About this topic
Summary Theism is generally taken to be the view that there is a person who is bodiless, omnipotent, omniscient, eternal, perfectly good, perfectly free, and who is the creator and sustainer of the universe. There are of course  different ways to spell out these attributes, for example some spell out ‘eternal‘ as ‘being outside of time‘, others as ‘everlasting‘. However, those who present arguments for or against the ‘existence of God‘ use the term ‘God’ similarly enough to be discussing the same question. Philosophers rather say that there is no God than using ‘God’ in a very different sense, for example in the sense of something other than a person. Most or all arguments for or against theism, today as well as in the past, are not assumed to make belief in God somehow ‘apodictically‘ certain. However, some arguments are deductive, others inductive.
Key works The most thorough defense of the existence of God is Swinburne 2004, who gives probabilistic, inductive instead of deductive arguments and who rejects the ontological as well as the moral argument from the existence of values or duties. Plantinga 1974 defends the ontological argument, Adams 1979 the moral argument. Mackie 1982 is still a much quoted defense of atheism. Rowe 2010 presents an atheistic position.
Introductions Most anthologies with the title ‘philosophy of religion’ contain articles that give the various arguments, for example Craig 2002 or Davies 2000, and also Meister & Copan 2007, Taliaferro & Meister 2009, and Copan & Moser 2003. A simplified defense of theism with various arguments is Swinburne 1996, Le Poidevin 1996 is an introductory defense atheism.
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  1. Gender and the Infinite: On the Aspiration to Be All There Is.Pamala Sue Anderson - 2001 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 50 (1/3):191-212.
  2. A Reliability Challenge to Theistic Platonism.Dan Baras - forthcoming - Analysis:anx089.
    Many philosophers believe that when a theory is committed to an apparently unexplainable massive correlation, that fact counts significantly against the theory. Philosophical theories that imply that we have knowledge of non-causal mind-independent facts are especially prone to this objection. Prominent examples of such theories are mathematical Platonism, robust normative realism and modal realism. It is sometimes thought that theists can easily respond to this sort of challenge and that theism therefore has an epistemic advantage over atheism. In this paper, (...)
  3. Uncertain Belief: Is It Rational to Be a Christian?David J. Bartholomew - 1996 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Do miracles happen? Is the Bible true? What about the paranormal? Does God exist? People ask these questions but there are no agreed answers. At the rational level, uncertainty is inevitable. But is there enough evidence for a rational person to commit themselves to Christianity? This book provides an answer.
  4. Von Hügel's ‘Sense of the Infinite’.F. J. William Beatie - 1975 - Heythrop Journal 16 (2):149-173.
  5. Reinterpreting the Proofs of the Existence of God.T. J. M. Bench-Capon - 1980 - Religious Studies 16 (3):299 - 306.
  6. Science of Origins.David L. Bergman - forthcoming - Foundations of Science.
  7. The Logic of Naturalistic Arguments Against Theistic Hypotheses.Peter A. Bertocci - 1947 - Philosophical Review 56 (1):82-87.
  8. Graham Oppy, Philosophical Perspectives on Infinity.M. Bremer - 2007 - Philosophy in Review 27 (3):188.
  9. Anselm's Three-Stage Argument-Twenty Years On.Richard Campbell - 1995 - Sophia 34 (1):32-41.
  10. St. Anselm's Argument.M. J. Charlesworth - 1962 - Sophia 1 (2):25-36.
  11. Philosophical Arguments for God.Bowman L. Clarke - 1964 - Sophia 3 (3):3-14.
  12. Driving Towards the Infinite.W. Norris Clarke - 1985 - Renascence 37 (3):171-172.
  13. Religions, Reasons and Gods.John Clayton - 1987 - Religious Studies 23 (1):1 - 17.
    Philosophers have tended to discuss theistic proofs largely in abstraction from their specific roles within the religious traditions in which those proofs were cultivated and in which, until modern times, they flourished. As a result, the traditional theistic proofs of the West are generally presented in the philosophical literature as no more than attempts to demonstrate or within tolerable limits to establish the probability of the existence of at least one god. Whatever the history of philosophy may suggest, the history (...)
  14. The Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Philosophy of Religion, Edited by Graham Oppy.Richard Colledge - 2016 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 94 (4):839-840.
  15. Concerning Infinite Chains, Infinite Trains, and Borrowing a Typewriter.David A. Conway - 1983 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 14 (2):71 - 86.
  16. Arguing Successfully About God: A Review Essay of Graham Oppy’s Arguing About Gods.William Craig - 2008 - Philosophia Christi 10 (2):435-442.
