Results for 'Liane Schmidt'

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  1.  6
    Does the Coronavirus Epidemic Take Advantage of Human Optimism Bias?Hugo Bottemanne, Orphée Morlaàs, Philippe Fossati & Liane Schmidt - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  2.  14
    Schmidt Die Erklärungen zum Weltbild Homers und zur Kultur der Heroenzeit in den bT-Scholien zur Ilias. Munich: C. H. Beck. 1976. Pp. ix + 295. DM 90. [REVIEW]M. M. Willcock & M. Schmidt - 1977 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 97:173-174.
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  3. Damage to the Prefrontal Cortex Increases Utilitarian Moral Judgements.Michael Koenigs, Liane Young, Ralph Adolphs, Daniel Tranel, Fiery Cushman, Marc Hauser & Antonio Damasio - 2007 - Nature 446 (7138):908-911.
    The psychological and neurobiological processes underlying moral judgement have been the focus of many recent empirical studies1–11. Of central interest is whether emotions play a causal role in moral judgement, and, in parallel, how emotion-related areas of the brain contribute to moral judgement. Here we show that six patients with focal bilateral damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC), a brain region necessary for the normal generation of emotions and, in particular, social emotions12–14, produce an abnor- mally ‘utilitarian’ pattern of (...)
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  4.  23
    Dennis Schmidt and His Conception of Philosophical Hermeneutics.Luiz Rohden & Dennis Schmidt - 2017 - Filosofia Unisinos 18 (3).
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  5.  80
    Mind Perception is the Essence of Morality.Kurt Gray, Liane Young & Adam Waytz - 2012 - Psychological Inquiry 23 (2):101-124.
    Mind perception entails ascribing mental capacities to other entities, whereas moral judgment entails labeling entities as good or bad or actions as right or wrong. We suggest that mind perception is the essence of moral judgment. In particular, we suggest that moral judgment is rooted in a cognitive template of two perceived minds—a moral dyad of an intentional agent and a suffering moral patient. Diverse lines of research support dyadic morality. First, perceptions of mind are linked to moral judgments: dimensions (...)
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  6.  25
    Dyscalculia From a Developmental and Differential Perspective.Liane Kaufmann, Michèle M. Mazzocco, Ann Dowker, Michael von Aster, Silke M. Göbel, Roland H. Grabner, Avishai Henik, Nancy C. Jordan, Annette D. Karmiloff-Smith, Karin Kucian, Orly Rubinsten, Denes Szucs, Ruth Shalev & Hans-Christoph Nuerk - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4.
  7.  24
    The Value of Rationality. [REVIEW]Sebastian Schmidt - 2019 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 73 (1):153-157.
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  8. When Ignorance is No Excuse: Different Roles for Intent Across Moral Domains.Liane Young & Rebecca Saxe - 2011 - Cognition 120 (2):202-214.
  9.  18
    Disruption of the Right Temporoparietal Junction with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Reduces the Role of Beliefs in Moral Judgments.Liane Young, Joan Albert Camprodon, Marc Hauser, Alvaro Pascual-Leone & Rebecca Saxe - 2010 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
    When we judge an action as morally right or wrong, we rely on our capacity to infer the actor's mental states. Here, we test the hypothesis that the right temporoparietal junction, an area involved in mental state reasoning, is necessary for making moral judgments. In two experiments, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation to disrupt neural activity in the RTPJ transiently before moral judgment and during moral judgment. In both experiments, TMS to the RTPJ led participants to rely less on the (...)
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  10. Does Emotion Mediate the Relationship Between an Action's Moral Status and its Intentional Status? Neuropsychological Evidence.Liane Young, Daniel Tranel, Ralph Adolphs, Marc Hauser & Fiery Cushman - 2006 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 6 (1-2):291-304.
