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Summary The Huayan (Flower Garland) School of Buddhism flourished in China during the Tang period, roughly from the late 500s until the mid 800s. The school derives its name from the Huayan Sutra, and along with the Tiantai School it ranks among the most important schools of Buddhism indigenous to China. Distinctive theses endorsed within the school, and illustrated with famous analogies of the golden lion and the jeweled net of Indra, include the mutual penetration of all dharmas past-present-and-future as well as the mutual identity of parts and wholes. But the school is also known for its contributions to classification systems of Buddhist teachings, for its use of paradoxical language, and for its innovations in conceptualizing causation. Specific teachings of the school that have attracted scholarly attention include doctrines of the three natures, the four realms, the six characteristics, the ten times, and the ten mysterious gates.
Key works Cook 1977 is a standard reference point for many other discussions in English. An early attempt to compare Huayan to process philosophy is Odin 1982, and a recent attempt to relate Huayan to postmodern ideas is Park 2008. For specific topics within the Huayan school, consult Lai 1977 on causation, Liu 1981 on hermeneutics, Wright 1982 on paradoxical language, Vorenkamp 2004 on faith, Jiang 2001 or Jones 2010 on mereology.
Introductions General introductions to the Huayan School include Cook 1977 and Chang 1971. Lai 1977, Liu 1981, and Gregory 1983 situate Huayan relative to other schools of Chinese Buddhism.
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  1. Fa-­Tsang on Madhyamaka: Nagarjuna’s Treatise on the Twelve Gates and Fa-­Tsang’s Commentary.Dirck Vorenkamp - manuscript
    Translation of Nagarjuna's -Treatise on the Twelve Gates- as well as fazang's commentary on that treatise.
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  2. A Russellian Analysis of Buddhist Catuskoti.Nicholaos Jones - 2020 - Comparative Philosophy 11 (2):63-89.
    Names name, but there are no individuals who are named by names. This is the key to an elegant and ideologically parsimonious strategy for analyzing the Buddhist catuṣkoṭi. The strategy is ideologically parsimonious, because it appeals to no analytic resources beyond those of standard predicate logic. The strategy is elegant, because it is, in effect, an application of Bertrand Russell's theory of definite descriptions to Buddhist contexts. The strategy imposes some minor adjustments upon Russell's theory. Attention to familiar catuṣkoṭi from (...)
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  3. The Architecture of Fazang’s Six Characteristics.Nicholaos Jones - 2019 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 27 (3):468-491.
    This paper examines the Huayan teaching of the six characteristics as presented in the Rafter Dialogue from Fazang's Treatise on the Five Teachings. The goal is to make the teaching accessible to those with minimal training in Buddhist philosophy, and especially for those who aim to engage with the extensive question-and-answer section of the Rafter Dialogue. The method for achieving this goal is threefold: first, contextualizing Fazang's account of the characteristics with earlier Buddhist attempts to theorize the relationships between wholes (...)
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  4. Huayan Numismatics as Metaphysics: Explicating Fazang's Coin-Counting Metaphor.Nicholaos Jones - 2019 - Philosophy East and West 68 (4):1155-1177.
    This paper explicates the counting ten coins metaphor as it appears in Fazang’s Treatise on the Five Teachings of Huayan. The goal is to transform Fazang’s inexact and obscure mentions of the metaphor into something that is clearer and more precise. The method for achieving this goal is threefold: first, presenting Fazang’s version of the metaphor as improving upon prior efforts by Zhiyan and Ŭisang to interpret a brief stanza in the Avataṁsaka sutra; second, providing textual evidence to support this (...)
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  5. Thomé H. Fang, Tang Junyi and Huayan Thought: A Confucian Appropriation of Buddhist Ideas in Response to Scientism in Twentieth-Century China.King Pong Chiu - 2016 - Brill.