  17. The Blackwell Companion to Natural Theology.William Lane Craig & J. P. Moreland (eds.) - 2009 - Wiley-Blackwell.
  18. The Argument From Perfection to Existence.Charles Crittenden - 1968 - Religious Studies 4 (1):123 - 132.
    Here is an argument for the existence of the most perfect being: 1. There is a concept of a greatest conceivable being . 2. This being cannot be conceived of only, as then it would lack existence and so not be the greatest conceivable.
  19. Oppy and Modal Theistic Proofs.Richard Davis - 2009 - Philosophia Christi 11 (2):437-444.
  20. A Premature Farewell To Leibnizian Essences: A Response To J. P. Moreland.Richard Davis - 2004 - Philosophia Christi 6 (1):87-94.
  21. Aquinas on Infinite Regresses.Timothy Joseph Day - 1987 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 22 (3):151 - 164.
  22. Infinity, the Neoclassical Concept of God, and Oppy.Daniel A. Dombrowski - 2013 - In Jeanine Diller & Asa Kasher (eds.), Models of God and Alternative Ultimate Realities. Springer. pp. 245--259.
  23. Cumulative Arguments in Theology.Michael Durrant - 1976 - Sophia 15 (3):1-6.
  24. Philosophy of Religion.Adam Elga - manuscript
    AI: Matt Strohl mstrohl@princeton.edu We start with two traditional arguments: that the apparently unnecessary pain in the universe shows that there is no god (the problem of evil), and that the apparent designed nature of the universe shows that there is a god (the argument from design). We then consider various questions in creation ethics (e.g., what sort of genetic modifications to one's offspring are justifiable) in the light of the theological arguments we have discussed so far. Next, starting with (...)
  25. Anselm's Second Argument.George Englebretsen - 1984 - Sophia 23 (1):34-37.
  26. The Non-Existence of God.Nicholas Everitt - 2003 - Routledge London.
    Is it possible to prove or disprove God's existence? Arguments for the existence of God have taken many different forms over the centuries: in The Non-Existence of God, Nicholas Everitt considers all of the arguments and examines the role that reason and knowledge play in the debate over God's existence. He draws on recent scientific disputes over neo-Darwinism, the implication of 'big bang' cosmology, and the temporal and spatial size of the universe; and discusses some of the most recent work (...)
  27. Two 'Proofs' of God's Existence.A. C. Ewing - 1965 - Religious Studies 1 (1):29 - 45.
    I do not think that the existence of God can be proved or even that the main justification for the belief can be found in argument in the ordinary sense of that term, but I think two of the three which have, since Kant at least, been classified as the traditional arguments of natural theology have some force and are worthy of serious consideration. This consideration I shall now proceed to give. I cannot say this of the remaining one of (...)
  28. Two ‘Proofs’ of God's Existence.A. C. Ewing - 1965 - Religious Studies 1 (1):29.
  29. The Philosophical Interest in Existence.Marvin Farber - 1963 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 37:5 - 24.
  30. How is the Question 'Is Existence a Predicate?'Relevant to the Ontological Argument?J. William Forgie - 2008 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 64 (3):117-133.
    It is often said that the ontological argument fails because it wrongly treats existence as a first-level property or predicate. This has proved a controversial claim, and efforts to evaluate it are complicated by the fact that the words 'existence is not a property/predicate' have been used by philosophers to make at least three different negative claims: one about a first-level phenomenon possessed by objects like horses, stones, you and me; another about the logical form of assertions of existence; and (...)
  31. Graham Oppy, The Best Argument Against God.Błażej Gębura - 2015 - Roczniki Filozoficzne 63 (2):263-270.
  32. Gödel's Ontological Argument: A Reply to Oppy.Michael Gettings - 1999 - Analysis 59 (4):309–313.
  33. What Are Epistemic Reasons?Gerald K. Harrison - 2017 - Philosophia Christi 19 (1):23-36.
    Epistemic reasons exist indubitably, yet confusion surrounds just what exactly they are, in and of themselves. In this paper I argue that there is only one thing they could credibly be: the favoring attitudes a god is adopting toward us believing what is true and following methods of belief formation likely to result in true beliefs. As the existence of epistemic reasons is indubitable then if this analysis is correct, it will provide us with an apparent proof of a god’s (...)
