Search results for 'anti-evolution' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  3
    Marcin Krasnodębski (2014). Constructing Creationists: French and British Narratives and Policies in the Wake of the Resurgence of Anti-Evolution Movements. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 47:35-44.
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  2.  4
    Richard Bellon (2005). Book Reviews: John M. Lynch, Ed., Creationism and Scriptural Geology, 1817–1857, Series on Evolution and Anti-Evolution: The Debates Before and After Darwin (Bristol: Thoemmes Press, 2002), 7 Vols., 3171 Pp., Illus., $1100. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 38 (2):398-399.
  3. T. McIver & P. J. Bowler (1994). Anti-Evolution: A Reader's Guide to Writings Before and After Darwin. Annals of Science 51 (6):684-684.
     
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  4.  8
    I. Bubanovic & S. Najman (2004). Ideas in Theoretical Biology - Failure of Anti-Tumor Immunity in Mammals - Evolution of the Hypothesis. Acta Biotheoretica 52 (1):57-64.
    Observations on the morphological and functional similarity between embryonic or trophoblast tissues and tumors are very old. Over a period of time many investigators have created different hypotheses on the origin of cancerogenesis or tumor efficiency in relation to the host immune system. Some of these ideas have been rejected but many of them are still current. A presumption of the inefficiency of anti-tumor immunity in mammals due to the high similarity between trophoblast and embryonic cells to tumor cells is (...)
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  5.  3
    Peter J. Bowler (1984). The Eclipse of Darwinism: Anti-Darwinian Evolution Theories in the Decades Around 1900. Journal of the History of Biology 17 (3):433-434.
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  6.  2
    Justin Barrett (2009). The Antagonism Between Christianity and Evolution Continues. For Over 100 Years Numerous Anti-Theists Have Bludgeoned Christianity Using Evolution by Natural Selection as a Bat. Christians Have Assailed Evolu-Tionary Theory as Bad Science Advanced Only for Ulterior Motives. Inspired by Observations From Molecular Biology, the Battle has Crested Again in Terms of 'Intelligent Design'versus Unguided Materialist Evolution (Eg, Behe 1996). The End of This Struggle Remains Nowhere in Sight. And Then There's .. [REVIEW] In Jeffrey Schloss & Michael J. Murray (eds.), The Believing Primate: Scientific, Philosophical, and Theological Reflections on the Origin of Religion. Oxford University Press 76.
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  7.  1
    John Farley (1984). The Eclipse of Darwinism: Anti-Darwinian Evolution Theories in the Decades Around 1900 by Peter J. Bowler. [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 75:404-405.
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  8.  3
    Albert Schinz (1908). ANTI-PRAGMATISME: PRAGMATISIME ET VÉRITÉ: Évolution de l'idée pragmatique dans la philosophie moderne. Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 66:390 - 409.
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  9. Daniel Lasker (1983). The Friars and the Jews: The Evolution of Medieval Anti-Judaism. [REVIEW] Speculum 58 (3):743-745.
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  10. Arne Friemuth Petersen (1975). Biological Evolution or Anti-Chaos: OR the Problem of Reduction in Biology and Psychology. Danish Yearbook of Philosophy 12:65-92.
     
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  11. Reed Richter (2002). What Science Can and Cannot Say: The Problems with Methodological Naturalism. Reports of the National Center for Science Education 22 (Jan-Apr 2002):18-22.
    This paper rejects a view of science called "methodological naturalism." -/- According to many defenders of mainstream science and Darwinian evolution, anti-evolution critics--creationists and intelligent design proponents--are conceptually and epistemologically confusing science and religion, a supernatural view of world. These defenders of evolution contend that doing science requires adhering to a methodology that is strictly and essentially naturalistic: science is essentially committed to "methodological naturalism" and assumes that all the phenomena it investigates are entirely natural (...)
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  12. Reed Richter, American Science and its Anti-Evolutionist Critics: It's the Evidence Stupid.
    This is an unpublished talk written for a meeting of French philosophers. The paper describes the evolution versus creationism/intelligent design controversy in the U.S. A number of philosophers and scientists try to resolve this issue by sharply distinguishing the realm of science versus any talk of the supernatural. These pro-evolutionists often appeal to science's essential commitment to "methodological naturalism," the view that scientific methodology is essentially committed to naturalism and cannot meaningfully entertain hypotheses concerning the supernatural. I criticize methodological naturalism, (...)
