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Summary The Huayan (Flower Garland) School of Buddhism flourished in China during the Tang period, roughly from the late 500s until the mid 800s. The school derives its name from the Huayan Sutra, and along with the Tiantai School it ranks among the most important schools of Buddhism indigenous to China. Distinctive theses endorsed within the school, and illustrated with famous analogies of the golden lion and the jeweled net of Indra, include the mutual penetration of all dharmas past-present-and-future as well as the mutual identity of parts and wholes. But the school is also known for its contributions to classification systems of Buddhist teachings, for its use of paradoxical language, and for its innovations in conceptualizing causation. Specific teachings of the school that have attracted scholarly attention include doctrines of the three natures, the four realms, the six characteristics, the ten times, and the ten mysterious gates.
Key works Cook 1977 is a standard reference point for many other discussions in English. An early attempt to compare Huayan to process philosophy is Odin 1982, and a recent attempt to relate Huayan to postmodern ideas is Park 2008. For specific topics within the Huayan school, consult Lai 1977 on causation, Liu 1981 on hermeneutics, Wright 1982 on paradoxical language, Vorenkamp 2004 on faith, Jiang 2001 or Jones 2010 on mereology.
Introductions General introductions to the Huayan School include Cook 1977 and Chang 1971. Lai 1977, Liu 1981, and Gregory 1983 situate Huayan relative to other schools of Chinese Buddhism.
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  1. added 2019-06-06
    The Categoreal Scheme in Hua-Yan Buddhism and Whitehead’s Metaphysics.Yih-Hsien Yu - 2007 - Process Studies 36 (2):306-329.
    If, after a century of analysis there is a turn to synthesis, Hua-yan and Whitehead will become important resources. Especially given the radical difference of their historical contexts, their similarity is striking, but they differ on time. Whitehead is clear that relations to the future always differ in kind from those to the past, and Theravada Buddhists agree. But Hua-yan is open to a greater symmetry in enlightened experience.
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  2. added 2019-06-06
    Hua‐Yen Mutually Interpenetrative Identity and Whiteheadean Organic Relation.Winston L. King - 1979 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 6 (4):387-410.
  3. added 2019-03-25
    Buddhism and the Dao in Tang China: The Impact of Confucianism and Daoism on the Philosophy of Chengguan.Imre Hamar - 1999 - Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 52 (3-4):283-292.
    Chengguan (738–839), the fourth patriarch of the Huayan school of Chinese Buddhism, declared the primacy of Buddhism over Confucianism and Daoism and criticised these philosophies from a Buddhist stance. In his subcommentary to the Avata?saka Sutra, he defines ten differences between Buddhism and indigenous philosophies, which are discussed in this paper. However, he also often quoted from Chinese Classics to clarify the meaning of a Buddhist tenet. On these occasions he sometimes adds that he only borrows the words but not (...)
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  4. added 2019-03-13
    The Architecture of Fazang’s Six Characteristics.Nicholaos Jones - 2019 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 27 (3):468-491.
    This paper examines the Huayan teaching of the six characteristics as presented in the Rafter Dialogue from Fazang's Treatise on the Five Teachings. The goal is to make the teaching accessible to those with minimal training in Buddhist philosophy, and especially for those who aim to engage with the extensive question-and-answer section of the Rafter Dialogue. The method for achieving this goal is threefold: first, contextualizing Fazang's account of the characteristics with earlier Buddhist attempts to theorize the relationships between wholes (...)
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  5. added 2019-03-08
    Huayan Numismatics as Metaphysics: Explicating Fazang's Coin-Counting Metaphor.Nicholaos Jones - 2019 - Philosophy East and West 68 (4):1155-1177.
    This paper explicates the counting ten coins metaphor as it appears in Fazang’s Treatise on the Five Teachings of Huayan. The goal is to transform Fazang’s inexact and obscure mentions of the metaphor into something that is clearer and more precise. The method for achieving this goal is threefold: first, presenting Fazang’s version of the metaphor as improving upon prior efforts by Zhiyan and Ŭisang to interpret a brief stanza in the Avataṁsaka sutra; second, providing textual evidence to support this (...)
