusal to impose a distinction between the epistemic and the non-epistemic character of factors ("decision vectors") that incline scientists for or against a theory. While she attempts to derive some norms from the analysis of cases, her insistent naturalism undermines her effort to articulate norms for the (appropriate) distribution of decision vectors.
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