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  13. Thomas Pölzler (2015). Moral Reality and the Empirical Sciences. Dissertation, University of Graz
    Are there things that are objectively right, wrong, good, bad, etc.: moral properties that are had independently of what we ourselves, our culture, God or any other subjects think about them? Philosophers have traditionally addressed this question from the “armchair.” In recent years, however, more and more participants of the debate have begun to appeal to evidence from science as well. This thesis examines such novel approaches. In particular, it asks what the empirical sciences can contribute to the moral realism/anti-realism (...)
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  14.  5
    Hee-Joo Park (2000). The Politics of Anti-Creationism: The Committees of Correspondence. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 33 (2):349 - 370.
    When the creationism issue rose to the surface in the late 1970s, an organized opposition to the creationist campaign came from an unexpected source. Local groups of rank and file evolution defenders, led by a retired biology teacher, organized a grassroots network of anti-creationism called the Committees of Correspondence. They basically approached the creationism issue as a political rather than a scientific problem and fought the battle on local fronts, where creationists were heavily engaged in legal campaigns to include their (...)
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  15. Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther & Jonathan Michael Kaplan (2013). Ontologies and Politics of Biogenomic 'Race'. Theoria. A Journal of Social and Political Theory (South Africa) 60 (3):54-80.
    All eyes are turned towards genomic data and models as the source of knowledge about whether human races exist or not. Will genomic science make the final decision about whether racial realism (e.g., racial population naturalism) or anti-realism (e.g., racial skepticism) is correct? We think not. We believe that the results of even our best and most impressive genomic technologies underdetermine whether bio-genomic races exist, or not. First, different sub-disciplines of biology interested in population structure employ distinct concepts, aims, measures, (...)
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  16. Pim Haselager, A. de Groot & H. van Rappard (2003). Representationalism Vs. Anti-Representationalism: A Debate for the Sake of Appearance. Philosophical Psychology 16 (1):5-23.
    In recent years the cognitive science community has witnessed the rise of a new, dynamical approach to cognition. This approach entails a framework in which cognition and behavior are taken to result from complex dynamical interactions between brain, body, and environment. The advent of the dynamical approach is grounded in a dissatisfaction with the classical computational view of cognition. A particularly strong claim has been that cognitive systems do not rely on internal representations and computations. Focusing on this claim, we (...)
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  17. Massimo Pigliucci (2002). Denying Evolution: Creation, Scientism, and the Nature of Science. Sinauer.
    Denying Evolution aims at taking a fresh look at the evolution–creation controversy. It presents a truly “balanced” treatment, not in the sense of treating creationism as a legitimate scientific theory (it demonstrably is not), but in the sense of dividing the blame for the controversy equally between creationists and scientists—the former for subscribing to various forms of anti-intellectualism, the latter for discounting science education and presenting science as scientism to the public and the media. The central part of the book (...)
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  18.  2
    U. Deichmann (2011). Early 20th-Century Research at the Interfaces of Genetics, Development, and Evolution: Reflections on Progress and Dead Ends. Developmental Biology 357 (1):3-12.
    Three early 20th-century attempts at unifying separate areas of biology, in particular development, genetics, physiology, and evolution, are compared in regard to their success and fruitfulness for further research: Jacques Loeb’s reductionist project of unifying approaches by physico-chemical explanations; Richard Goldschmidt’s anti-reductionist attempts to unify by integration; and Sewall Wright’s combination of reductionist research and vision of hierarchical genetic systems. Loeb’s program, demanding that all aspects of biology, including evolution, be studied by the methods of the experimental sciences, proved highly (...)
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  19.  33
    Iain Brassington (2010). Enhancing Evolution and "Enhancing Evolution". Bioethics 24 (8):395-402.
    It has been claimed in several places that the new genetic technologies allow humanity to achieve in a generation or two what might take natural selection hundreds of millennia in respect of the elimination of certain diseases and an increase in traits such as intelligence. More radically, it has been suggested that those same technologies could be used to instil characteristics that we might reasonably expect never to appear due to natural selection alone. John Harris, a proponent of this genomic (...)
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  20.  4
    Robert J. Richards (1981). Instinct and Intelligence in British Natural Theology: Some Contributions to Darwin's Theory of the Evolution of Behavior. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 14 (2):193 - 230.
