Arguments for Theism

Edited by Daniel von Wachter (International Academy of Philosophy In The Principality of Liechtenstein)
About this topic
Summary Theism is generally taken to be the view that there is a person who is bodiless, omnipotent, omniscient, eternal, perfectly good, perfectly free, and who is the creator and sustainer of the universe. There are of course  different ways to spell out these attributes, for example some spell out ‘eternal‘ as ‘being outside of time‘, others as ‘everlasting‘. However, those who present arguments for or against the ‘existence of God‘ use the term ‘God’ similarly enough to be discussing the same question. Philosophers rather say that there is no God than using ‘God’ in a very different sense, for example in the sense of something other than a person. Most or all arguments for or against theism, today as well as in the past, are not assumed to make belief in God somehow ‘apodictically‘ certain. However, some arguments are deductive, others inductive.
Key works The most thorough defense of the existence of God is Swinburne 2004, who gives probabilistic, inductive instead of deductive arguments and who rejects the ontological as well as the moral argument from the existence of values or duties. Plantinga 1974 defends the ontological argument, Adams 1979 the moral argument. Mackie 1982 is still a much quoted defense of atheism. Rowe 2010 presents an atheistic position.
Introductions Most anthologies with the title ‘philosophy of religion’ contain articles that give the various arguments, for example Craig 2002 or Davies 2000, and also Meister & Copan 2007, Taliaferro & Meister 2009, and Copan & Moser 2003. A simplified defense of theism with various arguments is Swinburne 1996, Le Poidevin 1996 is an introductory defense atheism.
Related categories

2043 found
Order:
1 — 50 / 2043
Material to categorize
  1. Is There a God?: A Debate.Kenneth L. Pearce & Graham Oppy - forthcoming - Routledge.
    Bertrand Russell famously quipped that he didn't believe in God for the same reason that he didn't believe in a teapot in orbit between the earth and Mars: it is a bizarre assertion for which no evidence can be provided. Is belief in God really like belief in Russell's Teapot? Kenneth L. Pearce argues that God is no teapot. God is a real answer to the deepest question of all: why is there something rather than nothing? Graham Oppy argues that (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2. Toward an Inclusive Conception of Eternity.William W. Young - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 89 (2):171-187.
    Philosophical and theological conceptions of eternity frequently define it through a contrast with time’s transience. These conceptions reflect the widespread influence of Augustine’s idea of eternity, where eternity stands atemporally in opposition to time. Such conceptions are problematic for both divine and human relations to the world. However, the work of Plotinus and Boethius shows that eternity can be conceived more inclusively—as transcending time, but nonetheless including temporal change and dynamism within its presence. This facilitates Boethius’ views of divine knowledge (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  3. Divine Scripture in Human Understanding: A Systematic Theology of the Christian Bible by Joseph K.Gordon (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2019), Xiii + 442 Pp. [REVIEW]A. K. M. Adam - 2021 - Modern Theology 37 (2):534-536.
  4. Against a Deontic Argument for God's Existence.Patrick Grim - 1982 - Analysis 42:171-174.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5. Without Excuse: Scripture, Reason, and Presuppositional Apologetics.David Haines (ed.) - 2020 - Leesburg: The Davenant Press.
    The twentieth century was unkind to classical Reformed theology. While theological conservatives often blame liberals for undermining traditional Protestant doctrines, the staunchest conservatives and neo-Orthodox also revised several key doctrines. Although Cornelius Van Til developed presuppositional apologetics as an attempt to remain faithful to timeless Christian truth as the Reformed tradition expresses it, he sacrificed the catholic and Reformed understanding of the use of natural revelation in theology and apologetics in the process. -/- "The invisible things of him from the (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  6. The Ontological Arguments.Graham Oppy - 2017 - In Donald M. Borchert (ed.), Philosophy: Religion. New York, NY, USA: pp. 51-64.
