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Donald Gillies [109]Donald A. Gillies [11]Donald A.: Gillies [1]
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Donald Gillies
University College London
  1. Mechanisms and the Evidence Hierarchy.Brendan Clarke, Donald Gillies, Phyllis Illari, Federica Russo & Jon Williamson - 2014 - Topoi 33 (2):339-360.
    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) makes use of explicit procedures for grading evidence for causal claims. Normally, these procedures categorise evidence of correlation produced by statistical trials as better evidence for a causal claim than evidence of mechanisms produced by other methods. We argue, in contrast, that evidence of mechanisms needs to be viewed as complementary to, rather than inferior to, evidence of correlation. In this paper we first set out the case for treating evidence of mechanisms alongside evidence of correlation in (...)
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  2. Philosophical Theories of Probability.Donald Gillies - 2000 - Routledge.
    The Twentieth Century has seen a dramatic rise in the use of probability and statistics in almost all fields of research. This has stimulated many new philosophical ideas on probability. _Philosophical Theories of Probability_ is the first book to present a clear, comprehensive and systematic account of these various theories and to explain how they relate to one another. Gillies also offers a distinctive version of the propensity theory of probability, and the intersubjective interpretation, which develops the subjective theory.
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  3.  18
    An Objective Theory of Probability (Routledge Revivals).Donald Gillies - 2010 - Routledge.
    This reissue of D. A. Gillies highly influential work, first published in 1973, is a philosophical theory of probability which seeks to develop von Mises’ views on the subject. In agreement with von Mises, the author regards probability theory as a mathematical science like mechanics or electrodynamics, and probability as an objective, measurable concept like force, mass or charge. On the other hand, Dr Gillies rejects von Mises’ definition of probability in terms of limiting frequency and claims that probability should (...)
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  4. Varieties of Propensity.Donald Gillies - 2000 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (4):807-835.
    The propensity interpretation of probability was introduced by Popper ([1957]), but has subsequently been developed in different ways by quite a number of philosophers of science. This paper does not attempt a complete survey, but discusses a number of different versions of the theory, thereby giving some idea of the varieties of propensity. Propensity theories are classified into (i) long-run and (ii) single-case. The paper argues for a long-run version of the propensity theory, but this is contrasted with two single-case (...)
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  5. The Russo-Williamson Thesis and the Question of Whether Smoking Causes Heart Disease.Donald Gillies - 2011 - In Phyllis McKay Illari, Federica Russo & Jon Williamson (eds.), Causality in the Sciences. Oxford University Press. pp. 110--125.
     
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  6.  41
    The Evidence That Evidence-Based Medicine Omits.Brendan Clarke, Donald Gillies, Phyllis Illari, Frederica Russo & Jon Williamson - 2013 - Preventive Medicine 57:745-747.
    According to current hierarchies of evidence for EBM, evidence of correlation is always more important than evidence of mechanisms when evaluating and establishing causal claims. We argue that evidence of mechanisms needs to be treated alongside evidence of correlation. This is for three reasons. First, correlation is always a fallible indicator of causation, subject in particular to the problem of confounding; evidence of mechanisms can in some cases be more important than evidence of correlation when assessing a causal claim. Second, (...)
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  7.  61
    Hempelian and Kuhnian Approaches in the Philosophy of Medicine: The Semmelweis Case.Donald Gillies - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 36 (1):159-181.
    Semmelweis’s investigations of puerperal fever are some of the most interesting in the history of medicine. This paper considers Hempel’s analysis of the Semmelweis case. It argues that this analysis is inadequate and needs to be supplemented by some Kuhnian ideas. Kuhn’s notion of paradigm needs to be modified to apply to medicine in order to take account of the classification schemes involved in medical theorising. However with a suitable modification it provides an explanation of Semmelweis’s failure which is argued (...)
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  8. Philosophical Theories of Probability.Donald Gillies - 2003 - Philosophical Quarterly 53 (210):132-134.
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  9.  9
    Should We Distrust Medical Interventions?Donald Gillies - forthcoming - Metascience:1-4.
