Results for 'nonideal theory'

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  1.  97
    Can Rawls’s Nonideal Theory Save His Ideal Theory?Hye Ryoung Kang - 2016 - Social Theory and Practice 42 (1):32-56.
    Critical attention directed to John Rawls’s ideal theory has in particular leveled three charges against it: first, its infeasibility; second, its inadequacy for providing normative guidance on actual injustices; and third, its insensitivity to the justice concerns of marginalized groups. Recently, advocates for Rawls’s ideal theory have replied that problems arising at the stage of ideal theory can be addressed at the later stage of his nonideal theory. This article disputes that claim by arguing that (...)
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  2. Hate Speech, the Priority of Liberty, and the Temptations of Nonideal Theory.Robert S. Taylor - 2012 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (3):353-68.
    Are government restrictions on hate speech consistent with the priority of liberty? This relatively narrow policy question will serve as the starting point for a wider discussion of the use and abuse of nonideal theory in contemporary political philosophy, especially as practiced on the academic left. I begin by showing that hate speech (understood as group libel) can undermine fair equality of opportunity for historically-oppressed groups but that the priority of liberty seems to forbid its restriction. This tension (...)
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  3.  37
    Amartya Sen’s Nonideal Theory.Kristina Meshelski - 2019 - Ethics and Global Politics 12 (2):31-45.
    Amartya Sen argues that Rawls’s theory is not only unnecessary in the pursuit of justice, but it may even be an impediment to justice in so far as it has discouraged more useful work. Against what he considers the dominance of transcendental theory, Sen calls for a more realistic and practical ‘comparative’ theory of justice. Sen’s negative point has been widely discussed, but here I develop a reconstruction of Sen’s positive theory (a combination of Adam Smith’s (...)
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  4.  61
    Ideal and Nonideal Reasoning in Educational Theory.Alison M. Jaggar - 2015 - Educational Theory 65 (2):111-126.
    The terms “ideal theory” and “nonideal theory” are used in contemporary Anglophone political philosophy to identify alternative methodological approaches for justifying normative claims. Each term is used in multiple ways. In this article Alison M. Jaggar disentangles several versions of ideal and nonideal theory with a view to determining which elements may be helpful in designing models of real-world justice that are contextually relevant, morally plausible, and practically feasible.
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  5.  69
    The Challenges of Extreme Moral Stress: Claudia Card's Contributions to the Formation of Nonideal Ethical Theory.Kathryn J. Norlock - 2016 - Metaphilosophy 47 (4-5):488-503.
    Open Access: This essay argues that Claudia Card numbers among important contributors to nonideal ethical theory, and it advocates for the worth of NET. Following philosophers including Lisa Tessman and Charles Mills, the essay contends that it is important for ethical theory, and for feminist purposes, to carry forward the interrelationship that Mills identifies between nonideal theory and feminist ethics. Card's ethical theorizing assists in understanding that interrelationship. Card's philosophical work includes basic elements of NET (...)
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  6. First Steps Toward a Nonideal Theory of Justice.Marcus Arvan - 2014 - Ethics and Global Politics 7 (3):95-117.
    Theorists have long debated whether John Rawls’ conception of justice as fairness can be extended to nonideal (i.e. unjust) social and political conditions, and if so, what the proper way of extending it is. This paper argues that in order to properly extend justice as fairness to nonideal conditions, Rawls’ most famous innovation – the original position – must be reconceived in the form of a “nonideal original position.” I begin by providing a new analysis of the (...)
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  7.  51
    Nonideal Theory and Compliance—A Clarification.Naima Chahboun - 2015 - European Journal of Political Theory 14 (2):229-245.
    This paper examines the various ways in which nonideal theory responds to noncompliance with ideal principles of justice. Taking Rawls’ definition of nonideal theory as my point of departure, I propose an understanding of this concept as comprising two subparts: Complementary nonideal theory responds to deliberate and avoidable noncompliance and consists mainly of theories of civil disobedience, rebellion, and retribution. Substitutive nonideal theory responds to nondeliberate and unavoidable noncompliance and consists mainly of (...)
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  8.  13
    Getting the Distance Right: Ideal and Nonideal Theory in Philosophy of Education.Amy B. Shuffelton - 2015 - Educational Theory 65 (2):203-214.
