This category needs an editor. We encourage you to help if you are qualified.
Volunteer, or read more about what this involves.
About this topic
Summary The central issue in the free will debate is whether freedom is compatible with causal determinism. Closely parallel issues are raised by considering God's foreknowledge. God is usually held to be omniscient, and His omniscience extends to knowing how agents will act in future. The problem of freedom and foreknowledge is the problem of reconciling our freedom to act with the claim that God knows how we will act prior to our acting. If God knows how I will act before I will, it appears that I must act in the way God predicts and therefore lack the freedom to do otherwise.
Key works The problem of freedom and foreknowledge was and remains central to the philosophy of religion, beginning in the 6th century with Boethius 1962, who argued that God was outside of time and therefore it is false that God's knowledge of how I will act precedes my acting.Ockham 1983 distinguished between hard and soft facts, where hard facts alone are entirely about the past. Since God's foreknowledge consists of soft facts which is supposed to undermine its having a kind of necessity that threatens free will. The Molinist solution - MOLINA 1988 - turns on the claim that foreknowledge is "middle knowledge", consisting of a set of counterfactuals concerning how every free being would act in particular circumstances.
Introductions Zagzebski 1997
Related categories

259 found
Order:
1 — 50 / 259
  1. added 2020-02-20
    La providencia en santo Tomás de Aquino.David Torrijos-Castrillejo - 2019 - Revista Española de Teología 79:419-454.
    According to Aquinas, divine omniscience, omnipotence and providence, do not contradict the existence of either true contingency in the natural world or freedom but, on the contrary, they support them. In short, the two peculiarities of the doctrine of providence in St. Thomas here exposed are: first, that God's will is the ultimate foundation of all contingency (and not merely the deficiency of secondary causes); second, that the divine causality cannot be reduced to any of the two groups of created (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2. added 2020-02-13
    Freedom, Foreknowledge, and Dependence: A Dialectical Intervention.Taylor W. Cyr & Andrew Law - forthcoming - American Philosophical Quarterly.
    Recently, several authors have utilized the notion of dependence to respond to the traditional argument for the incompatibility of freedom and divine foreknowledge. However, proponents of this response have not always been so clear in specifying where the incompatibility argument goes wrong, which has led to some unfounded objections to the response. We remedy this dialectical confusion by clarifying both the dependence response itself and its interaction with the standard incompatibility argument. Once these clarifications are made, it becomes clear both (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  3. added 2020-02-07
    Atemporalism and Dependence.Taylor W. Cyr - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 87 (2):149-164.
    It is widely thought that Atemporalism—the view that, because God is “outside” of time, he does not foreknow anything —constitutes a unique solution to the problem of freedom and foreknowledge. However, as I argue here, in order for Atemporalism to escape certain worries, the view must appeal to the dependence of God’s timeless knowledge on our actions. I then argue that, because it must appeal to such dependence, Atemporalism is crucially similar to the recent sempiternalist accounts proposed by Trenton Merricks, (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  4. added 2020-01-25
    Timelessness and Freedom.Taylor W. Cyr - forthcoming - Synthese:1-15.
    One way that philosophers have attempted to defend free will against the threat of fatalism and against the threat from divine beliefs has been to endorse timelessness views. In this paper, I argue that, in order to respond to general worries about fatalism and divine beliefs, timelessness views must appeal to the notion of dependence. Once they do this, however, their distinctive position as timelessness views becomes otiose, for the appeal to dependence, if it helps at all, would itself be (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5. added 2020-01-16
    Are We Free to Break the Laws of Providence?Kenneth L. Pearce - forthcoming - Faith and Philosophy 37.
    Can I be free to perform an action if God has decided to ensure that I do not choose that action? I show that Molinists and simple foreknowledge theorists are committed to answering in the affirmative. This is problematic for their status as theological incompatibilists. I suggest that strategies for preserving their theological incompatibilism in light of this result should be based on sourcehood. However, the path is not easy here either, since Leibniz has shown how theological determinists can offer (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  6. added 2019-08-16
    Human Freedom and the Logic of Evil: Prolegomenon to a Christian Theology of Evil.Richard Worsley - 1996 - St. Martin's Press.
