Results for 'Theory of mind'

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  1. Stereotypes, Theory of Mind, and the Action–Prediction Hierarchy.Evan Westra - 2019 - Synthese 196 (7):2821-2846.
    Both mindreading and stereotyping are forms of social cognition that play a pervasive role in our everyday lives, yet too little attention has been paid to the question of how these two processes are related. This paper offers a theory of the influence of stereotyping on mental-state attribution that draws on hierarchical predictive coding accounts of action prediction. It is argued that the key to understanding the relation between stereotyping and mindreading lies in the fact that stereotypes centrally involve (...)
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  2.  1
    Against Theory of Mind.Ivan Leudar & Alan Costall (eds.) - 2009 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    The "theory of mind" framework has been the fastest growing body of empirical research in contemporary psychology. It has given rise to a range of positions on what it takes to relate to others as intentional beings. This book brings together disparate strands of ToM research, lays out historical roots of the idea, and indicates better alternatives.
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  3.  92
    Theory of Mind and the Unobservability of Other Minds.Vivian Bohl & Nivedita Gangopadhyay - 2014 - Philosophical Explorations 17 (2):203-222.
    The theory of mind (ToM) framework has been criticised by emerging alternative accounts. Each alternative begins with the accusation that ToM's validity as a research paradigm rests on the assumption of the ‘unobservability’ of other minds. We argue that the critics' discussion of the unobservability assumption (UA) targets a straw man. We discuss metaphysical, phenomenological, epistemological, and psychological readings of UA and demonstrate that it is not the case that ToM assumes the metaphysical, phenomenological, or epistemological claims. However, (...)
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  4. Theory of Mind in Nonhuman Primates.C. M. Heyes - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):101-114.
    Since the BBS article in which Premack and Woodruff (1978) asked “Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?,” it has been repeatedly claimed that there is observational and experimental evidence that apes have mental state concepts, such as “want” and “know.” Unlike research on the development of theory of mind in childhood, however, no substantial progress has been made through this work with nonhuman primates. A survey of empirical studies of imitation, self-recognition, social relationships, deception, (...)
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  5. The Representational Theory of Mind.Kim Sterelny - 1990 - Blackwell.
  6.  40
    Autism, Theory of Mind, and the Reactive Attitudes.Kenneth A. Richman & Raya Bidshahri - 2018 - Bioethics 32 (1):43-49.
    Whether to treat autism as exculpatory in any given circumstance appears to be influenced both by models of autism and by theories of moral responsibility. This article looks at one particular combination of theories: autism as theory of mind challenges and moral responsibility as requiring appropriate experience of the reactive attitudes. In pursuing this particular combination of ideas, we do not intend to endorse them. Our goal is, instead, to explore the implications of this combination of especially prominent (...)
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  7. Modularity, Theory of Mind, and Autism Spectrum Disorder.Marcus P. Adams - 2011 - Philosophy of Science 78 (5):763-773.
    The theory of mind (ToM) deficit associated with autism spectrum disorder has been a central topic in the debate about the modularity of the mind. In a series of papers, Philip Gerrans and Valerie Stone argue that positing a ToM module does not best explain the deficits exhibited by individuals with autism (Gerrans 2002; Stone & Gerrans 2006a, 2006b; Gerrans & Stone 2008). In this paper, I first criticize Gerrans and Stone’s (2008) account. Second, I discuss various (...)
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  8. Chimpanzee Theory of Mind: Looking in All the Wrong Places?Kristin Andrews - 2005 - Mind and Language 20 (5):521-536.
    : I respond to an argument presented by Daniel Povinelli and Jennifer Vonk that the current generation of experiments on chimpanzee theory of mind cannot decide whether chimpanzees have the ability to reason about mental states. I argue that Povinelli and Vonk's proposed experiment is subject to their own criticisms and that there should be a more radical shift away from experiments that ask subjects to predict behavior. Further, I argue that Povinelli and Vonk's theoretical commitments should lead (...)
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  9. Core Mechanisms in ‘Theory of Mind’.Alan M. Leslie, Ori Friedman & Tim P. German - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (12):528-533.
    Our ability to understand the thoughts and feelings of other people does not initially develop as a theory but as a mechanism. The ‘ theory of mind ’ mechanism is part of the core architecture of the human brain, and is specialized for learning about mental states. Impaired development of this mechanism can have drastic effects on social learning, seen most strikingly in the autistic spectrum disorders. ToMM kick-starts belief–desire attribution but effective reasoning about belief contents depends (...)
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  10. Theory of Mind and Self-Consciousness: What is It Like to Be Autistic?Uta Frith & Francesca Happe - 1999 - Mind and Language 14 (1):1-22.