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  10. Should Causal Models Always Be Markovian? The Case of Multi-Causal Forks in Medicine.Donald Gillies & Aidan Sudbury - 2013 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (3):275-308.
    The development of causal modelling since the 1950s has been accompanied by a number of controversies, the most striking of which concerns the Markov condition. Reichenbach's conjunctive forks did satisfy the Markov condition, while Salmon's interactive forks did not. Subsequently some experts in the field have argued that adequate causal models should always satisfy the Markov condition, while others have claimed that non-Markovian causal models are needed in some cases. This paper argues for the second position by considering the multi-causal (...)
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  11.  46
    An Action-Related Theory of Causality.Donald Gillies - 2005 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (4):823-842.
    The paper begins with a discussion of Russell's view that the notion of cause is unnecessary for science and can therefore be eliminated. It is argued that this is true for theoretical physics but untrue for medicine, where the notion of cause plays a central role. Medical theories are closely connected with practical action (attempts to cure and prevent disease), whereas theoretical physics is more remote from applications. This suggests the view that causal laws are appropriate in a context where (...)
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  12. Popper and Computer Induction.Donald A. Gillies - 2001 - Bioessays 23 (9):859-860.
  13. Should Philosophers of Mathematics Make Use of Sociology?Donald Gillies - 2014 - Philosophia Mathematica 22 (1):12-34.
    This paper considers whether philosophy of mathematics could benefit by the introduction of some sociology. It begins by considering Lakatos's arguments that philosophy of science should be kept free of any sociology. An attempt is made to criticize these arguments, and then a positive argument is given for introducing a sociological dimension into the philosophy of mathematics. This argument is illustrated by considering Brouwer's account of numbers as mental constructions. The paper concludes with a critical discussion of Azzouni's view that (...)
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  14.  4
    Mechanisms in Medicine.Donald Gillies - 2017 - Axiomathes 27 (6):621-634.
    This paper begins by developing a causal theory of mechanisms in medicine, and illustrates the theory with the example of the mechanism of the disease anthrax as elucidated by Koch. The causal approach to mechanisms is then compared to the Machamer, Darden, Craver approach. At first sight the two approaches appear to be very different, but it is argued that the divergence is less than it initially seems. There are some differences, however, and it is argued that, where these differences (...)
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  15. The Duhem Thesis and the Quine Thesis.Donald Gillies - 1998 - In Martin Curd & Jan Cover (eds.), Philosophy of Science: The Central Issues. Norton. pp. 302--319.
     
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  16.  77
    Revolutions in Mathematics.Donald Gillies (ed.) - 1992 - Oxford University Press.
    Social revolutions--that is critical periods of decisive, qualitative change--are a commonly acknowledged historical fact. But can the idea of revolutionary upheaval be extended to the world of ideas and theoretical debate? The publication of Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions in 1962 led to an exciting discussion of revolutions in the natural sciences. A fascinating, but little known, off-shoot of this was a debate which began in the United States in the mid-1970's as to whether the concept of revolution could (...)
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  17. Philosophy of Science in the Twentieth Century: Four Central Themes.Donald Gillies - 1993 - Blackwell.
  18.  40
    In Defense of the Popper-Miller Argument.Donald Gillies - 1986 - Philosophy of Science 53 (1):110-113.
    In their 1983 article, Popper and Miller present an argument against inductive probability. This argument is criticized by Redhead in his 1985 article. The aim of the present note is to state one form of the Popper-Miller argument, and defend it against Redhead's criticisms.
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  19. A Bayesian Analysis of Hume's Argument Concerning Miracles.Philip Dawid & Donald Gillies - 1989 - Philosophical Quarterly 39 (154):57-65.
  20. The Fregean Revolution in Logic.Donald Gillies - 1992 - In Revolutions in Mathematics. Oxford University Press. pp. 265--305.
     
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  21. Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method.Donald Gillies - 1996 - Oxford University Press.
    Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method examines the remarkable advances made in the field of AI over the past twenty years, discussing their profound implications for philosophy. Taking a clear, non-technical approach, Donald Gillies shows how current views on scientific method are challenged by this recent research, and suggests a new framework for the study of logic. Finally, he draws on work by such seminal thinkers as Bacon, Gdel, Popper, Penrose, and Lucas, to address the hotly-contested question of whether computers might (...)