  7. added 2019-08-16
    ``Accidental Necessity and Power Over the Past&Quot.Alfred Freddoso - 1982 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 63 (1):54-68.
    The thesis of this paper is that an agent S has the power to bring it about that a proposition p is or will be true at a moment t only if S has at the same time the power to bring it about that it has always been the case that p would be true at t. The author first constructs a prima facie compelling argument for logical determinism and then argues that whoever accepts an Ockhamistic response to that (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  8. added 2019-08-16
    Foreknowledge and Predestination Re-Examined.John O'Connor - 1975 - Mind 84 (333):94.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9. added 2019-08-16
    Pike on Prior on Action.Paul Helm - 1974 - Philosophical Studies 26 (2):141 - 143.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10. added 2019-08-16
    Foreknowledge.Jonathan[from old catalog] Harrison - 1966 - Nottingham, University.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  11. added 2019-08-09
    God, Time, and Freedom.Katherin A. Rogers - 2008 - In Paul Copan & Chad V. Meister (eds.), Philosophy of Religion: Classic and Contemporary Issues. Blackwell.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12. added 2019-07-19
    Logical Indeterminacy and Freewill.D. M. MacKay - 1960 - Analysis 21 (4):82 - 83.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  13. added 2019-06-28
    Freedom, Responsibility and God. [REVIEW]A. D. H. - 1976 - Review of Metaphysics 30 (1):144-145.
    This volume, included in the recently established Library of Philosophy and Religion, devotes its primary attention to recent discussion within analytic philosophy concerning the challenge which determinism offers to the concept of freedom and, thereby, to Christian theism. Although the author does not argue that determinism has been established, he does conclude that it is an empirical proposal and may well represent the situation. He is prepared to fall back upon a libertarianism if necessary, but considers determinism at face value (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14. added 2019-06-06
    Freedom, Foreknowledge, and Frankfurt: A Reply to Vihvelin.John M. Fischer - 2008 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 38 (3):327-342.
    In a fascinating and challenging article in this journal, Kadri Vihvelin presents a spirited and vigorous critique of the strategy of defending compatibilism about causal determinism and moral responsibility that employs the ‘Frankfurt-examples.’ Here is her presentation of such an example:… Jones … chooses to perform, and succeeds in performing, some action X. Tell the story so that it is vividly clear that Jones is morally responsible for doing X. If you are a libertarian, you may specify that Jones is (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  15. added 2019-06-06
    Free Will and Determinism: An Overview of Muslim Scholars’ Perspective.Abdur Rashid Bhat - 2006 - Journal of Islamic Philosophy 2 (1):7-24.
  16. added 2019-06-06
    Human Freedom and God’s Foreknowledge. [REVIEW]James Stacey Taylor - 2001 - Philo 4 (1):97-104.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  17. added 2019-06-06
    Traditional Free Will Theodicy and Process Theodicy: Hasker’s Claim for Parity.David Ray Griffin - 2000 - Process Studies 29 (2):209-226.
  18. added 2019-06-06
    Might-Counterfactuals, Transworld Untrustworthiness and Plantinga’s Free Will Defence.Michael Bergmann - 1999 - Faith and Philosophy 16 (3):336-351.
    Plantinga’s Free Will Defense employs the following proposition as a premise:◊TD. Possibly, every essence is transworld depraved.I argue that he fails to establish his intended conclusion because the denial of ◊TD is epistemically possible. I then consider an improved version of the FWD which relies on◊TU. Possibly, every essence is transworld untrustworthy. I argue that the denial of ◊TU is also epistemically possible and, therefore, that the improved FWD fares no better than the original at establishing the compatibility of God (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  19. added 2019-06-06
    Augustine’s Transformation of the Free Will Defence.Rowan A. Greer - 1996 - Faith and Philosophy 13 (4):471-486.
    Augustine’s first conversion is to the Christian Platonism of his day, which brought along with it a free-will defence to the problem of evil. Formative as this philosophical influence was, however, Augustine’s own experience of sin combines with his sense of God’s sovereignty to lead him to modify the views he inherited in significant ways. This transformation is demonstrated by setting Augustine’s evolving position against that of Gregory of Nyssa.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  20. added 2019-06-06
    Divine Foreknowledge and Human Freedom: The Coherence of Theism. [REVIEW]James A. Sadowsky - 1992 - International Philosophical Quarterly 32 (2):257-258.