  11. The Child's Theory of Mind.Henry M. Wellman - 1990
  12.  89
    Theory of Mind’ in Animals: Ways to Make Progress.Elske van der Vaart & Charlotte K. Hemelrijk - 2014 - Synthese 191 (3).
    Whether any non-human animal can attribute mental states to others remains the subject of extensive debate. This despite the fact that several species have behaved as if they have a ‘theory of mind’ in various behavioral tasks. In this paper, we review the reasons of skeptics for their doubts: That existing experimental setups cannot distinguish between ‘mind readers’ and ‘behavior readers’, that results that seem to indicate ‘theory of mind’ may come from studies that are (...)
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  13. Chimpanzee Theory of Mind: Looking in All the Wrong Places?Kristin Andrews - 2005 - Mind and Language 20 (5):521-536.
    I respond to an argument presented by Daniel Povinelli and Jennifer Vonk that the current generation of experiments on chimpanzee theory of mind cannot decide whether chimpanzees have the ability to reason about mental states. I argue that Povinelli and Vonk’s proposed experiment is subject to their own criticisms and that there should be a more radical shift away from experiments that ask subjects to predict behavior. Further, I argue that Povinelli and Vonk’s theoretical commitments should lead them (...)
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  14. Character and Theory of Mind: An Integrative Approach.Evan Westra - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (5):1217-1241.
    Traditionally, theories of mindreading have focused on the representation of beliefs and desires. However, decades of social psychology and social neuroscience have shown that, in addition to reasoning about beliefs and desires, human beings also use representations of character traits to predict and interpret behavior. While a few recent accounts have attempted to accommodate these findings, they have not succeeded in explaining the relation between trait attribution and belief-desire reasoning. On my account, character-trait attribution is part of a hierarchical system (...)
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  15.  36
    Pragmatic Development Explains the Theory-of-Mind Scale.Evan Westra & Peter Carruthers - 2017 - Cognition 158:165-176.
    Henry Wellman and colleagues have provided evidence of a robust developmental progression in theory-of-mind (or as we will say, “mindreading”) abilities, using verbal tasks. Understanding diverse desires is said to be easier than understanding diverse beliefs, which is easier than understanding that lack of perceptual access issues in ignorance, which is easier than understanding false belief, which is easier than understanding that people can hide their true emotions. These findings present a challenge to nativists about mindreading, and are (...)
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  16. Folk Theory of Mind: Conceptual Foundations of Human Social Cognition.Bertram F. Malle - 2005 - In Ran R. Hassin, James S. Uleman & John A. Bargh (eds.), The New Unconscious. Oxford Series in Social Cognition and Social Neuroscience. Oxford University Press. pp. 225-255.
    The human ability to represent, conceptualize, and reason about mind and behavior is one of the greatest achievements of human evolution and is made possible by a “folk theory of mind” — a sophisticated conceptual framework that relates different mental states to each other and connects them to behavior. This chapter examines the nature and elements of this framework and its central functions for social cognition. As a conceptual framework, the folk theory of mind operates (...)
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  17. Kant’s Theory of Mind: An Analysis of the Paralogisms of Pure Reason.Karl Ameriks - 1982 - Oxford University Press.
    This seminal contribution to Kant studies, originally published in 1982, was the first to present a thorough survey and evaluation of Kant's theory of mind. Ameriks focuses on Kant's discussion of the Paralogisms in the Critique of Pure Reason, and examines how the themes raised there are treated in the rest of Kant's writings. Ameriks demonstrates that Kant developed a theory of mind that is much more rationalistic and defensible than most interpreters have allowed.
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  18. Theories of Theories of Mind.Peter Carruthers & Peter K. Smith (eds.) - 1996 - Cambridge University Press.
    Theories of Theories of Mind brings together contributions by a distinguished international team of philosophers, psychologists, and primatologists, who between them address such questions as: what is it to understand the thoughts, feelings, and intentions of other people? How does such an understanding develop in the normal child? Why, unusually, does it fail to develop? And is any such mentalistic understanding shared by members of other species? The volume's four parts together offer a state of the art survey of (...)
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  19. Theory of Mind and Moral Cognition: Exploring the Connections.Joshua Knobe - 2005 - Trends in Cognitive Science 9 (8):357-359.
    An extremely brief (3 page) review of recent work on the ways in which people's moral judgments can influence their use of folk-psychological concepts.
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  20.  16
    Folk Psychology: The Theory of Mind Debate.Martin Davies & Tony Stone (eds.) - 1995 - Blackwell.