    This paper discusses: (1) Anselm’s ontological argument and its criticism by Gaunilo; (2) Plantinga’s ontological argument and its criticism by Mackie and Sobel; and (3) a simplified version of Gödel’s ontological argument. It also looks carefully at (4) Kant’s attempt to show that it is impossible for there to be a successful ontological argument.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7. A Most Excellent Way: An Essay on Faith, Hope, and Love by ChristopheChalamet (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books/Fortress Academic, 2020), X + 183 Pp. [REVIEW]Kirk J. Nolan - 2021 - Modern Theology 37 (1):217-220.
  8. Living Info: Notes on the Exegesis.Paul Bali - manuscript
  9. Kant, God and Metaphysics: The Secret Thorn by Edward Kanterian. [REVIEW]Jonathan Egid - 2020 - Philosophy 95:229-233.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10. Determining the Need for Explanation.Martin Jakobsen - 2020 - Faith and Philosophy 37 (2):230-241.
    Several theistic arguments are formulated as arguments for the best explanation. This article discusses how one can determine that some phenomenon actually needs an explanation. One way to demonstrate that an explanation is needed is by providing one. The proposed explanation ought to either make the occurrence of the phenomenon in question more probable than it occurring by chance, or it has to sufficiently increase our understanding of the phenomenon. A second way to demonstrate that an explanation is needed is (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  11. A Baker's Dozen and a Half Compossibles.Jude Arnout Durieux - manuscript
    Molinism, libertarian free will, predestination, evil, a sin-free heaven, God being omniscient, omnipotent, omnibenevolent, and perfectly just, this world being replete with injustice, this being the best of all possible worlds, heinous suffering, and no-one unjustly suffering are all compossible. Religious world-views tend to make many claims that non-believers tend to find contradictory. A well-known pair is God’s absolute goodness and the existence of intense evil. This paper shows the compossibility of a largish number of such claims, by a constructive (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12. Pornography and Christology.Matthew John Paul Tan - 2020 - The Australasian Catholic Record 97 (3):312.
    This article results from the experimental convergence of five elements. Three of these are seemingly unrelated names: the Anglican philosopher John Milbank, the German critical theorist Walter Benjamin, and the incarnate Word, Jesus Christ. The remaining two are themes that seem to have little relation to each other: the explosion of online pornography, which is making addicts of younger and younger users, and Christology or the study of the nature and work of the Second Person of the Trinity.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  13. Editorial preface.R. L. Hall - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 88 (1):1-3.
  14. Seeing and Not Seeing the Face of God: Overcoming the Law of Contradiction in Biblical Theology.Steven Kepnes - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 12 (2):133-147.
    This paper attempts to illuminate and interpret the contradictory portrait of God as both seen and unseen in the Torah. Thus Moses is commanded not to look on the face of God yet also praised for having spoken to God “face to face". We seek ways to reconcile the contradictory portraits of God through the use of the term “doubled-mindedness” in the theology of Jerome Gellman, in the logic of “thirdness” in C.S. Peirce’s semiotics, and in the use of both (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15. Revelation Through Concealment: Kabbalistic Responses to God’s Hiddenness.Samuel Lebens - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 12 (2):89-108.
    John Schellenberg presents an argument for atheism according to which theism would be easy to believe, if true. Since theism isn’t easy to believe, it must be false. In this paper, I argue that Kabbalistic Judaism has the resources to bypass this argument completely. The paper also explores a stream of Kabbalistic advice that the tradition offers to people of faith for those times at which God appears to us to be hidden.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  16. Erich Przywara’s Late Reception of Luther.Adam T. Morton - forthcoming - Modern Theology.
    Erich Przywara’s late career writings have to this point received little attention in English. While Przywara’s earlier writings include both significant dialogue with Protestant theologians (most prominently Karl Barth) and occasional references to Martin Luther, Luther takes on a new prominence in his work after the Second World War. This article seeks to describe Przywara’s late reception of Luther, including its historical circumstances and Przywara’s engagement with Luther scholarship, and to assess Przywara’s use and sharp criticism of Luther in his (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  17. Malebranche: Theological Figure, Being 2 by AlainBadiou (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2019), Xxxvii + 193 Pp. [REVIEW]Jay Martin - 2020 - Modern Theology 36 (3):688-690.