    In Thomé H. Fang, Tang Junyi and Huayan Thought, King Pong Chiu discusses Thomé H. Fang and Tang Junyi, two of the most important Confucian thinkers in twentieth-century China, who appropriated aspects of the medieval Chinese Buddhist school of Huayan to develop a response to the challenges of ‘scientism’, the belief that quantitative natural science is the only valuable part of human learning and the only source of truth. -/- As Chiu argues, Fang’s and Tang’s selective appropriations of Huayan thought (...)
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  6. Translating Totality in Parts: Chengguan's Commentaries and Subcommentaries to the Avatamsaka Sutra by Guo Cheen. [REVIEW]Nicholas Hudson - 2016 - Philosophy East and West 66 (2):695-696.
    Guo Cheen’s Translating Totality in Parts: Chengguan’s Commentaries and Subcommentaries to the Avatamsaka Sutra translates the first of eighty fascicles or juan of Chengguan’s A Compilation of the Commentaries and Subcommentaries to the Flower Ornament Sutra with Greatly Proper and Extensive Discourses by the Buddhas as well as the preface to his The Meanings Proclaimed in the Subcommentaries Accompanying the Commentaries to the Flower Ornament Sutra with Greatly Proper and Extensive Discourses by the Buddha. Guo Cheen translates the preface first, (...)
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  7. The Huayan Philosophers Fazang and Li Tongxuan on the “Six Marks” and the “Sphere of Edification”.Seunghak Koh - 2015 - The Eastern Buddhist 46 (2):1-18.
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  8. Translating Totality in Parts: Chengguan’s Commentaries and Subcommentaries to the Avatamska Sutra.Guo Cheen - 2014 - Upa.
    This book offers an annotated translation of two of preeminent Chinese Tang dynasty monk Chengguan’s most revered masterpieces. With this book, Chengguan’s Commentaries to the Avatamsaka Sutra and The Meanings Proclaimed in the Subcommentaries Accompanying the Commentaries to the Avatamsaka Sutra are finally brought to Western audiences.
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  9. Philosophical Aspects of Sixth-Century Chinese Buddhist Debates on “Mind and Consciousness".Hans-Rudolf Kantor - 2014 - In Chen-Kuo Lin & Michael Radich (eds.), A Distant Mirror: Articulating Indic Ideas in Sixth and Seventh Century Chinese Buddhism. Hamburg University Press. pp. 337-395.
  10. Leibniz and Huayan Buddhism: Monads as Modified Li?Casey Rentmeester - 2014 - Lyceum 13 (1):36-57.
  11. Ethics of Tension: A Buddhist-Postmodern Ethical Paradigm.Jin Y. Park - 2013 - Taiwan Journal of East Asian Studies 10 (19):123-142.
    This essay considers an ethical paradigm that can be drawn from Buddhist and postmodern philosophy. Ethics is a practical branch of philosophy and an ethical paradigm is closely connected to the fundamental structure and tenets of a philosophical system. That ethics is a practical branch of philosophy also indicates that meaning and value of a certain ethical paradigm is directly related to the environments in which the paradigm is understood and practiced. In considering an ethical paradigm based on Buddhist and (...)
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  12. Brahman and Dao: Comparative Studies of Indian and Chinese Philosophy and Religion.Ithamar Theodor & Zhihua Yao (eds.) - 2013 - Lexington Books.
    Although there are various studies comparing Greek and Indian philosophy and religion, and Chinese and Western philosophy and religion, Brahman and Dao: Comparatives Studies in Indian and Chinese Philosophy and Religion is a first of its kind that brings together Indian and Chinese philosophies and religions. Brahman and Dao helps close the gap on a much needed examination on the rich history of Buddhist transmission to China, and the many generations of Indian Buddhist missionaries to China and Chinese Buddhist pilgrims (...)
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  13. Huayan Buddhism and Dewey: Emptiness, Compassion, and the Philosophical Fallacy.Gregory M. Fahy - 2012 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 39 (2):260-271.