    Studies of normal individuals reveal an asymmetry in the folk concept of intentional action: an action is more likely to be thought of as intentional when it is morally bad than when it is morally good. One interpretation of these results comes from the hypothesis that emotion plays a critical mediating role in the relationship between an action’s moral status and its intentional status. According to this hypothesis, the negative emotional response triggered by a morally bad action drives the attribution (...)
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  11. The Neural Basis of the Interaction Between Theory of Mind and Moral Judgment.Liane Young, Fiery Cushman, Marc Hauser & and Rebecca Saxe - 2007 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (20):8235-8240.
    Is the basis of criminality an act that causes harm, or an act undertaken with the belief that one will cause harm? The present study takes a cognitive neuroscience approach to investigating how information about an agent’s beliefs and an action’s conse- quences contribute to moral judgment. We build on prior devel- opmental evidence showing that these factors contribute differ- entially to the young child’s moral judgments coupled with neurobiological evidence suggesting a role for the right tem- poroparietal junction (RTPJ) (...)
     
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  12. The Paradox of Moral Focus.Liane Young & Jonathan Phillips - 2011 - Cognition 119 (2):166-178.
    When we evaluate moral agents, we consider many factors, including whether the agent acted freely, or under duress or coercion. In turn, moral evaluations have been shown to influence our (non-moral) evaluations of these same factors. For example, when we judge an agent to have acted immorally, we are subsequently more likely to judge the agent to have acted freely, not under force. Here, we investigate the cognitive signatures of this effect in interpersonal situations, in which one agent (“forcer”) forces (...)
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  13. Investigating the Neural and Cognitive Basis of Moral Luck: It’s Not What You Do but What You Know. [REVIEW]Liane Young, Shaun Nichols & Rebecca Saxe - 2010 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (3):333-349.
    Moral judgments, we expect, ought not to depend on luck. A person should be blamed only for actions and outcomes that were under the person’s control. Yet often, moral judgments appear to be influenced by luck. A father who leaves his child by the bath, after telling his child to stay put and believing that he will stay put, is judged to be morally blameworthy if the child drowns (an unlucky outcome), but not if his child stays put and doesn’t (...)
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  14.  45
    Meme and Variations.Liane M. Gabora - unknown
    American Political Science Association Meeting, New Orleans, 1985. Belew, R. K. "E,volut,ioi1. Leariiing, and Culture: Computational Metaphors for Adaptive Algorithms? Complex Systems 4 (1990}: 11-49. Banner, J. T. The Evolution of Culture in Animals. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univcrsitv Press. 1980.
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  15.  29
    Moral Realism as Moral Motivation: The Impact of Meta-Ethics on Everyday Decision-Making.Liane Young & A. J. Durwin - 2013 - Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 49 (2):302-306.
    People disagree about whether “moral facts” are objective facts like mathematical truths (moral realism) or simply products of the human mind (moral antirealism). What is the impact of different meta-ethical views on actual behavior? In Experiment 1, a street canvasser, soliciting donations for a charitable organization dedicated to helping impoverished children, primed passersby with realism or antirealism. Participants primed with realism were twice as likely to be donors, compared to control participants and participants primed with antirealism. In Experiment 2, online (...)
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  16.  11
    Damage to Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Impairs Judgment of Harmful Intent.Liane Young, Antoine Bechara, Daniel Tranel, Hanna Damasio, Marc Hauser & Antonio Damasio - 2010 - Neuron 65 (6):845-851.
    Moral judgments, whether delivered in ordinary experience or in the courtroom, depend on our ability to infer intentions. We forgive unintentional or accidental harms and condemn failed attempts to harm. Prior work demonstrates that patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex deliver abnormal judgments in response to moral dilemmas and that these patients are especially impaired in triggering emotional responses to inferred or abstract events, as opposed to real or actual outcomes. We therefore predicted that VMPC patients would deliver (...)
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  17. The Role of Conscious Reasoning and Intuition in Moral Judgment.Fiery Cushman, Liane Young & Marc Hauser - 2006 - Psychological Science 17 (12):1082-1089.