  18. Can a Worship-Worthy Agent Command Others to Worship It?Frederick Choo - forthcoming - Religious Studies.
    This article examines two arguments that a worship-worthy agent cannot command worship. The first argument is based on the idea that any agent who commands worship is egotistical, and hence not worship-worthy. The second argument is based on Campbell Brown and Yujin Nagasawa's (2005) idea that people cannot comply with the command to worship because if people are offering genuine worship, they cannot be motivated by a command to do so. One might then argue that a worship-worthy agent would have (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  19. Shame and Absence: Feminist and Theological Reflections.Lenart Škof - 2020 - Sophia 59 (1):1-3.
    This paper deals with the concept of three eras, as brought to us firstly in the Babylonian Talmud, and later reshaped and reformulated by Christian theologians Joachim of Fiore, Amalric of Bène, and finally by Luce Irigaray. In the first part, we start with the idea of the three eras. This is followed by a critical approach to Sloterdijk’s You must change your life in which religion is substituted by the anthropotechnics. We argue that even in these secular times, the (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20. The Third Age: Reflections on Our Hidden Material Core.Lenart Škof - 2020 - Sophia 59 (1):83-94.
    This paper deals with the concept of three eras, as brought to us firstly in the Babylonian Talmud, and later reshaped and reformulated by Christian theologians Joachim of Fiore, Amalric of Bène, and finally by Luce Irigaray. In the first part, we start with the idea of the three eras. This is followed by a critical approach to Sloterdijk’s You must change your life in which religion is substituted by the anthropotechnics. We argue that even in these secular times, the (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  21. Zölibat als Risikofaktor für sexuellen Missbrauch?Godehard Brüntrup - 2019 - In Matthias Remenyi & Thomas Schärtl (eds.), Nicht ausweichen: Theologie angesichts der Missbrauchskrise. Regensburg, Deutschland: pp. 109 - 124.
  22. Panpsychismus und Handeln Gottes.Godehard Brüntrup - 2017 - In Georg/ Jaskolla Gasser (ed.), Handbuch für analytische Theologie. Münster, Deutschland: pp. 917-947.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23. The ineffability of God.Omar Fakhri - 2021 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 89 (1):25-41.
    I defend an account of God’s ineffability that depends on the distinction between fundamental and non-fundamental truths. I argue that although there are fundamentally true propositions about God, no creature can have them as the object of a propositional attitude, and no sentence can perfectly carve out their structures. Why? Because these propositions have non-enumerable structures. In principle, no creature can fully grasp God’s intrinsic nature, nor can they develop a language that fully describes it. On this account, the ineffability (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  24. Introduction to the symposium.Michael S. Jones - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 87 (3):201-202.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  25. Tertullian on Divine Sovereignty and Free Will in Advance.David Clark - forthcoming - Philosophy and Theology.
    Christian thinkers in the patristic era were not reluctant to integrate classical philosophy with biblical theology as they addressed the seeming incompatibility of free will and determinism (fate). This paper compares and contrasts Tertullian and the Stoics as they explain three issues relating to freedom and fate: 1) The operation of the Logos, 2) Theological Anthropology, and 3) Teleology. While in agreement with the Stoics on several key points, Tertullian crucially departs from them as he argues it is not by (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  26. Izydora Dqmbska (1904-1983). Materialy z sympozium, „Non est necesse vivere, necesse est philosophar" Kraków, 18-19 grudnia 1998 r. [Izydora Dąmbska (1904-1983). Materialien aus dem Symposion „Non est necesse vivere, necesse est philosophari" Kraków, 18-19 Dezember 1998]. [REVIEW]Józef Bremer - 2002 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 7:266-268.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27. Am'rous Charity.K. M. Quinsey - 1987 - Renascence 39 (3):407-420.
  28. The Cinematic Gaze as ‘A Long Loving Look at the Real’: Andrei Tarkovsky and Walter Burghardt’s Theology of Contemplation.James Lorenz - forthcoming - Heythrop Journal.