    Huayan Buddhist philosophers and John Dewey share a perspective on emptiness or dependent origination. This article compares Dewey's local, contextual, and relational metaphysics with Huayan thinkers’ use of the metaphor of Indra's jewel net to extend their relational metaphysics to an infinite extent. Huayan thinkers base their ethics of compassion on the recognition of the infinite relatedness of all things. Dewey prefers constructing social institutions that foster experiences that are reliably aesthetically unified. This dispute is significant because pragmatism and Buddhism (...)
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  14. Buddhism and Postmodernity: Zen, Huayan, and the Possibility of Buddhist Postmodern Ethics (Review).Sor-Ching Low - 2012 - Philosophy East and West 62 (3):417-420.
  15. Between One and Many: Multiples, Multiplication and the Huayan Metaphysics.Hsueh-Man Shen - 2012 - In Proceedings of the British Academy Volume 181, 2010-2011 Lectures. pp. 205.
    Modern art history practice often treats Buddhist icons or ritual objects as unique objects, focusing on their originality and uniqueness. This text investigates how the paradoxical Buddhist doctrine of ‘the one and the many’ was translated into visual language through manipulation of the relationship between copies and the original. It analyses the different tactics and strategies formulated around given socio-historical frameworks to visualise the notion of infinity, and ultimately the structure of the universe, and suggests that multiple copies of a (...)
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  16. Spinoza and the Self-Overcoming of Solipsism.Brook Ziporyn - 2012 - Comparative and Continental Philosophy 4 (1):125 - 140.
    Spinoza, as a monist and a rationalist, seems unlikely to have occasion to confront any form of the solipsism problem. However, a close examination of his epistemology reveals that he does in fact confront a very radical form of this problem, and offers an equally radical solution to it, derived from the very epistemological premises that make it a potential problem for him. In particular, we find that the conception of the mind as the “idea of the body,” premised on (...)
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  17. Li Tongxuan's (635--730) Thought and His Place in the Huayan Tradition of Chinese Buddhism.Seunghak Koh - 2011 - Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles
    This dissertation explores diverse facets of the Chinese Huayan tradition by analyzing the thought of the lay exegete Li Tongxuan (635–730). -/- Although Li's ideas have been considered idiosyncratic and even heterodox from the standpoint of the "orthodox" five Huayan patriarchs, we should not restrict our perspective to this narrow framework. As a lay scholar who had a strong practical orientation, Li had a solid literary background in indigenous Chinese philosophy and applied this knowledge to the explication of the newly (...)
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  18. Mou Zongsan's “Transcendental” Interpretation of Huayan Buddhism.Andres Siu-Kwong Tang - 2011 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (2):238-256.
  19. Interpretation of Yogācāra Philosophy in Huayan Buddhism.Imre Hamar - 2010 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (2):181-197.
  20. Review of Jin Y. Park, Buddhism and Postmodernity: Zen, Huayan, and the Possibility of Buddhist Postmodern Ethics. [REVIEW]Peter D. Hershock - 2010 - Sophia 49 (1):153-155.
  21. Nyāya-Vaiśesika Inherence, Buddhist Reduction, and Huayan Total Power.Nicholaos Jones - 2010 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (2):215-230.
    This paper elaborates upon various responses to the Problem of the One over the Many, in the service of two central goals. The first is to situate Huayan's mereology within the context of Buddhism's historical development, showing its continuity with a broader tradition of philosophizing about part-whole relations. The second goal is to highlight the way in which Huayan's mereology combines the virtues of the Nyāya-Vaisheshika and Indian Buddhist solutions to the Problem of the One over the Many while avoiding (...)
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  22. Mereological Heuristics for Huayan Buddhism.Nicholaos John Jones - 2010 - Philosophy East and West 60 (3):355-368.
