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Tomis Kapitan [85]Tomis Everett Kapitan [1]
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Tomis Kapitan
Indiana University, Bloomington (PhD)
  1. Can Terrorism Be Justified?Tomis Kapitan - unknown
    My concern today is with the last of these questions. But, it is virtually impossible to say anything intelligent about this matter unless some effort is made to delineate the phenomenon under scrutiny. So I will begin by addressing the first question, and this requires that something be said about the semantics and pragmatics of the terms, ‘terrorism’ and ‘terrorist’.
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  2.  46
    Oratio Obliqua, Oratio Recta: An Essay on Metarepresentation.Tomis Kapitan - 2002 - Philosophical Review 111 (3):459-462.
    François Recanati describes a metarepresentation as a representation of linguistic and mental representations. Two levels of content are involved, that of a metarepresentation dS, and that of the object representation S. According to Recanati’s “iconicity thesis,” dS contains S semantically as well as syntactically, so that one cannot entertain dS without also entertaining S. Iconicity “suggests” the doctrine of semantic innocence, whereby an embedded object-representation has the same content it would have when uttered in isolation—its “normal” semantic value—and one of (...)
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  3. A Master Argument for Incompatibilism?Tomis Kapitan - 2002 - In Robert H. Kane (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Free Will. Oxford University Press. pp. 127--157.
    The past 25 years have witnessed a vigorous discussion of an argument directed against the compatibilist approach to free will and responsibility. This reasoning, variously called the “consequence argument,” the “incompatibility argument,” and the “unavoidability argument,” may be expressed informally as follows: If determinism is true then whatever happens is a consequence of past events and laws over which we have no control and which we are unable to prevent. But whatever is a consequence of what’s beyond our control is (...)
     
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  4. Deliberation and the Presumption of Open Alternatives.Tomis Kapitan - 1986 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 40 (April):230-51.
    By deliberation we understand practical reasoning with an end in view of choosing some course of action. Integral to it is the agent's sense of alternative possibilities, that is, of two or more courses of action he presumes are open for him to undertake or not. Such acts may not actually be open in the sense that the deliberator would do them were he to so intend, but it is evident that he assumes each to be so. One deliberates only (...)
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  5. Evaluating Religion.Tomis Kapitan - 2009 - In Jonathan L. Kvanvig (ed.), Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion: Volume 2. Oxford University Press.
    This paper examines the nature of religion. A definition of religion is proposed, and a major rival interpretation -- that of John Hick -- is examined and rejected. It is then explained how religions can be evaluated.
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  6.  49
    Peirce and the Autonomy of Abductive Reasoning.Tomis Kapitan - 1992 - Erkenntnis 37 (1):1 - 26.
    Essential to Peirce's distinction among three kinds of reasoning, deduction, induction and abduction, is the claim that each is correlated to a unique species of validity irreducible to that of the others. In particular, abductive validity cannot be analyzed in either deductive or inductive terms, a consequence of considerable importance for the logical and epistemological scrutiny of scientific methods. But when the full structure of abductive argumentation — as viewed by the mature Peirce — is clarified, every inferential step in (...)
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  7.  92
    Autonomy and Manipulated Freedom.Tomis Kapitan - 2000 - Philosopical Perspectives 14 (s14):81-104.
    In recent years, compatibilism has been the target of two powerful challenges. According to the consequence argument, if everything we do and think is a consequence of factors beyond our control (past events and the laws of nature), and the consequences of what is beyond our control are themselves beyond our control, then no one has control over what they do or think and no one is responsible for anything. Hence, determinism rules out responsibility. A different challenge--here called the manipulation (...)
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  8.  14
    Action, Intention, and Reason.Tomis Kapitan - 1995 - Philosophical Review 104 (2):308.
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  9.  6
    Deliberation and the Presumption of Open Alternatives.Tomis Kapitan - 1986 - Philosophical Quarterly 36 (143):230.
  10.  16
    Indexical Duality: A Fregean Theory.Tomis Kapitan - 2016 - Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia 7 (3):303-320.
    : Frege’s remarks about the first-person pronoun in Der Gedanke have elicited numerous commentaries, but his insight has not been fully appreciated or developed. Commentators have overlooked Frege’s reasons for claiming that there are two distinct first-person senses, and failed to realize that his remarks easily generalize to all indexicals. I present a perspectival theory of indexicals inspired by Frege’s claim that all indexical types have a dual meaning which, in turn, leads to a duality of senses expressed by indexical (...)
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  11. Agency and Omniscience.Tomis Kapitan - 1991 - Religious Studies 27 (1):105-120.
