116 found
Order:
Disambiguations
Donald Gillies [111]Donald A. Gillies [12]Donald A.: Gillies [2]
  1. Mechanisms and the Evidence Hierarchy.Brendan Clarke, Donald Gillies, Phyllis Illari, Federica Russo & Jon Williamson - 2014 - Topoi 33 (2):339-360.
    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) makes use of explicit procedures for grading evidence for causal claims. Normally, these procedures categorise evidence of correlation produced by statistical trials as better evidence for a causal claim than evidence of mechanisms produced by other methods. We argue, in contrast, that evidence of mechanisms needs to be viewed as complementary to, rather than inferior to, evidence of correlation. In this paper we first set out the case for treating evidence of mechanisms alongside evidence of correlation in (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   67 citations  
  2. Philosophical Theories of Probability.Donald Gillies - 2000 - Routledge.
    The Twentieth Century has seen a dramatic rise in the use of probability and statistics in almost all fields of research. This has stimulated many new philosophical ideas on probability. _Philosophical Theories of Probability_ is the first book to present a clear, comprehensive and systematic account of these various theories and to explain how they relate to one another. Gillies also offers a distinctive version of the propensity theory of probability, and the intersubjective interpretation, which develops the subjective theory.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   97 citations  
  3. Philosophy of Science in the Twentieth Century: Four Central Themes.Donald A. Gillies - 1993 - Blackwell.
    Part I: Inductivism and its Critics:. 1. Some Historical Background: Inductivism, Russell and the Cambridge School, the Vienna Circle and Popper. 2. Popper’s Critique of Inductivism. 3. Duhem’s Critique of Inductivism. Part II: Conventionalism and the Duhem-Quine Thesis:. 4. Poincare’s Conventionalism of 1902. 5. The Duhem Thesis and the Quine Thesis. Part III: The Nature of Observation:. 6. Observation Statements: the Views of Carnap, Neurath, Popper and Duhem. 7. Observation Statements: Some Psychological Findings. Part IV: The Demarcation between Science and (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   30 citations  
  4. Varieties of Propensity.Donald Gillies - 2000 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (4):807-835.
    The propensity interpretation of probability was introduced by Popper ([1957]), but has subsequently been developed in different ways by quite a number of philosophers of science. This paper does not attempt a complete survey, but discusses a number of different versions of the theory, thereby giving some idea of the varieties of propensity. Propensity theories are classified into (i) long-run and (ii) single-case. The paper argues for a long-run version of the propensity theory, but this is contrasted with two single-case (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   53 citations  
  5.  52
    The Evidence That Evidence-Based Medicine Omits.Brendan Clarke, Donald Gillies, Phyllis Illari, Federica Russo & Jon Williamson - unknown
    According to current hierarchies of evidence for EBM, evidence of correlation is always more important than evidence of mechanisms when evaluating and establishing causal claims. We argue that evidence of mechanisms needs to be treated alongside evidence of correlation. This is for three reasons. First, correlation is always a fallible indicator of causation, subject in particular to the problem of confounding; evidence of mechanisms can in some cases be more important than evidence of correlation when assessing a causal claim. Second, (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   22 citations  
  6.  28
    An Objective Theory of Probability (Routledge Revivals).Donald Gillies - 2010 - Routledge.
    This reissue of D. A. Gillies highly influential work, first published in 1973, is a philosophical theory of probability which seeks to develop von Mises’ views on the subject. In agreement with von Mises, the author regards probability theory as a mathematical science like mechanics or electrodynamics, and probability as an objective, measurable concept like force, mass or charge. On the other hand, Dr Gillies rejects von Mises’ definition of probability in terms of limiting frequency and claims that probability should (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  7.  93
    Revolutions in Mathematics.Donald Gillies (ed.) - 1992 - Oxford University Press.
    Social revolutions--that is critical periods of decisive, qualitative change--are a commonly acknowledged historical fact. But can the idea of revolutionary upheaval be extended to the world of ideas and theoretical debate? The publication of Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions in 1962 led to an exciting discussion of revolutions in the natural sciences. A fascinating, but little known, off-shoot of this was a debate which began in the United States in the mid-1970's as to whether the concept of revolution could (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   21 citations  
  8.  90
    Hempelian and Kuhnian Approaches in the Philosophy of Medicine: The Semmelweis Case.Donald Gillies - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 36 (1):159-181.