  29. Editor's Page.James B. South - 2017 - Philosophy and Theology 29 (1):199-201.
  30. Editor's Page.James B. South - 2016 - Philosophy and Theology 28 (1):293-296.
  31. Editor's Page.James South - 2012 - Philosophy and Theology 24 (1):137-138.
  32. Is a Good God Logically Possible? James P. Sterba, Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, XI. [REVIEW]Michael Almeida - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 87 (3):245-249.
  33. Do Logic and Religion Mix?James Collin - 2017 - In Duncan Pritchard & Mark Harris (eds.), Philosophy, Science and Religion for Everyone. London, UK:
    Logic is the study of the validity of arguments, which is to say the study of when a conclusion follows or does not follow from a set of premises. Logic is an ancient discipline pioneered by Aristotle and developed by some of the greatest thinkers in the Middle Ages. However, in the nineteenth century logic underwent a remarkable transformation into a precise branch of mathematics that changed the nature of logic, and the study of religion, forever. Both religious adherents and (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  34. A Methodological Investigation on Christian Natural Theology.Chulho Youn - 2020 - Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 62 (1):41-57.
    Summary The purpose of this article is to present a desirable understanding of Christian natural theology in terms of methodology. In the Enlightenment era, natural theology was understood as that which provides support for religious beliefs by starting from a premise that does not include any religious beliefs. The natural theology of this age was performed under the premise that humanity could prove God’s existence by universal reason without the revelation of God, and that everyone could reasonably agree with the (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  35. Editorial preface.R. L. Hall - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 87 (2):135-136.
  36. Retiring the Argument From Reason.David Kyle Johnson - 2018 - Philosophia Christi 20 (2):541-563.
    In C. S. Lewis’s Christian Apologetics: Pro and Con, I took the con in a debate with Victor Reppert about the soundness of Lewis’s famous “argument from reason.” Reppert then extended his argument in an article for Philosophia Christi; this article is my reply. I show that Reppert’s argument fails for three reasons. It “loads the die” by falsely assuming that naturalism, by definition, can't include mental causation "on the basic level.". Physical processes can reliably produce true beliefs. And reasoning (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  37. Samuel Clarke.Richard Brian Davis - forthcoming - In Christian Apologists and Their Critics. Hoboken, NJ, USA:
    Clarke, Samuel (1675-1729) British theologian and philosopher. Widely regarded as the leading metaphysician in Britain after the death of John Locke (1632-1704) (Vailati 1998, p. xxxiv), Clarke’s most important apologetic contributions are contained in his Boyle Lectures (delivered in 1704 and 1705).
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  38. Gregory Palamas and the Making of Palamism in the Modern Age. By Norman Russell. Pp. Xii, 272, Oxford University Press, 2019, £65.00. [REVIEW]Patrick Madigan - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (2):354-355.
    The fourteenth-century Greek hesychast and controversialist, Gregory Palamas, has been so successfully cast as "the other" in Western theological discourse that it can be difficult to gain a sympathetic hearing for him. In the first part of this book, Norman Russell traces the historical reception of Palamite thought in Orthodoxy and in the West, and investigates how "Palamism" was constructed in the early twentieth century by both Western and Eastern theologians (principally Martin Jugie and John Meyendorff) for polemical or apologetic (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  39. Signs and Wonders. [REVIEW]Todd Buras - 2012 - Books and Culture: A Christian Review 18:22-24.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  40. Життєвий цикл соціально-економічних систем.Sergii Sardak - 2016 - Маркетинг І Менеджмент Інновацій 1:157-169.
    У статті розглянуто ознаки системи, особливості соціально-економічних систем та системного підходу. Враховано вплив аксіоматики, закономірностей та законів на розвиток систем. Досліджено циклічні закономірності у різнорівневих соціально-економічних системах. Визначено проблемно-дискусійні питання та спільні системні ознаки циклічності. Ідентифіковано структуру життєвого циклу соціально-економічної системи із визначенням загальних та конкретних складових елементів повторюваних змін за позасистемними та системними показниками.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  41. The Application Features of Seasonal-Cyclic Patterns in International Financial Markets.Sergii Sardak & O. Benenson O. Dzhusov, S. Smerichevskyi, S. Sardak, O. Klimova - 2019 - Academy of Accounting and Financial Studies Journal 23 (5):1-10.