    In late September 1838, Darwin read Malthus's Essay on Population, which left him with “a theory by which to work.”115 Yet he waited some twenty years to publish his discovery in the Origin of Species. Those interested in the fine grain of Darwin's development have been curious about this delay. One recent explanation has his hand stayed by fear of reaction to the materialist implications of linking man with animals. “Darwin sensed,” according to Howard Gruber, “that some would object (...)
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  21.  1
    Adam Christian Scarfe (2009). James Mark Baldwin with Alfred North Whitehead on Organic Selectivity: The “Novel” Factor in Evolution. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 5 (2):40-107.
    The aim of this paper is to show how James Mark Baldwin’s theory of Organic Selection can be fruitfully integrated with Alfred North Whitehead’s speculative philosophy, as part of the endeavor to develop a comprehensive process-relational evolutionary cosmology. In so doing, it provides an overview of the theory of Organic Selection and points to several concrete examples from the Galapagos Islands which elucidate Baldwin’s claim that organisms, through their selective activities and behavioral adjustments, play a causal role in directing evolutionary (...)
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  22. Graham Macdonald (1995). The Grounds for Anti-Historicism. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 39:241-257.
    In his seminal The Poverty of Historicism Sir Karl Popper deployed a number of arguments to prick the pretensions of those who thought that they were, or could come to be, in possession of knowledge of the future. These ‘historicists’ assumed that they could lay bare the law of evolution of a society, and that their possession of knowledge of such a law justified political action which had the aim of removing obstacles to the progress of history. In arguing against (...)
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  23.  4
    Víctor de Lorenzo (2014). From Theselfish Genetoselfish Metabolism: Revisiting the Central Dogma. Bioessays 36 (3):226-235.
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  24.  5
    Angela N. H. Creager (2007). Adaptation or Selection? Old Issues and New Stakes in the Postwar Debates Over Bacterial Drug Resistance. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 38 (1):159-190.
    The 1940s and 1950s were marked by intense debates over the origin of drug resistance in microbes. Bacteriologists had traditionally invoked the notions of ‘training’ and ‘adaptation’ to account for the ability of microbes to acquire new traits. As the field of bacterial genetics emerged, however, its participants rejected ‘Lamarckian’ views of microbial heredity, and offered statistical evidence that drug resistance resulted from the selection of random resistant mutants. Antibiotic resistance became a key issue among those disputing physiological vs. genetic (...)
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  25.  4
    Giovanni Camardi (2001). Richard Owen, Morphology and Evolution. Journal of the History of Biology 34 (3):481 - 515.
    Richard Owen has been condemned by Darwinians as an anti-evolutionist and an essentialist. In recent years he has been the object of a revisionist analysis intended to uncover evolutionary elements in his scientific enterprise. In this paper I will examine Owen's evolutionary hypothesis and its connections with von Baer's idea of divergent development. To give appropriate importance to Owen's evolutionism is the first condition to develop an up-to-date understanding of his scientific enterprise, that is to disentagle Owen's contribution to the (...)
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  26.  2
    Steindór J. Erlingsson (2002). From Haeckelian Monist to Anti-Haeckelian Vitalist: The Transformation of the Icelandic Naturalist Thorvaldur Thoroddsen (1855-1921). [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 35 (3):443 - 470.
    Iceland has not been known as a contributor to the history of science. This small nation in the North-Atlantic has only in recent decades made its mark on international science. But the Icelandic naturalist Thorvaldur Thoroddsen (1855-1921) is an exception to this generalisation, for he was well known at the turn of the 20th century in Europe and America for his research on the geography and geology of Iceland. Though Thoroddsen's contribution to these sciences is of great interest there is (...)
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  27. Victor Segesvary (1999). Existence and Transcendence: An Anti-Faustian Study in Philosophical Anthropology. International Scholars Publications.
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  28.  97
    John Sutton (2013). Skill and Collaboration in the Evolution of Human Cognition. Biological Theory 8 (1):28-36.
    I start with a brief assessment of the implications of Sterelny’s anti-individualist, anti-internalist apprentice learning model for a more historical and interdisciplinary cognitive science. In a selective response I then focus on two core features of his constructive account: collaboration and skill. While affirming the centrality of joint action and decision making, I raise some concerns about the fragility of the conditions under which collaborative cognition brings benefits. I then assess Sterelny’s view of skill acquisition and performance, which runs counter (...)