    It is said that faith in a divine agent is partly an attitude of trust; believers typically find assurance in the conception of a divine being's will, and cherish confidence in its capacity to implement its intentions and plans. Yet, there would be little point in trusting in the will of any being without assuming its ability to both act and know, and perhaps it is only by assuming divine omniscience that one can retain the confidence in the efficacy and (...)
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  12.  11
    The Logic of Common Nouns: An Investigation in Quantified Modal Logic.Tomis Kapitan - 1984 - Noûs 18 (1):166-173.
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  13.  56
    Direct Reference. [REVIEW]Tomis Kapitan - 1996 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 56 (4):953-956.
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  14. The Ubiquity of Self-Awareness.Tomis Kapitan - 1999 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 57 (1):17-43.
    Two claims have been prominent in recent discussion of self-consciousness. One is that first-person reference or first-person thinking is irreducible {Irreducibility Thesis), and the other is that awareness of self accompanies at least all those conscious states through which one refers to something. The latter {Ubiquity Thesis) has long been associated with philosophers like Fichte, Brentano and Sartre, but recently variants have been defended by D. Henrich and M. Frank. Facing criticism from three arguments which nevertheless cannot decisively refute the (...)
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  15.  91
    Action, Uncertainty, and Divine Impotence.Tomis Kapitan - 1990 - Analysis 50 (2):127 - 133.
  16. Terror.Tomis Kapitan - unknown
    Any intelligent discussion of terrorism must demarcate its subject matter, for the term ‘terrorism’ is differently understood and where there is no accord on its meaning there is little chance for agreement on its application or normative status. The best course is to sketch a morally neutral definition that classifies as ‘terrorist’ as many widely-agreed upon cases as possible. Definitions that explicitly render terrorism illegitimate make classification contentious, and it is more informative to base moral assessment on an examination of (...)
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  17.  29
    Doxastic Freedom: A Compatibilist Alternative.Tomis Kapitan - 1989 - American Philosophical Quarterly 26 (1):31-41.
  18.  42
    Review Essay: Thinking, Language and Experience. [REVIEW]Tomis Kapitan - 1992 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 52 (1):203.
  19. Self-Determination and International Order.Tomis Kapitan - 2006 - The Monist 89 (2):356-370.
    Towards the end of the first world war, a “principle of self-determination” was proposed as a foundation for international order. In the words of its chief advocate, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, it specified that the “settlement of every question, whether of territory, of sovereignty, of economic arrangement, or of political relationship” is to be made “upon the basis of the free acceptance of that settlement by the people immediately concerned and not upon the basis of the material interest or advantage (...)
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  20.  76
    Indexicality and Self-Awareness.Tomis Kapitan - 2006 - In Uriah Kriegel & Kenneth Williford (eds.), Self-Representational Approaches to Consciousness. MIT Press. pp. 379--408.
    Self-awareness is commonly expressed by means of indexical expressions, primarily, first- person pronouns like.
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  21.  2
    Egological Ubiquity.Tomis Kapitan - 2019 - ProtoSociology 36:516-531.
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  22. On Depicting Indexical Reference.Tomis Kapitan - unknown
    According to Hector-Neri Castañeda, indexical reference is our most basic means of identifying the objects and events we experience and think about. Its tokens reveal our own part in the process by denoting what are "referred to as items present in experience" (Castañeda 1981, 285-6). If you hear me say, "Take that box over there and set it next to this box here," you learn something about my orientation towards the referents in a way that is not conveyed by, "Take (...)
     
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  23.  67
    Indexical Identification: A Perspectival Account.Tomis Kapitan - 2001 - Philosophical Psychology 14 (3):293 – 312.
    It is widely agreed that the references of indexical expressions are fixed partly by their relations to contextual parameters such as the author, time, and place of the utterance. Because of this, indexicals are sometimes described as token-reflexive or utterance-reflexive in their semantics. But when we inquire into how indexicals help us to identify items within experience, we find that while utterance-reflexivity is essential to an interpretation of indexical tokens, it is not a factor in a speaker's identificatory use of (...)
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  24. The Terrorism of 'Terrorism'.Tomis Kapitan - 2003 - In James Sterba (ed.), Terrorism and International Justice. Oxford University Press. pp. 47--66.
     
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  25.  30
    In What Way Is Abductive Inference Creative?Tomis Kapitan - 1990 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 26 (4):499 - 512.
  26.  43
    Modal Principles in the Metaphysics of Free Will.Tomis Kapitan - 1996 - Philosophical Perspectives 10:419-45.
    Discussions of free will have frequently centered on principles concerning ability, control, unavoidability and other practical modalities. Some assert the closure of the latter over various propositional operations and relations, for example, that the consequences of what is beyond one's control are themselves beyond one's control.1 This principle has been featured in the unavoidability argument for incompatibilism: if everything we do is determined by factors which are not under our control, then, by the principle, we are unable to act and (...)