    Many philosophers and psychologists argue that normal adult human beings possess a primitive or 'folk' psychological theory. Recently, however, this theory has come under challenge from the simulation alternative. This alternative view says that human bings are able to predict and explain each others' actions by using the resources of their own minds to simuate the psychological etiology of the actions of others. The thirteen essays in this volume present the foundations of theory of mind debate, (...)
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  21. Why the Child’s Theory of Mind Really Is a Theory.Alison Gopnik & Henry M. Wellman - 1992 - Mind and Language 7 (1-2):145-71.
  22. The Theory of Mind Module in Evolutionary Psychology.Philip Gerrans - 2002 - Biology and Philosophy 17 (3):305-321.
  23.  50
    Impaired Theory of Mind in Schizophrenia.Ahmad Abu-Akel - 1999 - Pragmatics and Cognition 7 (2):247-282.
    The study argues that linguistic/communication dysfunctions present in disorganized schizophrenia may stem, at least in part, from an impaired theory of mind. Using pragmatics and systemic linguistic theory, the study examined speech samples of two disorganized schizophrenic patients and attempted to determine if their communicative failures are because they lack theory of mind in the sense that they do not take into account the interlocutor's mind, i.e., the interlocutor's intentions, dispositions, and knowledge; or because (...)
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  24. Modularity, Development and "Theory of Mind".Alan M. Leslie & Brian J. Scholl - 1999 - Mind and Language 14 (1):131-153.
    Psychologists and philosophers have recently been exploring whether the mechanisms which underlie the acquisition of ‘theory of mind’ (ToM) are best charac- terized as cognitive modules or as developing theories. In this paper, we attempt to clarify what a modular account of ToM entails, and why it is an attractive type of explanation. Intuitions and arguments in this debate often turn on the role of develop- ment: traditional research on ToM focuses on various developmental sequences, whereas cognitive modules (...)
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  25.  26
    Theory of Mind and Moral Cognition: Exploring the Connections.Joshua Knobe - 2005 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (8):357-359.
  26.  23
    Theory of Mind Experience Sampling in Typical Adults.Lauren Bryant, Anna Coffey, Daniel J. Povinelli & John R. Pruett - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):697-707.
    We explored the frequency with which typical adults make Theory of Mind attributions, and under what circumstances these attributions occur. We used an experience sampling method to query 30 typical adults about their everyday thoughts. Participants carried a Personal Data Assistant that prompted them to categorize their thoughts as Action, Mental State, or Miscellaneous at approximately 30 pseudo-random times during a continuous 10-h period. Additionally, participants noted the direction of their thought and degree of socializing at the time (...)
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  27.  10
    Impaired Theory of Mind in Schizophrenia.Ahmad Abu-Akel - 1999 - Pragmatics and Cognition 7 (2):247-282.
    The study argues that linguistic/communication dysfunctions present in disorganized schizophrenia may stem, at least in part, from an impaired theory of mind. Using pragmatics and systemic linguistic theory, the study examined speech samples of two disorganized schizophrenic patients and attempted to determine if their communicative failures are because they lack theory of mind in the sense that they do not take into account the interlocutor's mind, i.e., the interlocutor's intentions, dispositions, and knowledge; or because (...)
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  28. Does the Chimpanzee Have a Theory of Mind?David Premack & G. Woodruff - 1978 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (4):515-629.
    An individual has a theory of mind if he imputes mental states to himself and others. A system of inferences of this kind is properly viewed as a theory because such states are not directly observable, and the system can be used to make predictions about the behavior of others. As to the mental states the chimpanzee may infer, consider those inferred by our own species, for example, purpose or intention, as well as knowledge, belief, thinking, doubt, (...)
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  29. Explaining the Theory of Mind Deficit in Autism Spectrum Disorder.Marcus P. Adams - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 163 (1):233-249.
    The theory of mind (ToM) deficit associated with autism has been a central topic in the debate about the modularity of the mind. Most involved in the debate about the explanation of the ToM deficit have failed to notice that autism’s status as a spectrum disorder has implications about which explanation is more plausible. In this paper, I argue that the shift from viewing autism as a unified syndrome to a spectrum disorder increases the plausibility of the (...)
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  30.  60
    'Theory of Mind' in Animals: Ways to Make Progress.Elske Vaart & Charlotte K. Hemelrijk - 2012 - Synthese (3):1-20.
    Whether any non-human animal can attribute mental states to others remains the subject of extensive debate. This despite the fact that several species have behaved as if they have a ‘theory of mind’ in various behavioral tasks. In this paper, we review the reasons of skeptics for their doubts: That existing experimental setups cannot distinguish between ‘mind readers’ and ‘behavior readers’, that results that seem to indicate ‘theory of mind’ may come from studies that are (...)