  21. added 2019-06-06
    Process Theism Versus Free-Will Theism: A Response to Griffin.David Basinger - 1991 - Process Studies 20 (4):204-220.
  22. added 2019-06-06
    Predestination and Free Will: Four Views of Divine Sovereignty and Human Freedom. [REVIEW]Dewey J. Hoitenga Jr - 1988 - Faith and Philosophy 5 (4):463-466.
  23. added 2019-06-06
    Free Will and Theodicy in Augustine: An Exposition and Critique: Fred Berthold, Jr.Fred Berthold - 1981 - Religious Studies 17 (4):525-535.
    Not only for Augustine, but for virtually all Christian theologians, the doctrine of free will is of critical importance for theodicy. The reason for this is easy to state: these theologians trace either all or much evil to human sin, which in turn is understood as an abuse of the free will with which human beings were endowed by their Creator. Augustine sums it very well: ‘… all that we call evil is either sin or punishment for sin’. The argument (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  24. added 2019-06-05
    God, Free Will, and Morality. Robert J. Richman.Hugh S. Chandler - 1985 - Ethics 95 (3):743-744.
  25. added 2019-04-08
    Molinism, Question-Begging, and Foreknowledge of Indeterminates.John D. Laing - 2018 - Perichoresis 16 (2):55-75.
    John Martin Fischer’s charge that Molinism does not offer a unique answer to the dilemma of divine foreknowledge and human freedom can be seen as a criticism of middle knowledge for begging the question of FF -compatibilism. In this paper, I seek to answer this criticism in two ways. First, I demonstrate that most of the chief arguments against middle knowledge are guilty of begging the question of FF-incompatibilism and conclude that the simple charge of begging the question cannot be (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  26. added 2019-04-08
    Fischer’s Fate with Fatalism.Christoph Jäger - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 9 (4):25-38.
    John Martin Fischer’s core project in Our Fate is to develop and defend Pike-style arguments for theological incompatibilism, i. e., for the view that divine omniscience is incompatible with human free will. Against Ockhamist attacks on such arguments, Fischer maintains that divine forebeliefs constitute so-called hard facts about the times at which they occur, or at least facts with hard ‘kernel elements’. I reconstruct Fischer’s argument and outline its structural analogies with an argument for logical fatalism. I then point out (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27. added 2019-04-08
    'Ludewig' Molina and Kant's Libertarian Compatibilism.Wolfgang Ertl - 2014 - In Matthias Kaufmann & Alexander Aichele (eds.), A Companion to Luis de Molina. Brill. pp. 405-445.
    Elaborating on the substantial parallels between Molina’s and Kant’s attempts to reconcile human freedom with divine foreknowledge and natural causal determinism respectively, my aim is to establish a proper historical connection as well. Leibniz is shown to be the crucial mediator in two respects: (i) Kant knew Molina’s account of divine knowledge in general in its Leibnizian version through Baumgarten’s Metaphysica. In this work, scientia media plays no role in the explication as to how God knows absolute future contingents. (ii) (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  28. added 2019-04-08
    Prophets Against Ockhamism. Or: Why the Hard Fact/Soft Fact Distinction is Irrelevant to the Problem of Foreknowledge.Raphael van Riel - 2014 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 75 (2):119-135.
    In this paper, a cognate of the problem of divine foreknowledge is introduced: the problem of the prophet’s foreknowledge. The latter cannot be solved referring to Ockhamism—the doctrine that divine foreknowledge could, at least in principle, be compatible with human freedom because God’s beliefs about future actions are merely soft facts, rather than hard facts about the past. Under the assumption that if Ockhamism can solve the problem of divine foreknowledge then it should also yield a solution to the problem (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  29. added 2019-04-08
    A Problem for Hasker: Freedom with Respect to the Present, Hard Facts, and Theological Incompatibilism.Michael Rota - 2010 - Faith and Philosophy 27 (3):287-305.