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  27.  12
    Responsibility and Free ChoiceAn Essay on Free Will.Tomis Kapitan & Peter van Inwagen - 1986 - Noûs 20 (2):241.
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  28.  20
    The Incompatibility of Omniscience and Intentional Action: A Reply to David P. Hunt: Tomis Kapitan.Tomis Kapitan - 1994 - Religious Studies 30 (1):55-66.
    In ‘Omniprescient Agency’ David P. Hunt challenges an argument against the possibility of an omniscient agent. The argument – my own in ‘Agency and Omniscience’ – assumes that an agent is a being capable of intentional action, where, minimally, an action is intentional only if it is caused, in part, by the agent's intending. The latter, I claimed, is governed by a psychological principle of ‘least effort’, namely, that no one intends without antecedently feeling that deliberate effort is needed to (...)
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  29.  71
    I and You, He* and She.Tomis Kapitan - 1992 - Analysis 52 (2):125-128.
    In 'You and She*' (ANALYSIS 51.3, June 1991) C.J.F. Williams notes the importance of reflexive pronouns in attributions of propositional attitudes, and claims to improve upon an earlier account of Hector-Neri Castaneda's in [1]. However, to the extent which his remarks are accurate, they reveal nothing that Castaneda hasn't already said, while insofar as they are new, they obliterate distinctions vital to Castaneda's theory. Castaneda called these pronouns quasi-indicators and noted that they function as linguistic devices used for attributing indexical (...)
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  30.  78
    Ability and Cognition: A Defense of Compatibilism.Tomis Kapitan - 1991 - Philosophical Studies 63 (August):231-43.
    The use of predicate and sentential operators to express the practical modalities -- ability, control, openness, etc. -- has given new life to a fatalistic argument against determinist theories of responsible agency. A familiar version employs the following principle: the consequences of what is unavoidable (beyond one's control) are themselves unavoidable. Accordingly, if determinism is true, whatever happens is the consequence of events in the remote past, or, of such events together with the laws of nature. But laws and the (...)
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  31. Self-Determination.Tomis Kapitan - unknown
    Disputes over territory are among the most contentious in human affairs. Throughout the world, societies view control over land and resources as necessary to ensure their survival and to further their particular life-style, and the very passion with which claims over a region are asserted and defended suggests that difficult normative issues lurk nearby. Questions about rights to territory vary. It is one thing to ask who owns a particular parcel of land, another who has the right to reside within (...)
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  32.  9
    Freedom and Belief.Tomis Kapitan - 1990 - Noûs 24 (5):807-810.
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  33. Terrorism.Tomis Kapitan - unknown
    Terrorism, as a form of politically motivated violence, is as ancient as organized warfare itself, emerging as soon as one society, pitted against another in the quest for land, resources, or domination, was moved by a desire for vengeance or found advantages in military operations against noncombatants or other ‘soft’ targets. It is sanctioned and glorified in holy scriptures and has been part of the genesis of states and the expansion of empires from the inception of recorded history. The United (...)
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  34.  43
    On the Concept of Material Consequence.Tomis Kapitan - 1982 - History and Philosophy of Logic 3 (2):193-211.
    Everyday reasoning is replete with arguments which, though not logically valid, nonetheless harbor a measure of credibility in their own right. Here the claim that such arguments force us to acknowledge material validity, in addition to logical validity, is advanced, and criteria that attempt to unpack this concept are examined in detail. Of special concern is the effort to model these criteria on explications of logical validity that rely on notions of substitutivity and logical form. It is argued, however, that (...)
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  35. Autonomy and Manipulated Freedom.Tomis Kapitan - 2000 - Noûs 34 (s14):81-103.
  36.  28
    Intentions and Self-Referential Content.Tomis Kapitan - 1995 - Philosophical Papers 24 (3):151-166.
  37.  44
    Acting and the Open Future: A Brief Rejoinder to David Hunt.Tomis Kapitan - 1997 - Religious Studies 33 (3):287-292.
    I have argued that since (i) intentional agency requires intention-acquisition, (ii) intentionacquisition implies a sense of an open future, and (iii) a sense of an open future is incompatible with complete foreknowledge, then (iv) no agent can be omniscient. Alternatively, an omniscient being is omniimpotent.i David Hunt continues to oppose this reasoning, most recently, in Religious Studies 32 (March 1996). It is increasingly clear that the debate turns on larger issues concerning necessity and knowledge, but let me here offer a (...)