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  31.  90
    Theory of Mind in Schizophrenia: First Person Vs Third Person Perspective.O. Gambini, V. Barbieri & S. Scarone - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):39-46.
    Patients suffering from schizophrenia have an impaired meta-representation also known as Theory of Mind . Moreover, the presence of delusions or other positive symptoms of schizophrenia has been correlated to poor ToM performances. Lack of insight is a common symptom of schizophrenia and can be considered a critical manifestation of impaired ToM abilities. In particular, the present study addresses the role of perspective ToM ability in schizophrenic patients. Thirty severely delusional schizophrenic patients completely lack insight when interviewed about (...)
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  32.  75
    Deconstructing and Reconstructing Theory of Mind.Sara M. Schaafsma, Donald W. Pfaff, Robert P. Spunt & Ralph Adolphs - 2015 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 19 (2):65-72.
    Usage of the term ‘theory of mind’ (ToM) has exploded across fields ranging from developmental psychology to social neuroscience and psychiatry research. However, its meaning is often vague and inconsistent, its biologi- cal bases are a subject of debate, and the methods used to study it are highly heterogeneous. Most crucially, its original definition does not permit easy downward translation to more basic processes such as those stud- ied by behavioral neuroscience, leaving the interpreta- tion of neuroimaging results (...)
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  33. Theory of Mind’ and Tracking Speakers’ Intentions.Francesca Happé & Eva Loth - 2002 - Mind and Language 17 (1-2):24-36.
  34. Theory of Mind, Language and the Temporoparietal Junction Mystery.Josef Perner & Markus Aichhorn - 2008 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (4):123-126.
  35.  75
    Children’s Application of Theory of Mind in Reasoning and Language.Liesbeth Flobbe, Rineke Verbrugge, Petra Hendriks & Irene Krämer - 2008 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 17 (4):417-442.
    Many social situations require a mental model of the knowledge, beliefs, goals, and intentions of others: a Theory of Mind (ToM). If a person can reason about other people’s beliefs about his own beliefs or intentions, he is demonstrating second-order ToM reasoning. A standard task to test second-order ToM reasoning is the second-order false belief task. A different approach to investigating ToM reasoning is through its application in a strategic game. Another task that is believed to involve the (...)
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  36.  52
    Theory of Mind Development and Social Understanding.Janet Wilde Astington & Jennifer M. Jenkins - 1995 - Cognition and Emotion 9 (2-3):151-165.
  37. Computation and Functionalism: Syntactic Theory of Mind Revisited.Murat Aydede - 2005 - In Gurol Irzik & Guven Guzeldere (eds.), Boston Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science. Springer.
    I argue that Stich's Syntactic Theory of Mind (STM) and a naturalistic narrow content functionalism run on a Language of Though story have the same exact structure. I elaborate on the argument that narrow content functionalism is either irremediably holistic in a rather destructive sense, or else doesn't have the resources for individuating contents interpersonally. So I show that, contrary to his own advertisement, Stich's STM has exactly the same problems (like holism, vagueness, observer-relativity, etc.) that he claims (...)
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  38. The First Computational Theory of Mind and Brain: A Close Look at McCulloch and Pitts' Logical Calculus of Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity.Gualtiero Piccinini - 2004 - Synthese 141 (2):175-215.
    Despite its significance in neuroscience and computation, McCulloch and Pitts's celebrated 1943 paper has received little historical and philosophical attention. In 1943 there already existed a lively community of biophysicists doing mathematical work on neural networks. What was novel in McCulloch and Pitts's paper was their use of logic and computation to understand neural, and thus mental, activity. McCulloch and Pitts's contributions included (i) a formalism whose refinement and generalization led to the notion of finite automata (an important formalism in (...)
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  39.  25
    Acquired `Theory of Mind' Impairments Following Stroke.Francesca Happé, Hiram Brownell & Ellen Winner - 1999 - Cognition 70 (3):211-240.
  40.  18
    Roles of Technical Reasoning, Theory of Mind, Creativity, and Fluid Cognition in Cumulative Technological Culture.Emmanuel De Oliveira, Emanuelle Reynaud & François Osiurak - 2019 - Human Nature 30 (3):326-340.
    Cumulative technological culture can be defined as the progressive diversification, complexification, and enhancement of technological traits through generations. An outstanding issue is to specify the cognitive bases of this phenomenon. Based on the literature, we identified four potential cognitive factors: namely, theory-of-mind, technical-reasoning, creativity, and fluid-cognitive skills. The goal of the present study was to test which of these factors—or a combination thereof—best predicted the cumulative performance in two experimental, micro-society conditions differing in the nature of the interaction (...)