     
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  22.  35
    Intersubjective Probability and Confirmation Theory.Donald Gillies - 1991 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 42 (4):513-533.
    This paper introduces what is called the intersubjective interpretation of the probability calculus. Intersubjective probabilities are related to subjective probabilities, and the paper begins with a particular formulation of the familiar Dutch Book argument. This argument is then extended, in Section 3, to social groups, and this enables the concept of intersubjective probability to be introduced in Section 4. It is then argued that the intersubjective interpretation is the appropriate one for the probabilities which appear in confirmation theory whether of (...)
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  23.  11
    Indeterministic Causality and Simpson's Paradox.Donald Gillies - unknown
    This paper argues for a claim made by Maria Carla Galavotti that the use of indeterministic causality involves one in Simpson's paradox. It is shown specifically that a consideration of Hesslow's well-known counter-example leads to Simpson's paradox.
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  24.  28
    Informational Realism and World 3.Donald Gillies - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):7-24.
    This paper takes up a suggestion made by Floridi that the digital revolution is bringing about a profound change in our metaphysics. The paper aims to bring some older views from philosophy of mathematics to bear on this problem. The older views are concerned principally with mathematical realism—that is the claim that mathematical entities such as numbers exist. The new context for the discussion is informational realism, where the problem shifts to the question of the reality of information. Mathematical realism (...)
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  25. A Falsifying Rule for Probability Statements.Donald A. Gillies - 1971 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 22 (3):231-261.
  26.  13
    Untimely Meditations on the Disciplines of Education.Anne Pirrie & Donald Gillies - 2012 - British Journal of Educational Studies 60 (4):387-402.
    The aim of this article is to explore what the concept of interdisciplinarity can bring to our developing understanding of education as a field of enquiry. We shall draw upon some recent writing on the disciplines of education in order to explore the potentially negative consequences of the way in which the disciplines are institutionalised and territorialised. We also assign some prominence to a personal account of an eminent anthropologist's perambulations through a disciplinary landscape in order to put forward an (...)
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  27.  68
    A Bayesian Proof of a Humean Principle.Donald Gillies - 1991 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 42 (2):255-256.
    Hume bases his argument against miracles on an informal principle. This paper gives a formal explication of this principle of Hume’s, and then shows that this explication can be rigorously proved in a Bayesian framework.
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  28. Laws and Models in Science.Donald Gillies - 2006 - Erkenntnis 65 (3):427-432.
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  29.  1
    Hempelian and Kuhnian Approaches in the Philosophy of Medicine: The Semmelweis Case.Donald Gillies - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 36 (1):159-181.
    Semmelweis’s investigations of puerperal fever are some of the most interesting in the history of medicine. This paper considers Hempel’s analysis of the Semmelweis case. It argues that this analysis is inadequate and needs to be supplemented by some Kuhnian ideas. Kuhn’s notion of paradigm needs to be modified to apply to medicine in order to take account of the classification schemes involved in medical theorising. However with a suitable modification it provides an explanation of Semmelweis’s failure which is argued (...)
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  30. Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method.Donald Gillies, Robert Cummins & John Pollock - 1997 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48 (4):610-612.
     
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  31.  14
    Problem-Solving and the Problem of Induction.Donald Gillies - 2009 - In Zuzana Parusniková & R. S. Cohen (eds.), Rethinking Popper. Springer. pp. 103--115.
  32.  30
    Bayesianism and the Fixity of the Theoretical Framework.Donald Gillies - 2001 - In David Corfield & Jon Williamson (eds.), Foundations of Bayesianism. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 363--379.
  33.  85
    The Turing—Good Weight of Evidence Function and Popper's Measure of the Severity of a Test.Donald Gillies - 1990 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 41 (1):143-146.
  34. Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method.Donald Gillies - 1998 - Mind 107 (428):882-886.
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  35.  2
    Philosophy of Science in the Twentieth Century: Four Central Themes.Donald Gillies, Peter Kosso & Alan Musgrave - 1995 - Philosophical Quarterly 45 (180):379-384.