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  38.  41
    The Incompatibility of Omniscience and Intentional Action: A Reply to David P. Hunt.Tomis Kapitan - 1994 - Religious Studies 30 (1):55 - 66.
    In "Omniprescient Agency" (Religious Studies 28, 1992) David P. Hunt challenges an argument against the possibility of an omniscient agent. The argument—my own in "Agency and Omniscience" (Religious Studies 27, 1991)—assumes that an agent is a being capable of intentional action, where, minimally, an action is intentional only if it is caused, in part, by the agent's intending. The latter, I claimed, is governed by a psychological principle of "least effort," viz., that no one intends without antecedently feeling that (i) (...)
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  39.  34
    Devine on Defining Religion.Tomis Kapitan - 1989 - Faith and Philosophy 6 (2):207-214.
    Philip E. Devine has presented insightful proposals for defining religion in his essay “On the Definition of Religion” (Faith and Philosophy, July 1986). But despite his illuminating discussion, particularly the treatment of borderline cases, his account fails to distinguish religion as a process or goal-oriented activity from religion as a body of doctrine, and is mistaken (or perhaps unclear) in its proposal that religion per se is committed to the existence of superhuman agents. These deficiencies are exposed herein, and a (...)
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  40. The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Philosophical Essays on Self-Determination, Terrorirsm, and the One-State Solution.Raja Halwani & Tomis Kapitan - 2008 - Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
    The book contains four chapters, each dealing with a central topic to the conflict: self-determination (by Kapitan), the right of return of Palestinian refugees (by Halwani), terrorism (by Kapitan), and the one-state solution (by Halwani).
     
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  41.  1
    The Effectiveness of Causes.Tomis Kapitan - 1989 - Noûs 23 (2):276-277.
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  42.  32
    Sohail H. Hashmi and Stephen Lee: Ethics and Weapons of Mass Destruction. [REVIEW]Tomis Kapitan - 2007 - Faith and Philosophy 24 (1):109-112.
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  43.  12
    Abduction as Practical Inference.Tomis Kapitan - 2000 - The Commens Encyclopedia: The Digital Encyclopedia of Peirce Studies.
    According to C. S. Peirce, abduction is a rational attempt to locate an explanation for a puzzling phenomenon, where this is a process that includes both generating explanatory hypotheses and selecting certain hypotheses for further scrutiny. Since inference is a controlled process that can be subjected to normative standards, essential to his view of abductive rasoning is that it is correlated to a unique species of correctness that cannot be reduced to deductive validity or inductive strength. This irreducibility claim is (...)
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  44.  95
    Reason and Flexibility in Islam.Tomis Kapitan - unknown
    The role of reason, and its embodiment in philosophical-scientific theorizing, is always a troubling one for religious traditions. The deep emotional needs that religion strives to satisfy seem ever linked to an attitudes of acceptance, belief, or trust, yet, in its theoretical employment, reason functions as a critic as much as it does a creator, and in the special fields of metaphysics and epistemology its critical arrows are sometimes aimed at long-standing cherished beliefs. Understandably, the mere approach to these beliefs (...)
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  45. Quasi-Indexical Attitudes.Tomis Kapitan - 1999 - Sorites 11:24-40.
    Indexicals are inevitably autobiographical, even when we are not talking about ourselves. For example, if you hear me say, "That portrait right there is beautiful," you can surmise not only that I ascribe beauty to an object of my immediate awareness but also something about my spatial relation to it. Again, if I praise you directly within earshot of others by using the words, "You did that very well!," my concern need not be to cause them to think the exact (...)
     
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  46.  9
    Against Supererogation, SUSAN C. HALE.How Powerful Are We & Tomis Kapitän - 1991 - American Philosophical Quarterly 28 (4).
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  47.  24
    Providence, Foreknowledge, and Decision Procedures.Tomis Kapitan - 1993 - Faith and Philosophy 10 (3):415-420.
  48.  28
    Reliability and Indirect Justification.Tomis Kapitan - 1985 - The Monist 68 (2):277-287.
    Philosophers commonly speak of a person’s being justified in believing a proposition by one or more reasons he or she has for it. This phenomenon, often called inferential or indirect justification, seems so pervasive that some are tempted to count all epistemic justification as such, though even dessenters from this view can acknowledge that justification through reasons is central to wide domains of cognitive appraisal, e.g., in science and in law. A basic task for the epistemologist is to explain how (...)
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  49.  7
    The Non-Reality of Free Will.Tomis Kapitan - 1994 - Noûs 28 (1):90-95.
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  50.  39
    Lucey's Agnosticism: The Believer's Reply. [REVIEW]Tomis Kapitan - 1985 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 18 (1/2):87 - 90.
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