Results for 'M. Duhem'

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  1.  24
    La philosophie scientifique de M. Duhem.Abel Rey - 1904 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 12 (4):699 - 744.
  2.  8
    Review: « La Théorie Physique » de M. Duhem: Et Les Mathématiques. [REVIEW]Pierre Boutroux - 1907 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 15 (3):363 - 376.
  3.  66
    Maiocchi on Duhem, Howard on Duhem and Einstein: Historiographical Comments.Richard M. Burian - 1990 - Synthese 83 (3):401 - 408.
    These comments center on the methodological stance that Howard and Maiocchi recommend to us when we are doing history of philosophy. If Howard and Maiocchi are right, both Duhem and Einstein developed closely related versions of conventionalism and realism, and in both of their philosophies the conventionalist and realist moments were mutually compatible. Duhem's holism and, arguably, Einstein's as well, denies the need for across-the-board literalism, and both of them had important reasons for denying that convergence was required (...)
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  4. Authors Index Volume 2.F. M. Akeroyd, D. Baird, T. Benfey, P. Duhem, R. B. King, J. Kovac, J. G. Mcevoy, J. Morrell, R. K. Nesbet & J. L. Ramsey - 2000 - Foundations of Chemistry 2 (265).
  5. Quine and a New Empiricism.Hesse M. Duhem - 1970 - In G. Vesey (ed.), Knowledge and Necessity. Macmillan. pp. 191.
     
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  6. L'œuvre de M. J.-H. Van't Hoff, à propos d'un livre récent. Extrait de la Revue des questions scientifiques.P. Duhem - 1903 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 55:320-323.
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  7.  22
    The Mathematization of Physics and the Neo-Thomism of Duhem and Maritain.Stephen M. Barr - 2018 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 92 (1):123-144.
    Pierre Duhem and Jacques Maritain, influenced by positivist philosophies of science that prevailed in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, adopted markedly non-realist views about the mathematical theories of the modern physical sciences. The philosophies of science they developed were a hybrid of Thomism and positivism. This paper argues that the ideas of Duhem and Maritain about the relation of the mathematical theories of modern physics to physical reality are inadequate in light of the insights modern physics (...)
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  8. Fisica e storia della scienza nell'opera di Pierre Duhem.M. Ramoni - 1989 - Epistemologia 12 (1):33-64.
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  9.  24
    The Mathematization of Physics and the Neo-Thomism of Duhem and Maritain in Advance.Stephen M. Barr - forthcoming - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly.
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  10. Appel pour l'achèvement du Système du Monde de Duhem.George Sarton & M. Tannery - 1937 - Isis 26:302-303.
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  11. Appel pour l'achèvement du Système du Monde de Duhem.George Sarton & M. P. Tannery - 1937 - Isis 26 (2):302-303.
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  12.  29
    True Science: Apropos a Recent Collection of Duhem's Essays.Paul Needham - 2000 - Theoria 66 (1):86-96.
    Duhem is perhaps the last active scientist to have produced a philosophi- cal text, and TheAim and Structure of Physical Theory retains its status as one that every textbook writer in the philosophy of science has to take into consideration. Several of Duhem’s other books have since appeared in English translation, but the Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science is the first collection of Duhem’s papers to appear in English. Commentators have oRen pointed out that (...)
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  13.  77
    Farewell to Certitude: Einstein's Novelty on Induction and Deduction, Fallibilism.Avshalom M. Adam - 2000 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 31 (1):19-37.
    In the late 19th century great changes in theories of light and electricity were in direct conflict with certitude, the view that scientific knowledge is infallible. What is, then, the epistemic status of scientific theory? To resolve this issue Duhem and Poincaré proposed images of fallible knowledge, Instrumentalism and Conventionalism, respectively. Only in 1919–1922, after Einstein's relativity was published, he offered arguments to support Fallibilism, the view that certainty cannot be achieved in science. Though Einstein did not consider (...)'s Instrumentalism, he argued against Poincaré's Conventionalism. Hitherto, Einstein's Fallibilism, as presented at first in a rarely known essay of 1919, was left in the dark. Recently, Howard obscured its meaning. Einstein's essay was never translated into English. In my paper I provide its translation and attempt to shed light on Einstein's view and its context; I also direct attention to Einstein's images of philosophical opportunism in scientific practice. (shrink)
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  14. Tackling Duhemian Problems: An Alternative to Skepticism of Neuroimaging in Philosophy of Cognitive Science.M. Emrah Aktunç - 2014 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 5 (4):449-464.