    When the debate over the value of ideal and nonideal theory crosses from political philosophy into philosophy of education, do the implications of the debate shift, and, if so, how? In this piece, Amy Shuffelton considers the premise that no normative political theory, ideal or nonideal, is of any use to human beings unless it can be affiliated with a credible educational theory that connects human beings as they are to human beings as that (...) requires them to become. In her response to the five articles in this symposium, Shuffelton addresses their overlapping yet varied treatments of human subjectivity as developed through education. If one accepts that ideal theory is the appropriate starting place for political philosophy because otherwise we would have no polestar by which to orient ourselves, Shuffelton concludes, a corresponding philosophy of education is required to survey the trajectory between here and wherever one aims to go. To do so, it needs to keep its feet on the ground, even as it looks to the stars. If, on the other hand, ideal theory fails to heed the Yankee truism that you can't get there from here, such that philosophers who attempt to do so inevitably get lost on back roads, philosophy of education is still necessary to chart paths to reachable destinations. (shrink)
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  9. Ideal and Nonideal Theory.A. John Simmons - 2010 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 38 (1):5-36.
  10. Bioethics Education and Nonideal Theory.Nabina Liebow & Kelso Cratsley - forthcoming - In E. Victor & L. Guidry-Grimes (eds.), Applying Nonideal Theory to Bioethics: Living and Dying in a Nonideal World.
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  11.  18
    Moral Demands in Nonideal Theory.Allen Speight - 2001 - Review of Metaphysics 55 (1):153-154.
    Murphy’s book is concerned with what he calls the “puzzle of beneficence”: that, while there are many moral issues on which people tend to agree, there is not only no consensus about the extent of the obligation to promote the wellbeing of strangers, but in fact a contentedness about the uncertainty of our obligation in this regard. Although there are some famous philosophical suggestions concerning the reasons for this puzzle, Murphy claims that what is most important is our tendency to (...)
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  12.  73
    Moral Demands in Nonideal Theory.Liam B. Murphy - 2000 - Oxford University Press.
    Is there a limit to the legitimate demands of morality? In particular, is there a limit to people's responsibility to promote the well-being of others, either directly or via social institutions? Utilitarianism admits no such limit, and is for that reason often said to be an unacceptably demanding moral and political view. In this original new study, Murphy argues that the charge of excessive demands amounts to little more than an affirmation of the status quo. The real problem with utilitarianism (...)
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  13.  94
    A Nonideal Theory of Justice.Marcus Arvan - 2008 - Dissertation, University of Arizona
    This dissertation defends a “non-ideal theory” of justice: a systematic theory of how to respond justly to injustice. Chapter 1 argues that contemporary political philosophy lacks a non-ideal theory of justice, and defends a variation of John Rawls’ famous original position – a Non-Ideal Original Position – as a method with which to construct such a theory. Chapter 1 then uses the Non-Ideal Original Position to argue for a Fundamental Principle of Non-Ideal Theory: a principle (...)
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  14.  9
    Becoming Autonomous: Nonideal Theory and Educational Autonomy.Terri S. Wilson & Matthew A. Ryg - 2015 - Educational Theory 65 (2):127-150.
    Autonomy operates as a key term in debates about the rights of families to choose distinct approaches to education. Yet, what autonomy means is often complicated by the actual circumstances and contexts of schools, families, and children. In this essay, Terri S. Wilson and Matthew A. Ryg focus on the challenges involved in translating an ideal of educational autonomy into the “nonideal” contexts and circumstances that surround families' choices. Drawing on the methodological insights of Elizabeth Anderson and John Dewey, (...)
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  15. Nonideal Theory, Self-Respect, and Preimplantation Genetic Technologies.Clair Morrissey & Elena Neale - 2019 - In E. Sills & Gianpiero Palermo (eds.), Human Embryos and Preimplantation Genetic Technologies. pp. 67-74.
    We suggest a fuller understanding of the obligation to respect patient autonomy can be gained by recognizing patients as historically and socially situated agents, whose values are developed, challenged, and changed, rather than merely applied, in their decision-making about their use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis or preimplantation genetic screening (PGD/PGS). We ground this discussion in empirical research on the patients experiences with PGD/PGS, and conclude by suggesting that promoting patients’ self-respect is a useful ethical standard for providers and practices to (...)