    ��Is moral judgment accomplished by intuition or conscious reasoning? An answer demands a detailed account of the moral principles in question. We investigated three principles that guide moral judgments: (a) Harm caused by action is worse than harm caused by omission, (b) harm intended as the means to a goal is worse than harm foreseen as the side effect of a goal, and (c) harm involving physical contact with the victim is worse than harm involving no physical contact. Asking whether (...)
     
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  18.  5
    ‘The Impossible Possibility of Love’: Reinhold Niebuhr’s Thought on Racial Justice.Liane Hartnett - 2021 - Journal of International Political Theory 17 (2):151-168.
    Love has been long lauded for its salvific potential in U.S. anti-racist rhetoric. Yet, what does it mean to speak or act in love’s name to redress racism? Turning to the work of the North American public intellectual and theologian, Reinhold Niebuhr, this essay explores his contribution to normative theory on love’s role in the work of racial justice. Niebuhr was a staunch supporter of civil rights, and many prominent figures of the movement such as James Cone, Jesse Jackson, Martin (...)
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  19. Patterns of Moral Judgment Derive From Nonmoral Psychological Representations.Fiery Cushman & Liane Young - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (6):1052-1075.
    Ordinary people often make moral judgments that are consistent with philosophical principles and legal distinctions. For example, they judge killing as worse than letting die, and harm caused as a necessary means to a greater good as worse than harm caused as a side-effect (Cushman, Young, & Hauser, 2006). Are these patterns of judgment produced by mechanisms specific to the moral domain, or do they derive from other psychological domains? We show that the action/omission and means/side-effect distinctions affect nonmoral representations (...)
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  20.  37
    In Early Childhood: What's Language About?Liane Mozère - 2007 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 39 (3):291–299.
    This paper argues that in daycare centres in France, where children are cared for from four months to age three, the competence of female staff members is usually denied and unvalued vis à vis the expert opinions. The paper highlights empirical research on early childhood and gender, providing pragmatic access to children's languages of desire, a language mostly ignored. Incorporating the ideas of Foucault, Deleuze and Guattari, the paper draws upon the conceptualization of Fernand Deligny who took care of autistic (...)
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  21. Multi-System Moral Psychology.Fiery Cushman, Liane Young & Joshua D. Greene - 2010 - In John Michael Doris (ed.), The Moral Psychology Handbook. Oxford University Press.
  22.  28
    Addressees Distinguish Shared From Private Information When Interpreting Questions During Interactive Conversation.Sarah Brown-Schmidt, Christine Gunlogson & Michael K. Tanenhaus - 2008 - Cognition 107 (3):1122-1134.
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  23.  24
    Persepolis. I. Structures, Reliefs, Inscriptions. By E. F. Schmidt. Pp. Xxix + 297, with 205 Plates and 123 Text Figures. Chicago: University Press, 1953. $65. [REVIEW]Christoph Clairmont & E. F. Schmidt - 1955 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 75:176-177.
  24. It’s Not Just What You Do, but What’s on Your Mind: A Review of Kwame Anthony Appiah’s “Experiments in Ethics”. [REVIEW]Liane Young & Rebecca Saxe - 2010 - Neuroethics 3 (3):201-207.
    What is the impact of science on philosophy? In “Experiments in Ethics”, Kwame Anthony Appiah addresses this question for morality and ethics. Appiah suggests that scientific results may undermine moral intuitions by undermining our confidence in the actual sources of our intuitions, or by invalidating our factual assumptions about the causes of human behavior. Appiah worries that scientific results showing situational causes on human behavior force us to abandon the intuition, formalized in virtue ethics, that what matters is “who you (...)