    Duhem’s problem arises especially in scientific contexts where the tools and procedures of measurement and analysis are numerous and complex. Several philosophers of cognitive science have cited its manifestations in fMRI as grounds for skepticism regarding the epistemic value of neuroimaging. To address these Duhemian arguments for skepticism, I offer an alternative approach based on Deborah Mayo’s error-statistical account in which Duhem's problem is more fruitfully approached in terms of error probabilities. This is illustrated in examples such as (...)
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  15.  19
    Wissenschaftliche Erklärung Und Begründung.R. F. M. - 1971 - Review of Metaphysics 24 (3):551-552.
    With the publication of this volume from the prolific pen of one of Germany's outstanding younger philosophers, the German-speaking scholarly world has a more extensive survey of key issues in the philosophy of science than the English-speaking world. The book is the first of a comprehensive work whose title is "Problems and Results in the Philosophy of Science and Analytic Philosophy." While the title of the book under consideration shows that it is primarily concerned with scientific explanation and justification, Stegmüller (...)
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  16.  26
    Theory and Evidence. [REVIEW]A. F. M. - 1980 - Review of Metaphysics 34 (1):135-137.
    After a chapter which is an introduction to and summary of the rest of the book, chapter 2 begins by criticizing various attempts to do away with theories, such as the Reichenbach-Salmon conception of theoretical truth in terms of observational consequences, and the Ramsey strategy of replacing first-order theoretical sentences by second-order nontheoretical ones; it then argues against hypothetico-deductivist theories of confirmation on the grounds that they are unable to handle the relevance of evidence to theory, whether or not other (...)
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  17.  9
    Wissenschaftliche Erklärung Und Begründung. [REVIEW]F. M. R. - 1971 - Review of Metaphysics 24 (3):551-552.
    With the publication of this volume from the prolific pen of one of Germany's outstanding younger philosophers, the German-speaking scholarly world has a more extensive survey of key issues in the philosophy of science than the English-speaking world. The book is the first of a comprehensive work whose title is "Problems and Results in the Philosophy of Science and Analytic Philosophy." While the title of the book under consideration shows that it is primarily concerned with scientific explanation and justification, Stegmüller (...)
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  18.  37
    A Review of Nugayev's Book "Reconstruction of Scientific Theory Change". [REVIEW]Murad D. Akhundov & Rinat M. Nugayev - 1993 - Isis 84 (2):426-427.
    Nugayev critically analyzes current conceptions of scientific change. Then he constructs his own normative model and compares it with actual problematic situations. In particular, he analyzes critically the replacement of Lorentz’s theory with the special theory of relativity. Key words: Popper, Duhem, Schlesinger, Lakatos, Kuhn .
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  19.  43
    Origin of Scientific Revolutions. A Review of Nigayev's Book "Reconstruction of Mature Theory Change: A Theory-Change Model". [REVIEW]Carlos D. Galles & Rinat M. Nugayev - 2001 - Science and Public Policy:148-149.
    In this book, Nugayev makes a clear case against Kuhnian and Lakatosian models. For him the origin of scientific revolutions lies in the clash of theories which are already mature and have triumphed in their respective spheres of action.
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  20.  6
    Challenges to Empiricism.Harold Morick (ed.) - 1972 - Belmont, Calif., Wadsworth Pub. Co..
    Carnap, R. Empiricism, semantics, and ontology.--Quine, W. V. Two dogmas of empiricism. Meaning and translation.--Sellars, W. Empiricism and the philosophy of mind.--Putnam, H. Brains and behaviour.--Popper, K. R. Science: conjectures and refutations.--Feyerabend, P. K. Science without experience. How to be a good empiricist--a plea for tolerance in matters epistemological.--Kuhn, T. S. Incommensurability and paradigms.--Hesse, M. Duhem, Quine and a new empiricism.--Chomsky, N. Recent contributions to the theory of innate ideas.--Putnam, H. The innateness hypothesis and explanatory models in linguistics.--Goodman, N. (...)