     
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  16.  29
    Ideal and Nonideal Theory: A Conceptual Overview.Milica Trifunovic - 2013 - Filozofija I Društvo 24 (2):151-173.
  17.  10
    Nonideal Theory and Philosophy of Education: Considering What Is While Working Toward What Ought to Be.Michele S. Moses - 2015 - Educational Theory 65 (2):107-110.
  18. Nonideal Theory: What It Is and What It Needs to Be.David Schmidtz - 2011 - Ethics 121 (4):772-796.
  19.  59
    Critical Theory, Republicanism, and the Priority of Injustice: Transnational Republicanism as a Nonideal Theory.James Bohman - 2012 - Journal of Social Philosophy 43 (2):97-112.
  20.  35
    The Case for the Nonideal Morality of War: Beyond Revisionism Versus Traditionalism in Just War Theory.James Pattison - 2018 - Political Theory 46 (2):242-268.
    Recent discussions in Just War Theory have been framed by a polarising debate between “traditionalist” and “revisionist” approaches. This debate has largely overlooked the importance of an applied account of Just War Theory. The main aim of this essay is to defend the importance of this applied account and, in particular, a nonideal account of the ethics of war. I argue that the applied, nonideal morality of war is vital for a plausible and comprehensive account of (...)
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  21.  44
    Realistic Decision Theory: Rules for Nonideal Agents in Nonideal Circumstances.Paul Weirich - 2004 - Oup Usa.
    Within traditional decision theory, common decision principles - e.g. the principle to maximize utility -- generally invoke idealization; they govern ideal agents in ideal circumstances. In Realistic Decision Theory, Paul Weirch adds practicality to decision theory by formulating principles applying to nonideal agents in nonideal circumstances, such as real people coping with complex decisions. Bridging the gap between normative demands and psychological resources, Realistic Decision Theory is essential reading for theorists seeking precise normative decision (...)
  22.  87
    Liam Murphy, Moral Demands in Nonideal Theory, New York, Oxford University Press, 2000, Pp. Viii + 168.Tim Mulgan - 2003 - Utilitas 15 (1):113.
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  23.  83
    Review of Liam Murphy, Moral Demands in Nonideal Theory[REVIEW]Thaddeus Metz - 2001 - Philosophical Review 110 (4):614-617.
    How much must a given individual benefit others, apart from any obligation to do so because of prior acts, special relationships, or self-regard? In short, to what extent is a person morally required to promote the well-being of strangers?
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  24.  2
    Justice and Reciprocity: The Case for Nonideal Theory.James Woodward - 2016 - Social Philosophy and Policy 33 (1-2):122-154.
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  25.  14
    Liam B. Murphy Moral Demands in a Nonideal Theory. (Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 2000). Pp. VIII+168. £30.00 (Hbk). ISBN 0 19 507976. [REVIEW][M. W. F. S.] - 2001 - Religious Studies 37 (4):501-502.
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  26. Ideal and Nonideal Theory in the Realm of the Political.Jaime Ahlberg - 2010 - Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison
     
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  27. Applying Nonideal Theory to Bioethics: Living and Dying in a Nonideal World.E. Victor & L. Guidry-Grimes (eds.) - forthcoming
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  28.  15
    Bose–Einstein Condensation of Nonideal Cooper Pairs in the Hartree–Fock–Popov Theory.Ze Cheng - 2016 - Foundations of Physics 46 (8):915-942.
    The Hartree–Fock–Popov theory of interacting Bose particles is generalized to the Cooper-pair system with a screened Coulomb repulsive interaction in high-temperature superconductors. At zero temperature, it is found that the condensate density \\) of Cooper pairs is of the order \\simeq 10^{18}\) cm\, consistently with the fact that a small fraction of the total p holes participate in pairing. We find that the phonon velocity c at zero temperature is of the order \\simeq 10\) km s\. The computation shows (...)
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  29.  46
    A Theory of Justice for Animals: Animal Rights in a Nonideal World.Robert Garner - 2013 - Oup Usa.
    This innovative book is the first to couch the debate about animals in the language of justice, and the first to develop both ideal and nonideal theories of justice for animals. It rejects the abolitionist animal rights position in favor of a revised version of animal rights centering on sentience.
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  30.  54
    Can Rawls’s Non-Ideal Theory Save His Ideal Theory?Hye-Ryoung Kang - 2016 - Social Theory and Practice 42 (1):32-56.