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  25.  21
    What Entrepreneurial Followers at the Start-Up Stage Need From Entrepreneurship Cultivation: Evidence From Western China.Xuefan Dong, Chengxiang Tang, Ying Lian & Daisheng Tang - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  26.  15
    Classification of Structural Complexity for Mine Ventilation Networks.Lian-Jiang Wei, Fu-Bao Zhou, Jian-Wei Cheng, Xin-Rong Luo & Xiao-Lin Li - 2016 - Complexity 21 (1):21-34.
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  27.  81
    Contextualizing Concepts Using a Mathematical Generalization of the Quantum Formalism.Liane Gabora & Diederik Aerts - 2002 - Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 14 (4):327-358.
    We outline the rationale and preliminary results of using the State Context Property (SCOP) formalism, originally developed as a generalization of quantum mechanics, to describe the contextual manner in which concepts are evoked, used, and combined to generate meaning. The quantum formalism was developed to cope with problems arising in the description of (1) the measurement process, and (2) the generation of new states with new properties when particles become entangled. Similar problems arising with concepts motivated the formal treatment introduced (...)
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  28.  56
    Changing the Paradigm for Engineering Ethics.Jon Alan Schmidt - 2014 - Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (4):985-1010.
    Modern philosophy recognizes two major ethical theories: deontology, which encourages adherence to rules and fulfillment of duties or obligations; and consequentialism, which evaluates morally significant actions strictly on the basis of their actual or anticipated outcomes. Both involve the systematic application of universal abstract principles, reflecting the culturally dominant paradigm of technical rationality. Professional societies promulgate codes of ethics with which engineers are expected to comply, while courts and the public generally assign liability to engineers primarily in accordance with the (...)
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  29. Possessing Epistemic Reasons: The Role of Rational Capacities.Eva Schmidt - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (2):483-501.
    In this paper, I defend a reasons-first view of epistemic justification, according to which the justification of our beliefs arises entirely in virtue of the epistemic reasons we possess. I remove three obstacles for this view, which result from its presupposition that epistemic reasons have to be possessed by the subject: the problem that reasons-first accounts of justification are necessarily circular; the problem that they cannot give special epistemic significance to perceptual experience; the problem that they have to say that (...)
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  30.  90
    Moral Intuitions.Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Liane Young & Fiery Cushman - 2010 - In John Michael Doris (ed.), The Moral Psychology Handbook. Oxford University Press. pp. 246--272.
    Moral intuitions are strong, stable, immediate moral beliefs. Moral philosophers ask when they are justified. This question cannot be answered separately from a psychological question: How do moral intuitions arise? Their reliability depends upon their source. This chapter develops and argues for a new theory of how moral intuitions arise—that they arise through heuristic processes best understood as unconscious attribute substitutions. That is, when asked whether something has the attribute of moral wrongness, people unconsciously substitute a different question about a (...)
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  31. Philosophie Als Sprachkritik Im 19. Jahrhundert. Textauswahl. Hrsg. Von Hermann-Josef Cloeren [Und Siegfried J. Schmidt.]. [REVIEW]Hermann-Josef Cloeren & Siegfried J. Schmidt - 1971 - Frommann-Holzboog.
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  32.  13
    Real‐Time Investigation of Referential Domains in Unscripted Conversation: A Targeted Language Game Approach.Sarah Brown-Schmidt & Michael K. Tanenhaus - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (4):643-684.
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  33. Concepts and Their Dynamics: A Quantum‐Theoretic Modeling of Human Thought.Diederik Aerts, Liane Gabora & Sandro Sozzo - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (4):737-772.
    We analyze different aspects of our quantum modeling approach of human concepts and, more specifically, focus on the quantum effects of contextuality, interference, entanglement, and emergence, illustrating how each of them makes its appearance in specific situations of the dynamics of human concepts and their combinations. We point out the relation of our approach, which is based on an ontology of a concept as an entity in a state changing under influence of a context, with the main traditional concept theories, (...)