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  29. Yingjin Xu (2011). What Does Fodor's “Anti-Darwinism” Mean to Natural Theology? Frontiers of Philosophy in China 6 (3):465-479.
    In the current dialogue of “science and religion,” it is widely assumed that the thoughts of Darwinists and that of atheists overlap. However, Jerry Fodor, a full-fledged atheist, recently announced a war against Darwinism with his atheistic campaign. Prima facie, this “civil war” might offer a chance for theists: If Fodor is right, Darwinistic atheism will lose the cover of Darwinism and become less tenable. This paper provides a more pessimistic evaluation of the situation by explaining the following: Fodor’s criticism (...)
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  30.  17
    Isaac Wiegman (2015). The Evolution of Retribution: Intuitions Undermined. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 96 (2).
    Recent empirical work suggests that emotions are responsible for anti-consequentialist intuitions. For instance, anger places value on actions of revenge and retribution, value not derived from the consequences of these actions. As a result, it contributes to the development of retributive intuitions. I argue that if anger evolved to produce these retributive intuitions because of their biological consequences, then these intuitions are not a good indicator that punishment has value apart from its consequences. This severs the evidential connection between retributive (...)
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  31.  1
    Johannes Rath, Monique Ischi & Dana Perkins (2014). Evolution of Different Dual-Use Concepts in International and National Law and Its Implications on Research Ethics and Governance. Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (3):769-790.
    This paper provides an overview of the various dual-use concepts applied in national and international non-proliferation and anti-terrorism legislation, such as the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, the Chemical Weapons Convention and United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, and national export control legislation and in relevant codes of conduct. While there is a vast literature covering dual-use concepts in particular with regard to life sciences, this is the first paper that incorporates into such discussion the United Nations Security Council Resolution (...)
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  32.  29
    Alex Rosenberg (2013). How Jerry Fodor Slid Down the Slippery Slope to Anti-Darwinism, and How We Can Avoid the Same Fate. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (1):1-17.
    There is only one physically possible process that builds and operates purposive systems in nature: natural selection. What it does is build and operate systems that look to us purposive, goal directed, teleological. There really are not any purposes in nature and no purposive processes ether. It is just one vast network of linked causal chains. Darwinian natural selection is the only process that could produce the appearance of purpose. That is why natural selection must have built and must continually (...)
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  33.  66
    Daniel Kolb (1992). Kant, Teleology, and Evolution. Synthese 91 (1-2):9 - 28.
    This essay examines Kant's idea of organic teleology. The first two sections are devoted to Kant's analysis and justification of teleological conceptions in biology. Both the idea of teleology and Kant's anti-reductionism are derived from basic elements of his critical treatment of the human intellect. The third section discusses the limitations Kant places on accounts of origins in the life world. It is argued that the limitations Kant places on accounts of the origins of species do not follow from his (...)
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  34.  17
    Gregory Moore (2002). Nietzsche, Biology, and Metaphor. Cambridge University Press.
    Nietzsche, Biology and Metaphor explores the German philosopher's response to the intellectual debates sparked by the publication of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species. By examining the abundance of biological metaphors in Nietzsche's writings, Gregory Moore questions his recent reputation as an eminently subversive and (post) modern thinker, and shows how deeply Nietzsche was immersed in late nineteenth-century debates on evolution, degeneration and race. The first part of the book provides a detailed study and new interpretation of Nietzsche's much disputed relationship (...)
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  35.  3
    Oren Solomon Harman (2006). Method as a Function of "Disciplinary Landscape": C.D. Darlington and Cytology, Genetics and Evolution, 1932-1950. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 39 (1):165 - 197.
    This article considers the reception of British cytogeneticist C.D. Darlington's controversial 1932 book, Recent Advances in Cytology. Darlington's cytogenetic work, and the manner in which he made it relevant to evolutionary biology, marked an abrupt shift in the status and role of cytology in the life sciences. By focusing on Darlington's scientific method -- a stark departure from anti-theoretical, empirical reasoning to a theoretical and speculative approach based on deduction from genetic first principles -- the article characterises the relationships defining (...)
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  36.  47
    John Protevi, Evolution, Neuroscience, and Prosocial Behavior in Disasters.