    The paper deals with the topical issue of studying cyclic patterns in the economy and their practical application for the forecasts on the development of financial markets. The work aims to establish the features of the seasonal-cyclic patterns "The January barometer" and "The first five days of January" in the international financial markets in current conditions and to develop recommendations for the practical application of these patterns in the investment activities. The US stock market as an integral part of the (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  42. Natural Theology & Classical Apologetics.Joshua Synon - manuscript
    An essay concerning the arguments from natural theology for the existence of a theistic God. This is the second edition of an essay that I felt compelled to write in 2006. The first edition was quite uncritical of the various arguments examined. However, after further study, I felt the need to revise the arguments and, ultimately, the conclusion. Although I may no longer agree with everything written in this essay it remains an important part of my spiritual journey. Some ideas (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  43. Handbook of the First World Congress on Logic and Religion.Ricardo Sousa Silvestre & Jean-Yves Beziau (eds.) - 2015 - Campina Grande, PB, Brasil: EDUFCG.
  44. Cumulative Cases.Paul Draper - 2010 - In Charles Taliaferro, Paul Draper & Philip L. Quinn (eds.), A Companion to Philosophy of Religion. Malden, MA, USA: pp. 414-424.
    Three types of cumulative cases for theism are examined: incremental cases (like Richard Swinburne's), distributive cases (like William Lane Craig's), and emergent cases (like Basil Mitchell's).
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  45. God or Blind Nature? Philosophers Debate the Evidence.Paul Draper (ed.) - 2008 - The Secular Web.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46. Craig's Case for God's Existence.Paul Draper - 2003 - In Stan W. Wallace (ed.), Does God Exist? The Antony Flew/William Lane Craig Debate. pp. 141-154.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  47. God’s Self-Manifestation and Moser’s Moral Approach in Justifying Belief in God.Azam Sadat Hoseini Hoseinabad, Zahra Khazaei & Mohsen Javadi - 2018 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 16 (1):41-64.
    The present paper depicts Moser’s view on the justification of the belief in God. By debunking the efficiency of mere theoretical reason in proving the existence of God, introducing God as the source of justification, and using a moral perspective, he proposes a kind of voluntary knowledge. He assumes the right path to acquire true knowledge of god to be a direct and purposeful evidence, which is found in accordance to divine attributes. For their own redemption, before the interference of (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  48. The Case Against Theism: Why the Evidence Disproves God’s Existence.Jacobus Erasmus - 2019 - International Journal of Philosophy and Theology 80 (3):303-304.
    Volume 80, Issue 3, July 2019, Page 303-304.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  49. A Note on Theism and the Two Problems of Consciousness.S. Gundersen - 2017 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 24 (1-2):138-158.
    Pain is a paradigmatic example of a conscious mental state because pain is always accompanied by a conscious experience. One version of the mind-body problem is to explain how physical states can generate conscious experiences. Although we may agree that this is really a hard problem there seems to be an even harder problem of consciousness: why does consciousness exist at all? It has been argued that both problems are so hard that they cannot be understood within a scientific framework. (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  50. An Evidential Argument for Theism From the Cognitive Science of Religion.Matthew Braddock - 2018 - In Hans van Eyghen, Rik Peels & Gijsbert van den Brink (eds.), New Developments in the Cognitive Science of Religion: The Rationality of Religious Belief. Springer. pp. 171-198.
    What are the epistemological implications of the cognitive science of religion (CSR)? The lion’s share of discussion fixates on whether CSR undermines (or debunks or explains away) theistic belief. But could the field offer positive support for theism? If so, how? That is our question. Our answer takes the form of an evidential argument for theism from standard models and research in the field. According to CSR, we are naturally disposed to believe in supernatural agents and these beliefs are constrained (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
1 — 50 / 2043