    Semmelweis’s investigations of puerperal fever are some of the most interesting in the history of medicine. This paper considers Hempel’s analysis of the Semmelweis case. It argues that this analysis is inadequate and needs to be supplemented by some Kuhnian ideas. Kuhn’s notion of paradigm needs to be modified to apply to medicine in order to take account of the classification schemes involved in medical theorising. However with a suitable modification it provides an explanation of Semmelweis’s failure which is argued (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   27 citations  
  9.  14
    The Nature of Mathematical Knowledge.Donald Gillies - 1985 - Philosophical Quarterly 35 (138):104-107.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   33 citations  
  10.  1
    Frege's Conception of Numbers as Objects. [REVIEW]Donald Gillies - 1984 - Mind 93 (372):613-617.
  11. The Russo-Williamson Thesis and the Question of Whether Smoking Causes Heart Disease.Donald Gillies - 2011 - In Phyllis McKay Illari, Federica Russo & Jon Williamson (eds.), Causality in the Sciences. Oxford University Press. pp. 110--125.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   20 citations  
  12. The Fregean Revolution in Logic.Donald Gillies - 1992 - In Revolutions in Mathematics. Oxford University Press. pp. 265--305.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   29 citations  
  13.  43
    In Defense of the Popper-Miller Argument.Donald Gillies - 1986 - Philosophy of Science 53 (1):110-113.
    In their 1983 article, Popper and Miller present an argument against inductive probability. This argument is criticized by Redhead in his 1985 article. The aim of the present note is to state one form of the Popper-Miller argument, and defend it against Redhead's criticisms.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   24 citations  
  14. A Falsifying Rule for Probability Statements.Donald A. Gillies - 1971 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 22 (3):231-261.
  15. The Duhem Thesis and the Quine Thesis.Donald Gillies - 1998 - In Martin Curd & Jan Cover (eds.), Philosophy of Science: The Central Issues. Norton. pp. 302--319.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  16.  41
    Intersubjective Probability and Confirmation Theory.Donald Gillies - 1991 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 42 (4):513-533.
    This paper introduces what is called the intersubjective interpretation of the probability calculus. Intersubjective probabilities are related to subjective probabilities, and the paper begins with a particular formulation of the familiar Dutch Book argument. This argument is then extended, in Section 3, to social groups, and this enables the concept of intersubjective probability to be introduced in Section 4. It is then argued that the intersubjective interpretation is the appropriate one for the probabilities which appear in confirmation theory whether of (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   18 citations  
  17. Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method.Donald Gillies - 1996 - Oxford University Press.
    Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method examines the remarkable advances made in the field of AI over the past twenty years, discussing their profound implications for philosophy. Taking a clear, non-technical approach, Donald Gillies shows how current views on scientific method are challenged by this recent research, and suggests a new framework for the study of logic. Finally, he draws on work by such seminal thinkers as Bacon, Gdel, Popper, Penrose, and Lucas, to address the hotly-contested question of whether computers might (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  18.  55
    An Action-Related Theory of Causality.Donald Gillies - 2005 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (4):823-842.
    The paper begins with a discussion of Russell's view that the notion of cause is unnecessary for science and can therefore be eliminated. It is argued that this is true for theoretical physics but untrue for medicine, where the notion of cause plays a central role. Medical theories are closely connected with practical action (attempts to cure and prevent disease), whereas theoretical physics is more remote from applications. This suggests the view that causal laws are appropriate in a context where (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  19.  11
    Hempelian and Kuhnian Approaches in the Philosophy of Medicine: The Semmelweis Case.Donald Gillies - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 36 (1):159-181.
    Semmelweis’s investigations of puerperal fever are some of the most interesting in the history of medicine. This paper considers Hempel’s analysis of the Semmelweis case. It argues that this analysis is inadequate and needs to be supplemented by some Kuhnian ideas. Kuhn’s notion of paradigm needs to be modified to apply to medicine in order to take account of the classification schemes involved in medical theorising. However with a suitable modification it provides an explanation of Semmelweis’s failure which is argued (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   14 citations  
  20. A Bayesian Analysis of Hume's Argument Concerning Miracles.Philip Dawid & Donald Gillies - 1989 - Philosophical Quarterly 39 (154):57-65.
  21.  45
    Informational Realism and World 3.Donald Gillies - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):7-24.