    This is an attempt to explain, in a way familiar to contemporary ways of thinking about mereology, why someone might accept some prima facie puzzling remarks by Fazang, such as his claims that the eye of a lion is its ear and that a rafter of a building is identical to the building itself. These claims are corollaries of the Huayan Buddhist thesis that everything is part of everything else, and it is intended here to show that there is a (...)
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  23. Li Tongxuan's Utilization of Chinese Symbolism in the Explication of the Avataṃasaka-Sūtra.Seunghak Koh - 2010 - Asian Philosophy 20 (2):141-158.
    This article deals with Li Tongxuan's explication of the Avata asaka-s tra in terms of the Sinification of Buddhism. While the affirmation of the present human condition is shared by other Chinese Huayan masters as well, this attitude is most evident in Li Tongxuan's explication of the scripture where the Chinese symbolisms such as yin-yang and five phases are amply employed. For him, every scriptural description on ordinary objects and names, especially directions, had profound religious implications. In order to reveal (...)
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  24. Introduction: Huayan Philosophy.Kai-gei Lee - 2010 - Philosophy and Culture 37 (12):1-2.
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  25. The Characteristics of Mind-only thought in Huayan Philosophy.Kuei-Chieh Liu - 2010 - Philosophy and Culture 37 (12):3-21.
    Kegon philosophy of idealism ideas mainly from "Sutra", "Three Realms idealism" of the proposition, and the "Mahayana Faith," "one two" doctrine. The latter is no life eternal that Tathagatagarbha of harmony with the birth and death, non-a non-different, and there are all the world "Tathagatagarbha," the show. Hua-yen said to people that use this to lay the theoretical foundation, Chi Yan , French possession , Chengguan , Zong Mi have inherited the "Mahayana Faith" point of view to carry out their (...)
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  26. On Thomé H. Fang 's Interpretation of Huayan Thought.Tai-Shing Wut - 2010 - Philosophy and Culture 37 (12):67-81.
    Fang Dongmei out West Indian culture, dreams, and respected exploration of Buddhism, to the heated; its "Hua Yan Zongzhe study" two thousand pages, citing the West reversed the concept of interpretation Sutra to teach; also proposed affect the harmony of China strict philosophy, a remedy flaws in the Western dualistic effect, reflecting the party's unique perspective and experience. However, the party's non-Buddhist scholars in general, less current chapter selection to find scholarly articles of the sentence, which were much quoted. This (...)
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  27. “Suddenly Deluded Thoughts Arise”: Karmic Appearance in Huayan Buddhism.Zhihua Yao - 2010 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (2):198-214.
    This study deals with the tensions between old and new Yogācāra, as seen in the Huayan sources, which, in turn, reflect discontinuity between Indian Yogācāra and its reception in China. Its particular focus is on the concept of karmic appearance , as developed in the Awakening of Faith and further elaborated on by many Huayanmasters. This concept illustrates the sudden arising of deluded thoughts and provides us with a paradigm for the approach to the problem of delusion, a problem that (...)
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  28. Introduction.Zhihua Yao - 2010 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (2):151-155.
  29. Li in East Asian Buddhism: One Approach From Plato's Parmenides.James Behuniak - 2009 - Asian Philosophy 19 (1):31 – 49.
    In Plato's Parmenides , Socrates proposes a 'Day' analogy to express one possible model of part/whole relations. His analogy is swiftly rejected and replaced with another analogy, that of the 'Sail'. In this paper, it is argued that there is a profound difference between these two analogies and that the 'Day' represents a distinct way to think about part/whole relations. This way of thinking, I argue, is the standard way of thinking in East Asian Buddhism. Plato's 'Day' analogy can then (...)
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  30. Fazang's Total Power Mereology: An Interpretive Analytic Reconstruction.Nicholaos Jones - 2009 - Asian Philosophy 19 (3):199-211.