    In God, Time, and Knowledge, William Hasker presents a powerful argument against “theological compatibilism,” which, in this context, refers to the view that divine foreknowledge is compatible with libertarian free will. In this paper I show that Hasker’s views on free will, as expressed in God, Time, and Knowledge, are inconsistent with his own account of hard facts. I then consider four ways to remove the inconsistency and argue that the first two are untenable for the libertarian, while the remaining (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  30. added 2019-04-08
    Soft Facts and Harsh Realities: Reply to William Craig: John Martin Fischer.John Martin Fischer - 1991 - Religious Studies 27 (4):523-539.
    . In a number of papers I have sought to discuss and cast some doubt on a certain strategy of response to an argument that purports to show that God's foreknowledge is incompatible with human freedom. This argument proceeds from the alleged ‘fixity of the past’ to the conclusion that God's foreknowledge is incompatible with human freedom. William Lane Craig has criticized my approach to these issues. Here I should like to respond to some of Craig's claims. My goal is (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  31. added 2019-04-05
    Remarks Upon the Objections Made to Certain Passages in the Enquiry Concerning Necessity and Predestination.Edward Copleston - 1822 - John Murray Joseph Parker.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  32. added 2019-03-29
    Freedom, Infallibility and the Fixity of the Past.Dale Eric Brant - 1996 - Dissertation, University of California, Irvine
    A study of the medieval foreknowledge problem: an apparent conflict between God's universal infallibility and human freedom. To say that God is universally infallible is to say that for every proposition, God's believing that proposition implies that it is true. Let's say that the belief implies its object. So God's belief yesterday that Jones will murder her neighbor today implies that she will murder him. Furthermore, the past is fixed, rendering propositions about the past true or false is impossible, so (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  33. added 2019-03-29
    Free Creatures of an Eternal God Thomas Aquinas on God's Foreknowledge and Irresistible Will.Harm J. M. J. Goris - 1996
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  34. added 2019-03-29
    The Logic of Freedom.Joseph Michael Campbell - 1992 - Dissertation, The University of Arizona
    I take it for granted that free will is a central philosophical notion. Still, throughout Western history certain philosophers have put forth arguments which claim that no person has, or could have, free will. These arguments may be grouped into three different types. First, there are metalogical arguments which argue that since all propositions are either true or false, and since propositions do not change their truth-values, no person ever has free will. Second, there are divination arguments which claim that (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  35. added 2019-03-29
    Materials for the History of the Muhammadan Doctrine of Predestination and Free Will.Edward E. Salisbury - 1866 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 8:105-182.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  36. added 2019-03-21
    A Reply to “The Antinomy of Future Contingent Events”.Timothy Pawl - 2018 - Roczniki Filozoficzne 66 (4):149-157.
    In this brief reply I discuss Fr. Marcin Tkaczyk’s excellent article, “The Antinomy of Future Contingent Events.” I first raise some concerns about his understanding of representation. I then raise three concerns about his preferred solution to the antinomy: first, that a part of his theory of representation itself motivates a rejection of proposition 1 of the antinomy; second, that one needn’t employ retroactive causal connections to weaken 1 as he does; and third, that it is difficult to make sense (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  37. added 2019-03-01
    Theological Determinism.T. J. Mawson - unknown
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  38. added 2019-03-01
    Augustine's Solution to the Problem of Theological Fatalism.Russell Danesh Hemati - unknown
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  39. added 2019-02-22
    Augustine: On the Free Choice of the Will, On Grace and Free Choice, and Other Writings.Philip Lieberman - 2016 - The European Legacy 21 (1):106-107.
  40. added 2019-02-22
    4. Newcomb Dēnŭō, Omniscience, and 'Choiceless Freedom'.Jordan Howard Sobel - 1998 - In Puzzles for the Will. University of Toronto Press. pp. 167-200.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  41. added 2019-02-07
    Free Will.Derk Pereboom (ed.) - 2009 - Hackett Publishing Company.
    A unique anthology featuring contributions to the dispute over free will from Aristotle to the twenty-first century, Derk Pereboom's volume presents the most thoughtful positions taken in this crucial debate and discusses their consequences for free will's traditional corollary, moral responsibility. The Second Edition retains the organizational structure that made its predecessor the leading anthology of its kind, while adding major new selections by such philosophers as Spinoza, Reid, John Martin Fischer, Robert Kane, Galen Strawson, and Timothy O'Connor. _Hackett Readings (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  42. added 2018-10-29
    Causality and Becoming: Scotistic Reflections.Liran Shia Gordon - 2019 - Heythrop Journal 60 (1):95-110.