    Critical attention directed to John Rawls ’s ideal theory has in particular leveled three charges against it: first, its infeasibility; second, its inadequacy for providing normative guidance on actual injustices; and third, its insensitivity to the justice concerns of marginalized groups. Recently, advocates for Rawls ’s ideal theory have replied that problems arising at the stage of ideal theory can be addressed at the later stage of his nonideal theory. This article disputes that claim by (...)
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  31. Nonideal Justice as Nonideal Fairness.Marcus Arvan - 2019 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 5 (2):208-228.
    This article argues that diverse theorists have reasons to theorize about fairness in nonideal conditions, including theorists who reject fairness in ideal theory. It then develops a new all-purpose model of ‘nonideal fairness.’ §1 argues that fairness is central to nonideal theory across diverse ideological and methodological frameworks. §2 then argues that ‘nonideal fairness’ is best modeled by a nonideal original position adaptable to different nonideal conditions and background normative frameworks (including anti-Rawlsian (...)
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  32.  2
    Utopophobia as a Vocation: The Professional Ethics of Ideal and Nonideal Political Theory.Michael L. Frazer - 2016 - Social Philosophy and Policy 33 (1-2):175-192.
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  33.  62
    The Incompleteness of Ideal Theory.Jörg Schaub - 2014 - Res Publica 20 (4):413-439.
    Can one give an account of a perfectly just society without invoking principles governing our responses to injustice? My claim is that addressing this question puts us in a position to reveal ambiguities and problems with the way in which Rawls draws the ideal/nonideal theory distinction that have so far gone unnoticed. In the first part of my paper, I demonstrate that Rawls’s original definition of the ideal/nonideal theory distinction is ambiguous as it is composed of (...)
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  34. Review: Realistic Decision Theory: Rules for Nonideal Agents in Nonideal Circumstances. [REVIEW]G. Sillari - 2007 - Mind 116 (462):489-493.
  35.  46
    A Theory of Justice for Animals. Animal Rights in a Nonideal World. By Robert Garner.Federico Zuolo - 2015 - Constellations 22 (3):473-475.
  36. Review of Paul Weirich, Realistic Decision Theory: Rules for Nonideal Agents in Nonideal Circumstances[REVIEW]Adam Morton - 2005 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2005 (8).
  37.  29
    Review of Robert Garner, A Theory of Justice for Animals: Animal Rights in a Nonideal World. [REVIEW]Brian Berkey - 2014 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
  38.  18
    Protection for the Sentient in the Nonideal World: A Review of Robert Garner’s A Theory of Justice for Animals[REVIEW] Milburn - 2015 - Journal of Animal Ethics 5 (1):69-75,.
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  39.  10
    Robert Garner: A Theory of Justice for Animals: Rights in a Nonideal World.Tony Milligan - 2015 - Environmental Ethics 37 (2):249-252.
  40. Toward a Nonideal Approach to Immigration Justice.Shelley Wilcox - 2018 - In David Boonin (ed.), Palgrave Handbook of Philosophy and Public Policy. New York: Palgrave. pp. 185-97.
    Critics of ideal theory typically argue that prevailing liberal egalitarian principles were constructed under idealized assumptions and are thus ill suited to real-world circumstances where such assumptions do not apply. Specifically, they raise three related objections: (1) ideal theory cannot help us understand current injustices in the actual, nonideal world; (2) ideal principles are not sufficiently action-guiding; and (3) ideal theory tends to reflect and perpetuate unjust group privilege. This chapter explores recent philosophical work on borders (...)
     
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  41. Comparative Assessments of Justice, Political Feasibility, and Ideal Theory.Pablo Gilabert - 2012 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (1):39-56.
    What should our theorizing about social justice aim at? Many political philosophers think that a crucial goal is to identify a perfectly just society. Amartya Sen disagrees. In The Idea of Justice, he argues that the proper goal of an inquiry about justice is to undertake comparative assessments of feasible social scenarios in order to identify reforms that involve justice-enhancement, or injustice-reduction, even if the results fall short of perfect justice. Sen calls this the “comparative approach” to the theory (...)
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  42. Motivational Limitations on the Demands of Justice.David Wiens - 2016 - European Journal of Political Theory 15 (3):333-352.