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  6. added 2018-05-05
    Process Metaphysics and Hua-Yen Buddhism.Steve Odin - 1984 - Philosophy East and West 34 (1):107-108.
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  7. added 2018-03-19
    The Huayan Philosophers Fazang and Li Tongxuan on the “Six Marks” and the “Sphere of Edification”.Seunghak Koh - 2015 - The Eastern Buddhist 46 (2):1-18.
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  8. added 2018-03-19
    Translating Totality in Parts: Chengguan’s Commentaries and Subcommentaries to the Avatamska Sutra.Guo Cheen - 2014 - Upa.
    This book offers an annotated translation of two of preeminent Chinese Tang dynasty monk Chengguan’s most revered masterpieces. With this book, Chengguan’s Commentaries to the Avatamsaka Sutra and The Meanings Proclaimed in the Subcommentaries Accompanying the Commentaries to the Avatamsaka Sutra are finally brought to Western audiences.
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  9. added 2018-03-19
    The True Meaning of Dharma-Realm.Kai-gei Lee - 2007 - Philosophy and Culture 34 (8):35-47.
    Mahayana classic "Sutra" in Chinese means the formation of a strong Hua-yen philosophy, including Dharma three views, Kegon six-phase, ten eternal combat, Kegon Samadhi view of the complex mysteries of the law, which is the Chinese people's achievements, but also China characteristics of Mahayana Buddhism. In 418 AD, Jin translated sixty volumes "Sutra" to the seventh century, by the emperor mind Dusun Zen Master Venerable Dharma three developed the concept for "Dharma," the concept of gradual deepening of the theory put (...)
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  10. added 2018-03-19
    Ethics of Ambiguity : A Buddhist Reflection on the Japanese Organ Transplant Law.Ronald Y. Nakasone - 2006 - In David E. Guinn (ed.), Handbook of Bioethics and Religion. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter examines the structure and role of ambiguity in the Japanese Organ Transplant Law by looking at the Chinese Huayen Buddhist doctrine of dharmadhatu-pratityasamutpada or universal dependent “coarising”, a major interpretation of the Buddha's pratityasamutpada, dependent-coarising or interdependence. Specifically, it will examine the nature of ambiguity through the zhuban yuanming jude men or “the attribute of the complete accommodation of principal and secondary dharmas” that Fazang formulated. The interdependent and evolving Buddhist vision of reality causes ambiguity in decision making (...)
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  11. added 2018-03-19
    The "Thought of Enlightenment" in Fa-Tsang's Hua-Yen Buddhism.Dale S. Wright - 2001 - The Eastern Buddhist 33 (2):97-106.
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  12. added 2018-03-19
    The Buddhist Teaching of Totality: The Philosophy of Hwa Yen Buddhism.Garma C. C. Chang - 2001 - Pennsylvania State University Press.
    The Hwa Yen school of Mahāyāna Buddhism bloomed in China in the 7th and 8th centuries A.D. Today many scholars regard its doctrines of Emptiness, Totality, and Mind-Only as the crown of Buddhist thought and as a useful and unique philosophical system and explanation of man, world, and life as intuitively experienced in Zen practice. For the first time in any Western language Garma Chang explains and exemplifies these doctrines with references to both oriental masters and Western philosophers. The Buddha's (...)
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  13. added 2018-03-19
    A Jewel in Indra's Net: The Letter Sent by Fazang in China to Ǔisang in KoreaA Jewel in Indra's Net: The Letter Sent by Fazang in China to Uisang in Korea. [REVIEW]Paul W. Kroll, Antonino Forte & Fazang - 2001 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 121 (3):511.