    Becoming is a process in which a thing moves from one state to another. In Section 1, the study will elaborate on the discussion of the Aristotelian causes taken broadly, primarily focusing on the relation between efficient and final causes. In Section 2, the study discusses the implications of Scotus’s conception of freedom, as it is reflected in the relation of the future to the past, for the efficient and final causalities. Similarly in Section 3 an examination of Scotus’s conception (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  43. added 2018-10-14
    Divine Foreknowledge, Rational Determinism, and the Value of Freedom.Andrea Guardo - manuscript
    After having given in the Essay a definition of freedom which straightforwardly entails its compatibility with – among other things – God's foreknowledge, Locke surprisingly writes in a 1693 letter to Molyneux that he does not see how human liberty can coexist with divine prescience. I argue that the confession to Molyneux can be made consistent with the Essay's definition by embracing the view that the problem Locke had in mind when he drafted it was not a problem concerning the (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  44. added 2018-08-20
    Free Will, Foreknowledge, and Future‐Dependent Beliefs.Raphael van Riel - 2017 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 55 (4):500-520.
    Recently, a time-honored assumption has resurfaced in some parts of the free will debate: if past divine beliefs or past truths about what we do depend on what we do, then these beliefs and truths are, in a sense, up to us; hence, we are able to act otherwise, despite the existence of past truths or past divine beliefs about our future actions. In this paper, I introduce and discuss a novel incompatibilist argument that rests on. This argument is interesting (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  45. added 2018-08-20
    Omniscience, Free Will, and Religious Belief.Emmanuel Nartey - 2016 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 21 (2):135-155.
    In this paper, I examine a standard foreknowledge argument and some interesting ways of handling it, along with some criticisms. I argue that there are philosophically interesting notions of free will that are compatible with determinism. These are the notions of free will that matter to ordinary life, and I argue that these generate a way for a philosophically interesting understanding of free will to be compatible with belief in God’s infallible foreknowledge. I discuss two key questions—the empirical question and (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46. added 2018-02-18
    Free Will: Critical Concepts in Philosophy.John Martin Fischer (ed.) - 2005 - Routledge.
    Over the last three decades there has been a tremendous amount of philosophical work in the Anglo-American tradition on the cluster of topics pertaining to Free Will. Contemporary work has in some instances been in the form of lively debates between proponents of different viewpoints, and literature surrounding the area is therefore characterized by a genuine vitality. This collection selects the very best of this material and presents it in a single, accessible set of volumes.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  47. added 2018-02-17
    A New Foreknowledge Dilemma.Linda Zagzebski - 1989 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 63:139.
  48. added 2017-11-28
    An Anti-Molinist Argument.Kenneth J. Perszyk - 1998 - Philosophical Studies 90 (3):215-235.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  49. added 2017-10-17
    Hugh J. McCann (Ed.), Free Will and Classical Theism: The Significance of Freedom in Perfect Being Theology. [REVIEW]Garrett Pendergraft - 2017 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 16.
    This volume collects a set of papers that were presented at a conference on “Big Questions in Free Will,” held at the University of Saint Thomas in October of 2014. It is dedicated to its editor, who passed away shortly after completing the manuscript. I will briefly summarize each of the 11 chapters and then offer a few critical comments.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  50. added 2017-07-29
    Introduction to Free Will and Theism.Kevin Timpe & Daniel Speak - 2016 - In Kevin Timpe & Daniel Speak (eds.), Free Will and Theism: Connections, Contingencies, and Concerns. Oxford University Press. pp. 1-26.
    Concerns both about the nature of free will and about the credibility of theistic belief and commitment have long preoccupied philosophers. This is just to make the obvious point that philosophical questions about whether we enjoy free will and about whether God exists are truly perennial. In addition, there can be no denying that the history of philosophical inquiry into these two questions has been dynamic and, at least to some degree, integrated. In a great many cases, classical answers to (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
1 — 50 / 259