    This paper takes up a suggestion made by Floridi that the digital revolution is bringing about a profound change in our metaphysics. The paper aims to bring some older views from philosophy of mathematics to bear on this problem. The older views are concerned principally with mathematical realism—that is the claim that mathematical entities such as numbers exist. The new context for the discussion is informational realism, where the problem shifts to the question of the reality of information. Mathematical realism (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  22.  28
    Frege, Dedekind, and Peano on the Foundations of Arithmetic.Donald Gillies - 1982 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    First published in 1982, this reissue contains a critical exposition of the views of Frege, Dedekind and Peano on the foundations of arithmetic. The last quarter of the 19th century witnessed a remarkable growth of interest in the foundations of arithmetic. This work analyses both the reasons for this growth of interest within both mathematics and philosophy and the ways in which this study of the foundations of arithmetic led to new insights in philosophy and striking advances in logic. This (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  23.  5
    Commentary on Kate E. Lynch, Emily C. Parke, and Maureen A. O’Malley: ‘How Causal Are Microbiomes? A Comparison with the Helicobacter Pylori Explanation of Ulcers’. [REVIEW]Donald Gillies - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (6):56.
    This commentary focuses on the authors’ treatment of Koch’s postulates. It argues in favour of a modification of Koch’s postulates and their analysis in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions. This leads to a criticism of the authors’ treatment of the C. difficile case, and to query the need for the criteria of specificity and proportionality.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  24. Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method.Donald Gillies, Robert Cummins & John Pollock - 1997 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48 (4):610-612.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  25. Should Philosophers of Mathematics Make Use of Sociology?Donald Gillies - 2014 - Philosophia Mathematica 22 (1):12-34.
    This paper considers whether philosophy of mathematics could benefit by the introduction of some sociology. It begins by considering Lakatos's arguments that philosophy of science should be kept free of any sociology. An attempt is made to criticize these arguments, and then a positive argument is given for introducing a sociological dimension into the philosophy of mathematics. This argument is illustrated by considering Brouwer's account of numbers as mental constructions. The paper concludes with a critical discussion of Azzouni's view that (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  26. Philosophy of Science in the Twentieth Century: Four Central Themes.Donald Gillies - 1994 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (4):1066-1069.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  27.  1
    Commentary on Kate E. Lynch, Emily C. Parke, and Maureen A. O’Malley: ‘How Causal are Microbiomes? A Comparison with the Helicobacter pylori Explanation of Ulcers’. [REVIEW]Donald Gillies - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (6):1-3.
    This commentary focuses on the authors’ treatment of Koch’s postulates. It argues in favour of a modification of Koch’s postulates and their analysis in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions. This leads to a criticism of the authors’ treatment of the C. difficile case, and to query the need for the criteria of specificity and proportionality.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  28. Popper and Computer Induction.Donald A. Gillies - 2001 - Bioessays 23 (9):859-860.
  29.  36
    Bayesianism and the Fixity of the Theoretical Framework.Donald Gillies - 2001 - In David Corfield & Jon Williamson (eds.), Foundations of Bayesianism. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 363--379.
  30. A Bayesian Proof of a Humean Principle.Donald Gillies - 1991 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 42 (2):255-256.
    Hume bases his argument against miracles on an informal principle. This paper gives a formal explication of this principle of Hume’s, and then shows that this explication can be rigorously proved in a Bayesian framework.
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  31.  6
    An Empiricist Philosophy of Mathematics and its Implications for the History of Mathematics.Donald Gillies - 2000 - In Emily Grosholz & Herbert Breger (eds.), The Growth of Mathematical Knowledge. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 41--57.
  32.  11
    Mechanisms in Medicine.Donald Gillies - 2017 - Axiomathes 27 (6):621-634.
    This paper begins by developing a causal theory of mechanisms in medicine, and illustrates the theory with the example of the mechanism of the disease anthrax as elucidated by Koch. The causal approach to mechanisms is then compared to the Machamer, Darden, Craver approach. At first sight the two approaches appear to be very different, but it is argued that the divergence is less than it initially seems. There are some differences, however, and it is argued that, where these differences (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  33.  23
    Bayesianism Versus Falsificationism. [REVIEW]Donald Gillies - 1990 - Ratio 3 (1):82-98.
  34.  14
    Economics and Research Assessment Systems.Donald Gillies - 2012 - Economic Thought 1 (1):23-47.
    This paper seeks to analyse the effects on Economics of Research Assessment Systems, such as the Research Assessment Exercise which was carried out in the UK between 1986 and 2008. The paper begins by pointing out that, in the 2008 RAE, economics turned out to be the research area which was accorded the highest valuation of any subject in the UK, even though economists were then under attack for failing to predict the global financial crash which had occurred a few (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  35.  39
    Keynes as a Methodologist. [REVIEW]Donald Gillies - 1988 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 39 (1):117-129.
  36.  64
    Lessons From the History and Philosophy of Science Regarding the Research Assessment Exercise.Donald Gillies - 2007 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 61:37-73.