    Do motivational limitations due to human nature constrain the demands of justice? Among those who say no, David Estlund offers perhaps the most compelling argument. Taking Estlund’s analysis of “ability” as a starting point, I show that motivational deficiencies can constrain the demands of justice under at least one common circumstance — that the motivationally-deficient agent makes a good faith effort to overcome her deficiency. In fact, my argument implies something stronger; namely, that the demands of justice are constrained by (...)
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  43. Assessing Ideal Theories: Lessons From the Theory of Second Best.David Wiens - 2016 - Politics, Philosophy, and Economics 15 (2):132-149.
    Numerous philosophers allege that the "general theory of second best" (Lipsey and Lancaster, 1956) poses a challenge to the Target View, which asserts that real world reform efforts should aim to establish arrangements that satisfy the constitutive features of ideal just states of affairs. I demonstrate two claims that are relevant in this context. First, I show that the theory of second best fails to present a compelling challenge to the Target View in general. But, second, the (...) of second best requires ideal theorists to undertake certain kinds of causal and comparative analyses that are typically thought to lie beyond the borders of conventional ideal theory. (shrink)
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  44. Global Justice and Poverty Relief in Nonideal Circumstances.Pablo Gilabert - 2008 - Social Theory and Practice 34 (3):411-438.
  45. Procedural Justice and Affirmative Action.Kristina Meshelski - 2016 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (2):425-443.
    There is widespread agreement among both supporters and opponents that affirmative action either must not violate any principle of equal opportunity or procedural justice, or if it does, it may do so only given current extenuating circumstances. Many believe that affirmative action is morally problematic, only justified to the extent that it brings us closer to the time when we will no longer need it. In other words, those that support affirmative action believe it is acceptable in nonideal (...), but not ideal theory. This paper argues that affirmative action is entirely compatible with equal opportunity and procedural justice and would be even in an ideal world. I defend a new analysis of Rawlsian procedural justice according to which it is permissible to interfere in the outcomes of procedures, and thus I show that affirmative action is not morally problematic in the way that many have supposed. (shrink)
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  46. Burdened Societies and Transitional Justice.Lisa L. Fuller - 2012 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (3):369-386.
    Following John Rawls, nonideal theory is typically divided into: "partial-compliance theory" and " transitional theory." The former is concerned with those circumstances in which individuals and political regimes do not fully comply with the requirements of justice, such as when people break the law or some individuals do not do their fair share within a distributive scheme. The latter is concerned with circumstances in which background institutions may be unjust or may not exist at all. This (...)
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  47. Prescribing Institutions Without Ideal Theory.David Wiens - 2012 - Journal of Political Philosophy 20 (1):45-70.
    It is conventional wisdom among political philosophers that ideal principles of justice must guide our attempts to design institutions to avert actual injustice. Call this the ideal guidance approach. I argue that this view is misguided— ideal principles of justice are not appropriate "guiding principles" that actual institutions must aim to realize, even if only approximately. Fortunately, the conventional wisdom is also avoidable. In this paper, I develop an alternative approach to institutional design, which I call institutional failure analysis. The (...)
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  48.  6
    Derivation of Morality From Prudence.Marcus Arvan - 2020 - In Neurofunctional Prudence and Morality: A Philosophical Theory. New York: Routledge. pp. 60-94.
    This chapter derives and refines a novel normative moral theory and descriptive theory of moral psychology--Rightness as Fairness--from the theory of prudence defended in Chapter 2. It briefly summarizes Chapter 2’s finding that prudent agents typically internalize ‘moral risk-aversion’. It then outlines how this prudential psychology leads prudent agents to want to know how to act in ways they will not regret in morally salient cases, as well as to regard moral actions as the only types of (...)
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  49.  20
    Nonideal Ethics.Eduardo Rivera-López - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), Hugh LaFolette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  50. Kantian Rigorism and Mitigating Circumstances.Tamar Schapiro - 2006 - Ethics 117 (1):32–57.
    A task of any moral theory is to account for both the rigidity and the flexibility of moral rules. Utilitarianism faces the problem of building rigidity into a framework that tends towards objectionable flexibility. Kantianism faces the problem of building flexibility into a framework that tends towards objectionable rigidity. I offer an argument on this front on behalf of Kantians. I show how Kantians can maintain that actions are right and wrong "in themselves," while still maintaining that such actions (...)
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