  14. added 2018-03-19
    Language and Meaning: Buddhist Interpretations of "the Buddha's Word" in Indian and Chinese Perspectives.Eun-su Cho - 1997 - Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley
    This is a comparative study of the discourses on the nature of sacred language found in Indian Abhidharma texts and their counterparts by seventh century Chinese Buddhist scholars who, unlike the Indian Buddhists, questioned "the essence of the Buddha's teaching," and developed intellectual dialogues through their texts. ;In the Indian Abhidharma texts, Sa ngitiparyaya, Jnanaprasthana, Mahavibhasa, Abhidharmakosa, and Nyayanusara, the nature of the Buddha's word was either "sound," the oral component of speech, or "name," the component of language that conveys (...)
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  15. added 2018-03-19
    Ch'eng-Kuan on the Hua-Yen Trinity.Robert Gimello - 1996 - Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal 9:341-.
    One of the interpretive devices that Ch'eng-kuan (澄 觀) is famous for having employed to distill the essence of the vast Mahāvaipulya Buddhāvataṃsaka Sūtra (Tafang-kuang fo-hua-yen ching 《大方廣佛華嚴經》 was a series of variations on the contemplative theme (kuan-men 觀門) of the complete interfusion (yüan-jung 圓融) of the scripture's three chief protagonists (san-sheng 三聖) ── the Buddha Vairocana (Pi-lu-che-na 毘盧遮那) and the bodhisattvas Mañjuśrī (Wen-shu-shih-li 文殊師利) and Samantabhadra (P'u-hsien 普賢). By aligning these three powerful sacred persons with a number of philosophical (...)
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  16. added 2018-03-19
    Process and Harmony: A Comparison Between Whitehead and Fa-Tsang Metaphysics on the Notion of Reality.Bong-Choul Hwang - 1994 - Dissertation, The Iliff School of Theology and University of Denver
    This dissertation is a comparative study of the metaphysics of Alfred North Whitehead and Fa-tsang , who was the third patriarch of the Chinese Hua-yen school of Buddhism. Its purpose is threefold. ;First, this dissertation will examine the notions of "actual entities" or "actual occasions" and "dharmas" or "phenomena." Whitehead and Fa-tsang express their views of metaphysics through an examination of the above notions. ;Second, this dissertation will show whether or not Hua-yen metaphysics is deterministic. Since Hua-yen Buddhism has been (...)
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  17. added 2018-03-19
    Tsung-Mi and the Sinification of Buddhism.T. Griffith Foulk & Peter N. Gregory - 1994 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 114 (3):487.
  18. added 2018-03-19
    The Buddhist Teaching of Totality: The Philosophy of Hwa Yen Buddhism.Garma C. C. Chang - 1990 - Pennsylvania State University Press.
    The Hwa Yen school of Mahāyāna Buddhism bloomed in China in the 7th and 8th centuries A.D. Today many scholars regard its doctrines of Emptiness, Totality, and Mind-Only as the crown of Buddhist thought and as a useful and unique philosophical system and explanation of man, world, and life as intuitively experienced in Zen practice. For the first time in any Western language Garma Chang explains and exemplifies these doctrines with references to both oriental masters and Western philosophers. The Buddha's (...)
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  19. added 2018-03-19
    Śaṅkara, Nāgārjuna, and Fa Tsang, with Some Western Analogues.Charles Hartshorne - 1988 - In Eliot Deutsch & Gerald James Larson (eds.), Interpreting Across Boundaries: New Essays in Comparative Philosophy. Princeton University Press. pp. 98-115.
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  20. added 2018-03-19
    Tsung-Mi and the Single Word "Awareness" (Chih).Peter N. Gregory - 1985 - Philosophy East and West 35 (3):249-269.
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  21. added 2018-03-17
    The Awakening Of Faith In Mahayana (Ta-Ch'eng Ch'i-Hsin Lun): A Study Of the Unfolding Of Sinitic Mahayana Motifs.Whalen Lai - 1975 - Dissertation, Harvard University
  22. added 2018-02-26
    Fa-Tsang and ŬisangFa-Tsang and Uisang.Peter H. Lee - 1962 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 82 (1):56.