    In his _Treatise on the Golden Lion_, Fazang says that wholes are _in_ each of their parts and that each part of a whole _is_ every other part of the whole. In this paper, I offer an interpretation of these remarks according to which they are not obviously false, and I use this interpretation in order to rigorously reconstruct Fazang's arguments for his claims. On the interpretation I favor, Fazang means that the presence of a whole's part suffices for the (...)
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  31. Emptiness, Identity and Interpenetration in Hua-Yen Buddhism.Atif Khalil - 2009 - Sacred Web 23 (Summer):49-76.
    The doctrine of sunyata, or emptiness, is the cornerstone of Buddhist metaphysics. This article explores the doctrine as elaborated by Nagarjuna, as it developed in Mahayana Buddhism and extended into Chinese Hua-Yen teachings. It is the key to understanding the relationship between the discontinuous and continuous aspects of reality, the inter-penetration and identity of “emptiness” and phenomena, the cosmic permeation of Buddhahood, and the role of the Bodhisattva.
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  32. The Yijing and the Formation of the Huayan Phiolosophy.Whalen Lai - 2009 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 36 (s1):101-112.
  33. Kegon philosophy on five teaching Zhiguan shaped probe.Yi Yu - 2009 - Bulletin of Tokai Philosophy 14:171-192.
    Shun Hua-yen master made ​​early Zudu Mahayana Buddhism in China laid the foundation Huayan, its far-reaching effects. The so-called , the religious standpoint, originally refers to the five different levels of self-cultivation: France has no one to turn me, health is without health door, door affair harmony, language concept Shuangjue door, and China Yan Samadhi door. Dusun master and apply it in apostasy, and its representing Theravada Buddhism, Mahayana began to teach, to teach the final Mahayana, Mahayana Dayton to teach, (...)
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  34. Hua-yan Thought in the Chan Method of the Caodong-School during the Song and Yuan Dynasties.Kuei-Chieh Liu - 2008 - Philosophy and Culture 35 (11):3-21.
    In general, Cao hole were due to adverse price pioneer, teacher and student has the lonely mountain in Jiangxi hole, Cao mountain pass method, named after the original out the Southern Zen Green thinking law, the by stone Xiqian, drug Mountain Wei Yan, dolomite Tan Cheng as well as adverse price. Adverse price disciples inherited the silence industry division, Great meditation. Cao Cheng Xi Qian hole Zen's management on the matter "back to each other" , and then expanded to "five (...)
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  35. Buddhism and Postmodernity: Zen, Huayan, and the Possibility of Buddhist Postmodern Ethics.Jin Y. Park - 2008 - Lexington Books.
    Through a close analysis of Zen encounter dialogues and Huayan Buddhist philosophy, Buddhism and Postmodernity offers a new ethical paradigm for Buddhist-postmodern philosophy.
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  36. Whitehead and Chinese Philosophy: The Ontological Principle and Huayan Buddhism’s Concept of Shi.Vincent Shen - 2008 - In Michel Weber (ed.), Handbook of Whiteheadian Process Thought. De Gruyter. pp. 613-627.
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  37. Philosopher, Practitioner, Politician: The Many Lives of Fazang (643-712).Jinhua Chen - 2007 - Brill.
    The Buddhist master Fazang is regarded as one of the greatest metaphysicians in medieval Asia.
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  38. Reflecting Mirrors: Perspectives on Huayan Buddhism.Imre Hamar - 2007 - Harrassowitz Verlag.
    This book is the first comprehensive treatment of the Huayan school of East Asian Buddhism in a Western language.
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  39. The Manifestation of the Absolute in the Phenomenal World: Nature Origination in Huayan Exegesis.Imre Hamar - 2007 - Bulletin de L'Ecole Francaise d'Extreme-Orient 94:229-250.