  34. From Existence to God: A Contemporary Philosophical Argument.Paul Helm - 1993 - Philosophical Books 34 (1):59-60.
  35. Von Hügel's 'Sense of the Infinite'.F. S. C. J. William Beatie - 1975 - Heythrop Journal 16 (2):149–173.
  36. The God of Philosophy: An Introduction to Philosophy of Religion.Roy Jackson - 2011 - Routledge.
    For centuries philosophers have argued about the existence and nature of God. Do we need God to explain the origins of the universe? Can there be morality without a divine source of goodness? How can God exist when there is so much evil and suffering in the world? All these questions and many more are brought to life with clarity and style in The God of Philosophy. The arguments for and against God's existence are weighed up, along with discussion of (...)
  37. The God of Philosophy: An Introduction to Philosophy of Religion.Roy Jackson - 2011 - Routledge.
    For centuries philosophers have argued about the existence and nature of God. Do we need God to explain the origins of the universe? Can there be morality without a divine source of goodness? How can God exist when there is so much evil and suffering in the world? All these questions and many more are brought to life with clarity and style in The God of Philosophy. The arguments for and against God's existence are weighed up, along with discussion of (...)
  38. In Defense of Emergent Individuals: A Reply to Moreland.Joshua Johnson - 2014 - Faith and Philosophy 31 (1):91-104.
    J. P. Moreland has recently raised a number of metaphysical objections to the theory of Emergent Individuals that is defended by Timothy O’ Connor, Jonathan Jacobs, and others. Moreland argues that only theism can provide a sufficient explanation for human consciousness, and he considers the theory of Emergent Individuals to offer a competing naturalistic explanation that must be refuted in order for his argument to be successful. Moreland focuses his objections on the account of emergence advocated by the defenders of (...)
  39. The Third Way and The Temporally Infinite: A Rejoinder. [REVIEW]Charles J. Kelly - 1984 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 15 (1/2):81 - 83.
  40. On Whether Id Quo Nihil Maius Cogitari Potest is in the Understanding.Gyula Klima - manuscript
    In order to make this point, in the next section I will present a very simple, intuitive reconstruction of Anselm’s argument. Then, in the third section, I will show that since the argument thus reconstructed is obviously valid, and it would be foolish to challenge any other of its premises except the assumption that God does not exist in reality, it is a sound proof of God’s existence. Nevertheless, in the fourth section, I will argue further that despite its soundness, (...)
  41. Oakes' New Argument for God's Existence.Theodore J. Kondoleon - 1982 - New Scholasticism 56 (1):100-109.
  42. Sobel on Gödel’s Ontological Proof.Robert Koons - 2006 - Philosophia Christi 8 (2):235-248.
  43. Biomolecular Perfection and the „Common Descent".Jolanta Koszteyn - 2005 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 10:89-110.
  44. An Answer of Behalf of Guanilo.Iddo Landau - 1992 - Philosophy and Theology 7 (1):81-96.
    The ontological proof is wrong because it can be used to prove not only the existence of God, but also of imaginary entities such as spirits of stones and trees. etc. It is faulty because it proves too much; it can be used to prove not only the existence of God, but also the existence of a vast number of imaginary entities to the existence of which theists would not like to commit themselves.
  45. Reply to Oppy on God, the Best and Evil.Bruce Langtry - 2011 - Sophia 50 (1):211-219.
    My reply corrects one misstatement in Oppy’s summary of my book, abandons a footnote in the light of one of Oppy’s criticisms, and argues that Oppy’s other criticisms do not succeed in showing either that my claims are mistaken or that the arguments by which I supported them are defective.
  46. Oppy, Graham. Ontological Arguments and Belief in God (1995): Review by Langtry, Bruce.Bruce Langtry - 1997 - Sophia 36 (1):147.
  47. Letters to Doubting Thomas: A Case for the Existence of God.Layman C. Stephen - 2006 - Oup Usa.
    Letters to Doubting Thomas is an exchange of letters between two characters on the existence of God; it provides a cumulative case for Theism . Chapter by chapter, theism is compared with Naturalism , concluding that Theism provides a better explanation of the world and human life than does Naturalism.
  48. O Paley'u, Epagogé, Zmyśle Technicznym I Argumentacji a Fortiori.Piotr Lenartowicz & Jolanta Koszteyn - 2002 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 7:79-83.
  49. The Antipodean Philosopher, by Oppy Graham, & Trakakis NN (Eds) 2 Vols, Plymouth, UK: Lexington Books, 2011, Pp. 324, 282, Respectively, US $70 Each (Hardback). [REVIEW]Stephanie R. Lewis - 2013 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (4):815-818.
  50. The Blackwell Companion to Natural Theology, Edited by William Lane Craig and J. P. Moreland. [REVIEW]D. Long - 2010 - Ars Disputandi 10.
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