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  23. added 2018-02-26
    Fa-Tsang and Ŭisang.Peter H. Lee - 1962 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 82 (1):56-62.
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  24. added 2016-12-08
    Buddhism and Postmodernity: Zen, Huayan, and the Possibility of Buddhist Postmodern Ethics.Jin Y. Park - 2008 - Lexington Books.
    Through a close analysis of Zen encounter dialogues and Huayan Buddhist philosophy, Buddhism and Postmodernity offers a new ethical paradigm for Buddhist-postmodern philosophy.
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  25. added 2016-05-09
    Fa-­Tsang on Madhyamaka: Nagarjuna’s Treatise on the Twelve Gates and Fa-­Tsang’s Commentary.Dirck Vorenkamp - manuscript
    Translation of Nagarjuna's -Treatise on the Twelve Gates- as well as fazang's commentary on that treatise.
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  26. added 2016-05-09
    The Flower Ornament Golden Lion Treatise.Tai-Wing Wong - manuscript
    English translation and annotation of Fazang's Treatise on the Golden Lion.
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  27. added 2016-04-25
    Translating Totality in Parts: Chengguan's Commentaries and Subcommentaries to the Avatamsaka Sutra by Guo Cheen. [REVIEW]Nicholas Hudson - 2016 - Philosophy East and West 66 (2):695-696.
    Guo Cheen’s Translating Totality in Parts: Chengguan’s Commentaries and Subcommentaries to the Avatamsaka Sutra translates the first of eighty fascicles or juan of Chengguan’s A Compilation of the Commentaries and Subcommentaries to the Flower Ornament Sutra with Greatly Proper and Extensive Discourses by the Buddhas as well as the preface to his The Meanings Proclaimed in the Subcommentaries Accompanying the Commentaries to the Flower Ornament Sutra with Greatly Proper and Extensive Discourses by the Buddha. Guo Cheen translates the preface first, (...)
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  28. added 2016-03-29
    Thomé H. Fang, Tang Junyi and Huayan Thought: A Confucian Appropriation of Buddhist Ideas in Response to Scientism in Twentieth-Century China.King Pong Chiu - 2016 - Brill.
    In Thomé H. Fang, Tang Junyi and Huayan Thought, King Pong Chiu discusses Thomé H. Fang and Tang Junyi, two of the most important Confucian thinkers in twentieth-century China, who appropriated aspects of the medieval Chinese Buddhist school of Huayan to develop a response to the challenges of ‘scientism’, the belief that quantitative natural science is the only valuable part of human learning and the only source of truth. -/- As Chiu argues, Fang’s and Tang’s selective appropriations of Huayan thought (...)
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  29. added 2016-01-07
    Philosophical Aspects of Sixth-Century Chinese Buddhist Debates on “Mind and Consciousness".Hans-Rudolf Kantor - 2014 - In Chen-Kuo Lin & Michael Radich (eds.), A Distant Mirror: Articulating Indic Ideas in Sixth and Seventh Century Chinese Buddhism. Hamburg University Press. pp. 337-395.
  30. added 2015-05-25
    Process Metaphysics and Hua-Yen Buddhism: A Critical Study of Cumulative Penetration Vs. Interpretation. [REVIEW]Whalen Lai - 1984 - Idealistic Studies 14 (3):278-278.
    The growth in interest in Whitehead and the increasing amount of materials available in English related to the Hua-Yen school of Buddhism in China mean that sooner or later there would be, or would have to be, a comparative study of the two in some depth. Although previous scholars of the Hua-Yen philosophy have made repeated references to process philosophy and have argued that this would be a means to understanding Hua-Yen thought, it is not until Steve Odin’s book that (...)
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  31. added 2015-04-27
    Introduction: Huayan Philosophy.Kai-gei Lee - 2010 - Philosophy and Culture 37 (12):1-2.
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  32. added 2015-04-27
    The Characteristics of Mind-only thought in Huayan Philosophy.Kuei-Chieh Liu - 2010 - Philosophy and Culture 37 (12):3-21.