    Sociologists have known for some time of the widespread incidence of prosocial behavior in the aftermath of disasters (research summarized in Rodriguez, Trainor, and Quarantelli 2006). They have also criticized the role of media in spreading “disaster myths” which include the idea of widespread anti-social behavior (Tierney, Bevc, and Kuligowski 2006). In this essay I will investigate the evolutionary theory and neuroscience needed to account for such prosocial behavior, as well as to discuss the political entailments and consequence of media (...)
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  37.  16
    John Haldane (2013). Realism, Mind and Evolution. Philosophical Investigations 36 (2):97-113.
    Perceptual experience is perspectival, and human minds occupy a variety of “viewpoints.” These considerations provide grounds for both realist and anti-realist philosophies. Each is represented in adjacent areas of thought, and often connects with familiar debates between “conservatives” and “liberals,” which in turn are commonly related to disputes about religious and naturalistic accounts of the world and of the place of human beings within it. These have been joined from an orthogonal direction by Thomas Nagel in his recent book Mind (...)
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  38.  26
    Akop P. Nazaretyan (2005). Western and Russian Traditions of Big History: A Philosophical Insight. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 36 (1):63 - 80.
    Big History - an integral conception of the past since the Big Bang until today - is a novel subject of cross-disciplinary interest. The concept was construed in the 1980-1990s simultaneously in different countries, after relevant premises had matured in the sciences and humanities. Various versions and traditions of Big History are considered in the article. Particularly, most of the Western authors emphasize the idea of equilibrium, and thus reduce cosmic, biological, and social evolution to the mass-energy processes; the informational (...)
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  39. Anti Randviir (1998). Sign as an Object of Social Semiotics: Evolution of Cartographic Semiosis. Σημιοτκή-Sign Systems Studies 1:392-416.
     
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  40.  6
    David Depew (2001). Genetic Biotechnology and Evolutionary Theory: Some Unsolicited Advice to Rhetors. Journal of Medical Humanities 22 (1):15-28.
    In his book The Biotech Century Jeremy Rifkin makes arguments about the dangers of market-driven genetic biotechnology in medical and agricultural contexts. Believing that Darwinism is too compromised by a competitive ethic to resist capitalist depredations of the genetic commons, and perhaps hoping to pick up anti-Darwinian allies, he turns for support to unorthodox non-Darwinian views of evolution. The Darwinian tradition, more closely examined, contains resources that might better serve his argument. The robust tradition associated with Theodosius Dobzhansky, Ernst Mayr, (...)
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  41.  1
    Claudia Ursutiu (2010). Leon Volovici – Istoric Al Vieţii Intelectuale Evreieşti Din România/ Leon Volovici - Historian of Jewish Cultural Life in Romania. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 7 (21):120-139.
    There are seminal works in historiography which, while significantly furthering our comprehension of a certain age or topic, have also the merit of opening new avenues for research. The books and studies of Professor Leon Volovici dedicated to modern anti-Semitism and Jewish cultural life in Romania do represent such fundamental works, bringing key contributions to the knowledge and understanding of intellectual anti-Semitism and the debates circumscribed to the Jewish-Romanian circles. The works dedicated to intellectual anti-Semitism focused on the second decade (...)
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  42.  2
    Alejandro Vigo (2007). Juicio, contenido judicativo y verdad según lotze. La geltungslogik y su influencia sobre la teoría del juicio en la tradición anti-psicologista de la filosofía de la lógica alemana. Manuscrito 30 (1):65-99.
    In this paper I discuss Lotze’s conception of judgement in the framework of his “logic of validity” . I first consider Lotze’s influence on the platonic turn of German philosophy of logic. Second, I explain how Lotze tries to overcome the traditional ontological framework by distinguishing between “being” and “validity”. Finally, I discuss Lotze’s conception of judicative content and point out its consequences for the evolution of the doctrine of judgement in neokantianism and phenomenology.
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  43.  1
    Susan Stewart (1983). Shouts on the Street: Bakhtin's Anti-Linguistics. Critical Inquiry 10 (2):265-281.
    According to Bakhtin, the reason that literature is the most ideological of all ideological spheres may be discovered in the structure of genre. He criticizes the formalists for ending their theory with a consideration of genre; genre, he observes, should be the first topic of poetics. The importance of genre lies in its two major capacities: conceptualization and “finalization.” A genre’s conceptualization has both inward and outward focus: the artist does not merely represent reality; he or she must use existing (...)