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  36. Causality, Propensity, and Bayesian Networks.Donald Gillies - 2002 - Synthese 132 (1-2):63 - 88.
    This paper investigates the relations between causality and propensity. Aparticular version of the propensity theory of probability is introduced, and it is argued that propensities in this sense are not causes. Some conclusions regarding propensities can, however, be inferred from causal statements, but these hold only under restrictive conditions which prevent cause being defined in terms of propensity. The notion of a Bayesian propensity network is introduced, and the relations between such networks and causal networks is investigated. It is argued (...)
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  37.  9
    Comments on 'Scientific Discovery as Problem Solving' by Herbert A. Simon.Donald A. Gillies - 1992 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 6 (1):29 – 31.
  38.  21
    Dynamic Interactions with the Philosophy of Mathematics.Donald Gillies & Yuxin Zheng - 2001 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 16 (3):437-459.
    Dynamic interaction is said to occur when two significanrly different fields A and B come into relation, and their interaction is dynamic in the sense that at first the flow of ideas is principally from A to B, but later ideas from B come to influence A. Two examples are given of dynamic interactions with the philosophy of mathematics. The first is with philosophy of scicnce, and thc sccond with computer science. Theanalysis cnables Lakatos to be charactcrised as thc first (...)
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  39.  19
    Keynes as a Methodologist. [REVIEW]Donald Gillies - 1988 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 39 (1):117-129.
  40.  11
    Bayesianism Versus Falsificationism. [REVIEW]Donald Gillies - 1990 - Ratio 3 (1):82-98.
  41.  58
    Review of La Natura E Il Futuro Della Filosofia. [REVIEW]Donald Gillies - 2003 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (3):501-507.
  42.  74
    Causality: Models, Reasoning, and Inference Judea Pearl.Donald Gillies - 2001 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 52 (3):613-622.
  43.  64
    Debates on Bayesianism and the Theory of Bayesian Networks.Donald Gillies - 1998 - Theoria 64 (1):1-22.
  44.  8
    German Philosophy of Mathematics From Gauss to Hilbert.Donald Gillies - 1999 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 44:167-192.
    Suppose we were to ask some students of philosophy to imagine a typical book of classical German philosophy and describe its general style and character, how might they reply? I suspect that they would answer somewhat as follows. The book would be long and heavy, it would be written in a complicated style which employed only very abstract terms, and it would be extremely difficult to understand. At all events a description of this kind does indeed fit many famous works (...)
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  45.  45
    International Symposium on Structures in Mathematical Theories (SSMT-90) (San Sebastián, 25-29 de Septiembre de 1.990).Donald A. Gillies - 1991 - Theoria 6 (1):331-335.
  46.  59
    Review of 'Carlo Cellucci. Filosofia E Matematica (Philosophy and Mathematics)'. [REVIEW]Donald Gillies - 2003 - Philosophia Mathematica 11 (2):246-253.
  47.  5
    An Empiricist Philosophy of Mathematics and its Implications for the History of Mathematics.Donald Gillies - 2000 - In Emily Grosholz & Herbert Breger (eds.), The Growth of Mathematical Knowledge. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 41--57.
  48.  16
    Leadership, Ethics and Schooling for Social Justice. By Richard Niesche and Amanda Keddie. [REVIEW]Donald Gillies - 2016 - British Journal of Educational Studies 64 (4):556-557.
  49. Alan White, "The Nature of Knowledge".Donald Gillies - 1985 - Philosophical Quarterly 35 (138):104.
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  50.  15
    Non-Bayesian Confirmation Theory, and the Principle of Explanatory Surplus.Donald A. Gillies - 1988 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:373 - 380.
    This paper suggests a new principle for confirmation theory which is called the principle of explanatory surplus. This principle is shown to be non-Bayesian in character, and to lead to a treatment of simplicity in science. Two cases of the principle of explanatory surplus are considered. The first (number of parameters) is illustrated by curve-fitting examples, while the second (number of theoretical assumptions) is illustrated by the examples of Newton's Laws and Adler's Theory of the Inferiority Complex.
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