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  34. Grundsätze der Philosophie der Zukunft Kritische Ausgabe Mit Einleitung Und Anmerkungen von Gerhart Schmidt.Ludwig Feuerbach & Gerhart Schmidt - 1967 - V. Klostermann.
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  35.  6
    Neural Evidence for "Intuitive Prosecution": The Use of Mental State Information for Negative Moral Verdicts.Liane Young, Jonathan Scholz & Rebecca Saxe - 2011 - Social Neuroscience 6 (3):302-315.
    Moral judgment depends critically on theory of mind, reasoning about mental states such as beliefs and intentions. People assign blame for failed attempts to harm and offer forgiveness in the case of accidents. Here we use fMRI to investigate the role of ToM in moral judgment of harmful vs. helpful actions. Is ToM deployed differently for judgments of blame vs. praise? Participants evaluated agents who produced a harmful, helpful, or neutral outcome, based on a harmful, helpful, or neutral intention; participants (...)
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  36.  19
    Can Only One Person Be Right? The Development of Objectivism and Social Preferences Regarding Widely Shared and Controversial Moral Beliefs.Larisa Heiphetz & Liane L. Young - 2017 - Cognition 167:78-90.
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  37. Ideas Are Not Replicators but Minds Are.Liane Gabora - 2004 - Biology and Philosophy 19 (1):127-143.
    An idea is not a replicator because it does not consist of coded self-assembly instructions. It may retain structure as it passes from one individual to another, but does not replicate it. The cultural replicator is not an idea but an associatively-structured network of them that together form an internal model of the world, or worldview. A worldview is a primitive, uncoded replicator, like the autocatalytic sets of polymers widely believed to be the earliest form of life. Primitive replicators generate (...)
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  38. Beati Patris Martini Lutheri Liber de Servo Arbitrio, Contra Desid. Erasmum Roterodamum [de Libero Arbitrio] Cum Brevibus Annotationibus Ed. À S. Schmidt[REVIEW]Martin Luther & Sebastian Schmidt - 1664
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  39.  11
    Freedom in Responsibility: On the Relevance of “Sin” As a Hermeneutic Guiding Principle in Bioethical Decision Making.E. Grab-Schmidt - 2005 - Christian Bioethics 11 (2):147-165.
    (2005). Freedom in Responsibility: On the Relevance of “Sin” As a Hermeneutic Guiding Principle in Bioethical Decision Making. Christian Bioethics: Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 147-165.
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  40.  94
    Doing Good Leads to More Good: The Reinforcing Power of a Moral Self-Concept.Liane Young, Alek Chakroff & Jessica Tom - 2012 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (3):325-334.
    What is the role of self-concept in motivating moral behavior? On one account, when people are primed to perceive themselves as “do-gooders”, conscious access to this positive self-concept will reinforce good behavior. On an alternative account, when people are reminded that they have done their “good deed for the day”, they will feel licensed to behave worse. In the current study, when participants were asked to recall their own good deeds (positive self-concept), their subsequent charitable donations were nearly twice that (...)
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  41.  77
    Zhuangzi the Poet: Re-Reading the Peng Bird Image.Lian Xinda - 2009 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 8 (3):233-254.
    The image of the Peng bird, which opens the Zhuangzi text, is not the product of metaphysical reasoning. An inspiring example of soaring up and going beyond, the image is used to broaden the outlook of the small mind; its function is thus more therapeutic than instructional. With its rich poetic and experiential content, the image of the Peng refuses to be reduced to an abstract concept, or a mere signifier of certain philosophical position. Misreading of the image results from (...)
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  42.  38
    Memory and Common Ground Processes in Language Use.Sarah Brown‐Schmidt & Melissa C. Duff - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (4):722-736.
    During communication, we form assumptions about what our communication partners know and believe. Information that is mutually known between the discourse partners—their common ground—serves as a backdrop for successful communication. Here we present an introduction to the focus of this topic, which is the role of memory in common ground and language use. Two types of questions emerge as central to understanding the relationship between memory and common ground, specifically questions having to do with the representation of common ground in (...)