    Kegon philosophy of idealism ideas mainly from "Sutra", "Three Realms idealism" of the proposition, and the "Mahayana Faith," "one two" doctrine. The latter is no life eternal that Tathagatagarbha of harmony with the birth and death, non-a non-different, and there are all the world "Tathagatagarbha," the show. Hua-yen said to people that use this to lay the theoretical foundation, Chi Yan , French possession , Chengguan , Zong Mi have inherited the "Mahayana Faith" point of view to carry out their (...)
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  33. added 2015-04-27
    On Thomé H. Fang 's Interpretation of Huayan Thought.Tai-Shing Wut - 2010 - Philosophy and Culture 37 (12):67-81.
    Fang Dongmei out West Indian culture, dreams, and respected exploration of Buddhism, to the heated; its "Hua Yan Zongzhe study" two thousand pages, citing the West reversed the concept of interpretation Sutra to teach; also proposed affect the harmony of China strict philosophy, a remedy flaws in the Western dualistic effect, reflecting the party's unique perspective and experience. However, the party's non-Buddhist scholars in general, less current chapter selection to find scholarly articles of the sentence, which were much quoted. This (...)
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  34. added 2015-04-27
    Kegon philosophy on five teaching Zhiguan shaped probe.Yi Yu - 2009 - Bulletin of Tokai Philosophy 14:171-192.
    Shun Hua-yen master made ​​early Zudu Mahayana Buddhism in China laid the foundation Huayan, its far-reaching effects. The so-called , the religious standpoint, originally refers to the five different levels of self-cultivation: France has no one to turn me, health is without health door, door affair harmony, language concept Shuangjue door, and China Yan Samadhi door. Dusun master and apply it in apostasy, and its representing Theravada Buddhism, Mahayana began to teach, to teach the final Mahayana, Mahayana Dayton to teach, (...)
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  35. added 2015-04-27
    Hua-yan Thought in the Chan Method of the Caodong-School during the Song and Yuan Dynasties.Kuei-Chieh Liu - 2008 - Philosophy and Culture 35 (11):3-21.
    In general, Cao hole were due to adverse price pioneer, teacher and student has the lonely mountain in Jiangxi hole, Cao mountain pass method, named after the original out the Southern Zen Green thinking law, the by stone Xiqian, drug Mountain Wei Yan, dolomite Tan Cheng as well as adverse price. Adverse price disciples inherited the silence industry division, Great meditation. Cao Cheng Xi Qian hole Zen's management on the matter "back to each other" , and then expanded to "five (...)
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  36. added 2015-04-27
    Whitehead and Chinese Philosophy: The Ontological Principle and Huayan Buddhism’s Concept of Shi.Vincent Shen - 2008 - In Michel Weber (ed.), Handbook of Whiteheadian Process Thought. De Gruyter. pp. 613-627.
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  37. added 2015-04-27
    Rong He de Fo Jiao Guifeng Zongmi de Fo Xue Si Xiang Yan Jiu.Qun Dong & Jun Shi - 2000
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  38. added 2015-04-27
    Fazang - Denker der Einheit aus der Differenz.Mathias Obert - 1999 - Allgemeine Zeitschrift für Philosophie 24 (2):169-182.
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  39. added 2014-10-25
    Leibniz and Huayan Buddhism: Monads as Modified Li?Casey Rentmeester - 2014 - Lyceum 13 (1):36-57.
  40. added 2014-04-18
    Zongmi's Commentary to the Hua-Yan Dharma-Realm Meditation.Sallie B. King - 1975 - Dissertation, University of British Columbia
    This thesis is a translation, with notes and introduction, of the Commentary to the Hua-yan Dharma-Realm Meditation. This text is a commentary to the Dharma-Realm Meditation, which is incorporated into the former. The core text is by the first patriarch of the Hua-yan school of Buddhism in China, Du-shun (557-640); the commentary is by the fifth patriarch of the Hua-yan school, Zong-mi (780-841). The text is both philosophical and meditational in nature, and is a concise statement of the key doctrines (...)