    The Research Assessment Exercise was introduced in 1986 by Thatcher, and was continued by Blair. So it has now been running for 21 years. During this time, the rules governing the RAE have changed considerably, and the interval between successive RAEs has also varied. These changes are not of great importance as far as the argument of this paper is concerned. We will concentrate on the main features of the RAE which can be summarised as follows.
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  37.  41
    Darrell P. Rowbottom Popper's Critical Rationalism: A Philosophical Investigation. [REVIEW]Donald Gillies - 2013 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (1):229-232.
  38.  46
    An Interchange on the Popper-Miller Argument.Charles S. Chihara & Donald A. Gillies - 1988 - Philosophical Studies 54 (1):1 - 8.
  39. Debates on Bayesianism and the Theory of Bayesian Networks.Donald Gillies - 1998 - Theoria 64 (1):1-22.
  40.  98
    The Turing—Good Weight of Evidence Function and Popper's Measure of the Severity of a Test.Donald Gillies - 1990 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 41 (1):143-146.
  41.  13
    Comments on 'Scientific Discovery as Problem Solving' by Herbert A. Simon.Donald A. Gillies - 1992 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 6 (1):29 – 31.
  42.  16
    Untimely Meditations on the Disciplines of Education.Anne Pirrie & Donald Gillies - 2012 - British Journal of Educational Studies 60 (4):387-402.
    The aim of this article is to explore what the concept of interdisciplinarity can bring to our developing understanding of education as a field of enquiry. We shall draw upon some recent writing on the disciplines of education in order to explore the potentially negative consequences of the way in which the disciplines are institutionalised and territorialised. We also assign some prominence to a personal account of an eminent anthropologist's perambulations through a disciplinary landscape in order to put forward an (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  43.  17
    Non-Bayesian Confirmation Theory, and the Principle of Explanatory Surplus.Donald A. Gillies - 1988 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:373 - 380.
    This paper suggests a new principle for confirmation theory which is called the principle of explanatory surplus. This principle is shown to be non-Bayesian in character, and to lead to a treatment of simplicity in science. Two cases of the principle of explanatory surplus are considered. The first (number of parameters) is illustrated by curve-fitting examples, while the second (number of theoretical assumptions) is illustrated by the examples of Newton's Laws and Adler's Theory of the Inferiority Complex.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  44. Dynamic Interactions with the Philosophy of Mathematics.Donald Gillies & Yuxin Zheng - 2001 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 16 (3):437-459.
    Dynamic interaction is said to occur when two significanrly different fields A and B come into relation, and their interaction is dynamic in the sense that at first the flow of ideas is principally from A to B, but later ideas from B come to influence A. Two examples are given of dynamic interactions with the philosophy of mathematics. The first is with philosophy of scicnce, and thc sccond with computer science. Theanalysis cnables Lakatos to be charactcrised as thc first (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  45.  19
    Problem-Solving and the Problem of Induction.Donald Gillies - 2009 - In Zuzana Parusniková & R. S. Cohen (eds.), Rethinking Popper. Springer. pp. 103--115.
  46. Causality, Propensity, and Bayesian Networks.Donald Gillies - 2002 - Synthese 132 (1-2):63 - 88.
    This paper investigates the relations between causality and propensity. Aparticular version of the propensity theory of probability is introduced, and it is argued that propensities in this sense are not causes. Some conclusions regarding propensities can, however, be inferred from causal statements, but these hold only under restrictive conditions which prevent cause being defined in terms of propensity. The notion of a Bayesian propensity network is introduced, and the relations between such networks and causal networks is investigated. It is argued (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  47.  4
    Poincaré: Conservative Methodologist but Revolutionary Scientist.Donald Gillies - 1996 - Philosophia Scientiae 1 (4):59-67.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  48.  27
    German Philosophy of Mathematics From Gauss to Hilbert.Donald Gillies - 1999 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 44:167-192.
    Suppose we were to ask some students of philosophy to imagine a typical book of classical German philosophy and describe its general style and character, how might they reply? I suspect that they would answer somewhat as follows. The book would be long and heavy, it would be written in a complicated style which employed only very abstract terms, and it would be extremely difficult to understand. At all events a description of this kind does indeed fit many famous works (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  49.  9
    Lakatos' Criticisms of Popper.Donald Gillies - 2002 - In George Kampis, Ladislav Kvasz & Michael Stöltzner (eds.), Appraising Lakatos: Mathematics, Methodology and the Man. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 13-22.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  50.  11
    Karl Menger as a Philosopher. [REVIEW]Donald Gillies - 1981 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 32 (2):183-196.
1 — 50 / 116