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  41. Theory of Mind and Schizophrenia☆.Rajendra D. Badgaiyan - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (1):320-322.
    A number of cognitive and behavioral variables influence the performance in tasks of theory of mind (ToM). Since two of the most important variables, memory and explicit expression, are impaired in schizophrenic patients, the ToM appears inconsistent in these patients. An ideal instrument of ToM should therefore account for deficient memory and impaired ability of these patients to explicitly express intentions. If such an instrument is developed, it should provide information that can be used not only to understand (...)
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  42.  99
    Descartes’s Theory of Mind.Desmond Clarke - 2003 - Oxford University Press.
    Descartes is possibly the most famous of all writers on the mind, but his theory of mind has been almost universally misunderstood, because his philosophy has not been seen in the context of his scientific work. Desmond Clarke offers a radical and convincing rereading, undoing the received perception of Descartes as the chief defender of mind/body dualism. For Clarke, the key is to interpret his philosophical efforts as an attempt to reconcile his scientific pursuits with the (...)
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  43.  19
    Can Theory of Mind Grow Up? Mindreading in Adults, and its Implications for the Development and Neuroscience of Mindreading.Ian Apperly - 2013 - In Simon Baron-Cohen, Michael Lombardo & Helen Tager-Flusberg (eds.), Understanding Other Minds: Perspectives From Developmental Social Neuroscience. Oxford University Press. pp. 72.
  44. Episodic Memory and Theory of Mind: A Connection Reconsidered.Christoph Hoerl - 2018 - Mind and Language 33 (2):148-160.
    In the literature on episodic memory, one claim that has been made by a number of psychologists, and that is also at least implicit in some of the accounts given by philosophers, is that being able to recollect particular past events in the distinctive way afforded by episodic memory requires the possession of aspects of a theory of mind, such as a grasp of the relationship between one’s present recollective experience and one’s own past perceptual experience of the (...)
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  45.  3
    Metacognition and Theory of Mind.Eleonora Papaleontiou-Louca - 2008 - Cambridge Scholars Press.
    This little book aims to clarify and give a synoptic description of both the notions of 'Metacognition' and 'Theory of Mind', as well as a short comparison of these two 'hot' scientific topics. After giving the theoretical framework of the concept of 'Metacognition', it describes a number of practical suggestions of how educators of all levels can enhance their students' metacognitive abilities in practice. Then it analyzes all the basic aspects of the concept of 'Theory of (...)' and its relation to Language. Finally, it tries to combine the two theoretical concepts, i.e. 'Metacognition' and 'Theory of Mind', by making some helpful clarifications and identifying their major similarities, differences and convergences. In this way, the author hopes strongly to contribute to the resume of the Literature Review in a concise and handy volume, and wishes to help all the interesting parts, scholars and teachers, to do their own insights and improvements (theoretical and practical) in these crucial areas. (shrink)
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  46.  44
    A Temporally Sustained Implicit Theory of Mind Deficit in Autism Spectrum Disorders.Dana Schneider, Virginia P. Slaughter, Andrew P. Bayliss & Paul E. Dux - 2013 - Cognition 129 (2):410-417.
    Eye movements during false-belief tasks can reveal an individual's capacity to implicitly monitor others' mental states (theory of mind - ToM). It has been suggested, based on the results of a single-trial-experiment, that this ability is impaired in those with a high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD), despite neurotypical-like performance on explicit ToM measures. However, given there are known attention differences and visual hypersensitivities in ASD it is important to establish whether such impairments are evident over time. In addition, (...)
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  47. The 'Theory Theory' of Mind and the Aims of Sellars' Original Myth of Jones.James R. O’Shea - 2012 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 11 (2):175-204.
    Recent proponents of the ‘theory theory’ of mind often trace its roots back to Wilfrid Sellars’ famous ‘myth of Jones’ in his 1956 article, ‘Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind’. Sellars developed an account of the intersubjective basis of our knowledge of the inner mental states of both self and others, an account which included the claim that such knowledge is in some sense theoretical knowledge. This paper examines the nature of this claim in Sellars’ original (...)
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  48. Functional Imaging of 'Theory of Mind'.Helen L. Gallagher & Christopher D. Frith - 2003 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (2):77-83.
  49.  78
    Autism: Beyond “Theory of Mind”.Uta Frith & Francesca Happé - 1994 - Cognition 50 (1-3):115-132.
  50.  30
    Minding Theory of Mind.Melanie Yergeau & Bryce Huebner - 2017 - Journal of Social Philosophy 48 (3):273-296.
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