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  43. F. Schmidt, Logik der Syntax.Gerhart Schmidt - 1959 - Philosophische Rundschau 7 (1):72.
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  44.  67
    Stock Option Repricing: Heads I Win, Tails You Lose. [REVIEW]Avinash Arya & Huey-Lian Sun - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 50 (4):297-312.
    Recent scandals at Enron, WorldCom and Global Crossing have put the ethical spotlight on corporate malfeasance as never before. However, these are the situations in which management knew that they made the wrong choice. As professor Joseph Badaracco of Harvard Business School points out, the real ethical dilemmas arise when people must choose between right and right — where both choices can be justified, yet one must be chosen over the other. Whether or not to reprice stock options represents one (...)
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  45. The Psychology of Dilemmas and the Philosophy of Morality.Fiery Cushman & Liane Young - 2009 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 12 (1):9-24.
    We review several instances where cognitive research has identified distinct psychological mechanisms for moral judgment that yield conflicting answers to moral dilemmas. In each of these cases, the conflict between psychological mechanisms is paralleled by prominent philosophical debates between different moral theories. A parsimonious account of this data is that key claims supporting different moral theories ultimately derive from the psychological mechanisms that give rise to moral judgments. If this view is correct, it has some important implications for the practice (...)
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  46.  38
    Withdrawing Versus Withholding Freedoms: Nudging and the Case of Tobacco Control.Andreas T. Schmidt - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (7):3-14.
    Is it a stronger interference with people's freedom to withdraw options they currently have than to withhold similar options they do not have? Drawing on recent theorizing about sociopolitical freedom, this article identifies considerations that often make this the case for public policy. However, when applied to tobacco control, these considerations are shown to give us at best only very weak freedom-based reason to prioritize the status quo. This supports a popular argument for so-called “endgame” tobacco control measures: If we (...)
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  47.  21
    Ensemble Prediction Algorithm of Anomaly Monitoring Based on Big Data Analysis Platform of Open-Pit Mine Slope.Song Jiang, Minjie Lian, Caiwu Lu, Qinghua Gu, Shunling Ruan & Xuecai Xie - 2018 - Complexity 2018:1-13.
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  48.  49
    Moral Universals and Individual Differences.Liane Young & Rebecca Saxe - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (3):323-324.
    Contemporary moral psychology has focused on the notion of a universal moral sense, robust to individual and cultural differences. Yet recent evidence has revealed individual differences in the psychological processes for moral judgment: controlled cognition, mental-state reasoning, and emotional responding. We discuss this evidence and its relation to cross-cultural diversity in morality.
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  49. Truth, Set of 3 Volumes : Vol. I: Translated by Robert W. Mulligan, S. J., Vol. Ii: Translated by James V. Mcglynn, S. J., Vol. Iii: Translated by Robert W. Schmidt, S. J. [REVIEW]Thomas Aquinas & R. W. Schmidt - 1994 - Hackett Publishing Company.
    A translation based on the Latin text of the Leonine edition. The Quaestiones Disputatae de Veritate constitutes Aquinas's most extended treatment of any single topic. Volume I discusses the nature of truth and divine and angelic intellects. Volume II deals with truth and human intellect. Volume III investigates the operation of the will.
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  50.  19
    The Cultural Evolution of Socially Situated Cognition.Liane Gabora - manuscript
    Because human cognition is creative and socially situated, knowledge accumulates, diffuses, and gets applied in new contexts, generating cultural analogs of phenomena observed in population genetics such as adaptation and drift. It is therefore commonly thought that elements of culture evolve through natural selection. However, natural selection was proposed to explain how change accumulates despite lack of inheritance of acquired traits, as occurs with template-mediated replication. It cannot accommodate a process with significant retention of acquired or horizontally (e.g. socially) transmitted (...)
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