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  44. Christophe Perrin (2010). Sartre ou la fausse question de l'humanisme. Archives de Philosophie 2 (2):297-319.
    Accusé d’anti-humanisme par beaucoup, Sartre, qui, le 25 octobre 1945, fait publiquement aveu d’humanisme, se le fait pourtant reprocher par tous : ses fidèles lecteurs y voient une trahison, ses détracteurs un mensonge, Heidegger une erreur, certains de ses commentateurs un calcul. Critique de l’humanisme idéaliste au nom de son nominalisme, de l’humanisme classique au nom du subjectivisme de l’existentialisme, et de l’humanisme bourgeois au nom de son socialisme, Sartre, pourtant, ne devient pas humaniste sur le tard : il l’est (...)
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  45. Benjamin Smart, A Critique of Humean and Anti-Humean Metaphysics of Cause and Law - Final Version.
    Metaphysicians play an important role in our understanding of the universe. In recent years, physicists have focussed on finding accurate mathematical formalisms of the evolution of our physical system - if a metaphysician can uncover the metaphysical underpinnings of these formalisms; that is, why these formalisms seem to consistently map the universe, then our understanding of the world and the things in it is greatly enhanced. Science, then, plays a very important role in our project, as the best scientific formalisms (...)
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  46. Henri Bergson (2007). Creative Evolution. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Henri Bergson (1859-1941) is one of the truly great philosophers of the modernist period, and there is currently a major renaissance of interest in his unduly neglected texts and ideas amongst philosophers, literary theorists, and social theorists. Creative Evolution (1907) is the text that made Bergson world-famous in his own lifetime; in it Bergson responds to the challenge presented to our habits of thought by modern evolutionary theory, and attempts to show that the theory of knowledge must have its basis (...)
     
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  47. Russell Blackford (2010). Editorial. Journal of Evolution and Technology 21 (2).
    n issue 20 of The Journal of Evolution and Technology, we published “Nietzsche, the Overhuman, and Transhumanism” by Stefan Lorenz Sorgner, a leading Nietzsche scholar and the author of Metaphysics Without Truth: On the Importance of Consistency within Nietzsche’s Philosophy. Issue 21, our “Nietzsche and European Posthumanisms” issue, was prepared following a call for papers in response. We published a mix of short responses and full-length peer-reviewed articles. Meanwhile, we also invited Stefan Sorgner to reply to the papers in the (...)
     
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  48. Massimo Pigliucci (2005). Evolution of Phenotypic Plasticity: Where Are We Going Now? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20 (9):481-486.
    The study of phenotypic plasticity has progressed significantly over the past few decades. We have moved from variation for plasticity being considered as a nuisance in evolutionary studies to it being the primary target of investigations that use an array of methods, including quantitative and molecular genetics, as well as of several approaches that model the evolution of plastic responses. Here, I consider some of the major aspects of research on phenotypic plasticity, assessing where progress has been (...)
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  49.  75
    Thomas Suddendorf & Michael C. Corballis (2007). The Evolution of Foresight: What is Mental Time Travel, and is It Unique to Humans? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (3):299-313.
    In a dynamic world, mechanisms allowing prediction of future situations can provide a selective advantage. We suggest that memory systems differ in the degree of flexibility they offer for anticipatory behavior and put forward a corresponding taxonomy of prospection. The adaptive advantage of any memory system can only lie in what it contributes for future survival. The most flexible is episodic memory, which we suggest is part of a more general faculty of mental time travel that allows us not (...)
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  50.  34
    Nicholas Maxwell (2001). Evolution of Sentience, Consciousness and Language Viewed From a Darwinian and Purposive Perspective. In From The Human World in the Physical Universe: Consciousness, Free Will and Evolution, ch. 7. Rowman and Littlefield 162-201.
    In this article I give a Darwinian account of how sentience, consciousness and language may have evolved. It is argued that sentience and consciousness emerge as brains control purposive actions in new ways. A key feature of this account is that Darwinian theory is interpreted so as to do justice to the purposive character of living things. According to this interpretation, as evolution proceeds, purposive actions play an increasingly important role in the mechanisms of evolution until, with evolution by cultural (...)
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