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  41. added 2014-04-02
    The Manifestation of the Absolute in the Phenomenal World: Nature Origination in Huayan Exegesis.Imre Hamar - 2007 - Bulletin de L'Ecole Francaise d'Extreme-Orient 94:229-250.
  42. added 2014-04-02
    Process Metaphysics and Hua-Yen Buddhism: A Critical Study of Cumulative Penetration Vs. Interpretation.Whalen Lai - 1984 - Idealistic Studies 14 (3):278-278.
    The growth in interest in Whitehead and the increasing amount of materials available in English related to the Hua-Yen school of Buddhism in China mean that sooner or later there would be, or would have to be, a comparative study of the two in some depth. Although previous scholars of the Hua-Yen philosophy have made repeated references to process philosophy and have argued that this would be a means to understanding Hua-Yen thought, it is not until Steve Odin’s book that (...)
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  43. added 2014-03-31
    Between One and Many: Multiples, Multiplication and the Huayan Metaphysics.Hsueh-Man Shen - 2012 - In Proceedings of the British Academy Volume 181, 2010-2011 Lectures. pp. 205.
    Modern art history practice often treats Buddhist icons or ritual objects as unique objects, focusing on their originality and uniqueness. This text investigates how the paradoxical Buddhist doctrine of ‘the one and the many’ was translated into visual language through manipulation of the relationship between copies and the original. It analyses the different tactics and strategies formulated around given socio-historical frameworks to visualise the notion of infinity, and ultimately the structure of the universe, and suggests that multiple copies of a (...)
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  44. added 2014-03-28
    Fazang (643-712), Tractatus on Golden Lion.Jana Benicka - 2003 - Filozofia 58 (9):612-623.
    The Treatise on Golden Lion is one of the most familiar and the most popular treatises in Chinese Mahayana Buddhism. Fazang, who made a system out of the classical form of learning in the Chinese school called „Flower wreath“ (Huayan), allegedly wrote this short work as a description of a real event – he explained his doctrine in the emperor's palace using a golden sculpture of a lion. He explains the fundamental implications of the doctrine oh his school – the (...)
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  45. added 2014-03-25
    The Problematic of Whole – Part and the Horizon of the Enlightened in Huayan Buddhism.Tao Jiang - 2001 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 28 (4):457–475.
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  46. added 2014-03-23
    Li (Principle, Coherence) in Chinese Buddhism.Brook Ziporyn - 2003 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 30 (3‐4):501-524.
  47. added 2014-03-22
    Living the Inconceivable: Hua-Yen Buddhism and Postmodern Différend.Jin Y. Park - 2003 - Asian Philosophy 13 (2 & 3):165 – 174.
    This essay attempts a paradigmatic comparison between the fourfold worldview of Hua-yen Buddhism and the postmodern philosophy of Jean-François Lyotard. Employing a tension between centripetal and centrifugal forces as a structural underpinning of these two philosophies, the essay illuminates the liberating nature of Hua-yen Buddhism and postmodern thought together with the shadow of skepticism involved in endorsing a vision for a poly-lingual existence. Despite human beings' desire for a totalitarian vision hidden in every aspect of our discourse, Hua-yen Buddhism and (...)
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  48. added 2014-03-21
    Evil, the Bodhisattva Doctrine, and Faith in Chinese Buddhism: Examining Fa Zang's Three Tests.Dirck Vorenkamp - 2004 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 31 (2):253–269.
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  49. added 2014-03-20
    Reconsidering the Whiteheadian Critique of Huayan Temporal Symmetry in Light of Fazang's Views.Dirck Vorenkamp - 2005 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 32 (2):197-210.
  50. added 2014-03-17
    Philosopher, Practitioner, Politician: The Many Lives of Fazang (643-712).Jinhua Chen - 2007 - Brill.
    The Buddhist master Fazang is regarded as one of the greatest metaphysicians in medieval Asia.
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