  40. The True Meaning of Dharma-Realm.Kai-gei Lee - 2007 - Philosophy and Culture 34 (8):35-47.
    Mahayana classic "Sutra" in Chinese means the formation of a strong Hua-yen philosophy, including Dharma three views, Kegon six-phase, ten eternal combat, Kegon Samadhi view of the complex mysteries of the law, which is the Chinese people's achievements, but also China characteristics of Mahayana Buddhism. In 418 AD, Jin translated sixty volumes "Sutra" to the seventh century, by the emperor mind Dusun Zen Master Venerable Dharma three developed the concept for "Dharma," the concept of gradual deepening of the theory put (...)
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  41. The Categoreal Scheme in Hua-Yan Buddhism and Whitehead’s Metaphysics.Yih-Hsien Yu - 2007 - Process Studies 36 (2):306-329.
    If, after a century of analysis there is a turn to synthesis, Hua-yan and Whitehead will become important resources. Especially given the radical difference of their historical contexts, their similarity is striking, but they differ on time. Whitehead is clear that relations to the future always differ in kind from those to the past, and Theravada Buddhists agree. But Hua-yan is open to a greater symmetry in enlightened experience.
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  42. Development of The Hua-Yen School During the Tang Dynasty.Hsien du - 2006 - Hua-yen Lotus Association.
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  43. Ethics of Ambiguity : A Buddhist Reflection on the Japanese Organ Transplant Law.Ronald Y. Nakasone - 2006 - In David E. Guinn (ed.), Handbook of Bioethics and Religion. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter examines the structure and role of ambiguity in the Japanese Organ Transplant Law by looking at the Chinese Huayen Buddhist doctrine of dharmadhatu-pratityasamutpada or universal dependent “coarising”, a major interpretation of the Buddha's pratityasamutpada, dependent-coarising or interdependence. Specifically, it will examine the nature of ambiguity through the zhuban yuanming jude men or “the attribute of the complete accommodation of principal and secondary dharmas” that Fazang formulated. The interdependent and evolving Buddhist vision of reality causes ambiguity in decision making (...)
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  44. Fazang (Fa-Tsang).Norman Harry Rothschild - 2006 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  45. Fazang (643-712): The Holy Man.Jinhua Chen - 2005 - Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 28 (1):11-84.
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  46. Reconsidering the Whiteheadian Critique of Huayan Temporal Symmetry in Light of Fazang's Views.Dirck Vorenkamp - 2005 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 32 (2):197-210.
  47. An English Translation of Fa-Tsang’s Commentary on the Awakening of Faith.Dirck Vorenkamp - 2004 - E. Mellen Press.
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  48. Evil, the Bodhisattva Doctrine, and Faith in Chinese Buddhism: Examining Fa Zang's Three Tests.Dirck Vorenkamp - 2004 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 31 (2):253–269.
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  49. Fazang (643-712), Tractatus on Golden Lion.Jana Benicka - 2003 - Filozofia 58 (9):612-623.
    The Treatise on Golden Lion is one of the most familiar and the most popular treatises in Chinese Mahayana Buddhism. Fazang, who made a system out of the classical form of learning in the Chinese school called „Flower wreath“ (Huayan), allegedly wrote this short work as a description of a real event – he explained his doctrine in the emperor's palace using a golden sculpture of a lion. He explains the fundamental implications of the doctrine oh his school – the (...)
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  50. Living the Inconceivable: Hua-Yen Buddhism and Postmodern Différend.Jin Y. Park - 2003 - Asian Philosophy 13 (2 & 3):165 – 174.
    This essay attempts a paradigmatic comparison between the fourfold worldview of Hua-yen Buddhism and the postmodern philosophy of Jean-François Lyotard. Employing a tension between centripetal and centrifugal forces as a structural underpinning of these two philosophies, the essay illuminates the liberating nature of Hua-yen Buddhism and postmodern thought together with the shadow of skepticism involved in endorsing a vision for a poly-lingual existence. Despite human beings' desire for a totalitarian vision hidden in every aspect of our discourse, Hua-yen Buddhism and (...)
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