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  21. The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory.Pierre Maurice Marie Duhem - 1954 - Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    This classic work in the philosophy of physical science is an incisive and readable account of the scientific method. Pierre Duhem was one of the great figures in French science, a devoted teacher, and a distinguished scholar of the history and philosophy of science. This book represents his most mature thought on a wide range of topics.
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  22.  56
    The Concepts of Space and Time. Their Structure and Their Development. [REVIEW]B. W. A. - 1976 - Review of Metaphysics 29 (4):728-729.
    This useful anthology comprises seventy-nine selections arranged under three headings. Part I is titled "Ancient and Classical Ideas of Space"; part II, "The Classical and Ancient Concepts of Time"; part III, "Modern Views of Space and Time and their Anticipations." According to the general editors of the Boston series, R. S. Cohen and Marx W. Wartofsky, Capek’s choice of contents was governed by the desire to show that "parts of our view of nature greatly and mutually influence other parts, and (...)
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  23.  18
    An Account of the Scientific Titles and Works of Pierre Duhem.Pierre Duhem - 1987 - Science in Context 1 (2):333-348.
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  24.  45
    Pierre Duhem’s Epistemic Aims and the Intellectual Virtue of Humility: A Reply to Ivanova.Ian James Kidd - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (1):185-189.
    David Stump has recently argued that Pierre Duhem can be interpreted as a virtue epistemologist. Stump’s claims have been challenged by Milena Ivanova on the grounds that Duhem’s ‘epistemic aims’ are more modest than those of virtue epistemologists. I challenge Ivanova’s criticism of Stump by arguing that she not distinguish between ‘reliabilist’ and ‘responsibilist’ virtue epistemologies. Once this distinction is drawn, Duhem clearly emerges as a ‘virtue-responsibilist’ in a way that complements Ivanova’s positive proposal that Duhem’s (...)
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  25.  86
    Pierre Duhem’s Virtue Epistemology.David J. Stump - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 38 (1):149-159.
    Duhem’s concept of “good sense” is central to his philosophy of science, given that it is what allows scientist to decide between competing theories. Scientists must use good sense and have intellectual and moral virtues in order to be neutral arbiters of scientific theories, especially when choosing between empirically adequate theories. I discuss the parallels in Duhem’s views to those of virtue epistemologists, who understand justified belief as that arrived at by a cognitive agent with intellectual and moral (...)
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  26.  26
    Sind Empirische Theorien Falsifizierbar?Klaus Jürgen Düsberg - 1979 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 10 (1):11-27.
    Die Frage: sind empirische Theorien falsifizierbar? ist natürlich trivialerweise zu verneinen, falls man Theorien nicht als Mengen von Aussagen, sonden z. B., wie Sneed/Stegmüller, als mengentheoretische Strukturen plus intendierte Anwendungsbereiche auffaßt. Daß die Antwort, zumindest dann, wenn man die Fragestellung auf bestimmte physikalische Theorien einschränkt, auch bei Zugrundelegung der sogenannten Aussagen-Konzeption (statement view) nicht anders lautet, ist hingegen schon weniger trivial — obgleich seit langem bekannt, spätestens nämlich seit Duhems berühmter Argumentation gegen die Möglichkeit eines experimentum crucis. Andererseits beruht eine (...)
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  27. Pierre Duhem’s Good Sense as a Guide to Theory Choice.Milena Ivanova - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 41 (1):58-64.
    This paper examines Duhem’s concept of good sense as an attempt to support a non rule-governed account of rationality in theory choice. Faced with the underdetermination of theory by evidence thesis and the continuity thesis, Duhem tried to account for the ability of scientists to choose theories that continuously grow to a natural classification. I will examine the concept of good sense and the problems that stem from it. I will also present a recent attempt by David Stump (...)
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  28.  2
    To Save the Phenomena, an Essay on the Idea of Physical Theory From Plato to Galileo.Pierre Maurice Marie Duhem - 1969 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Duhem's 1908 essay questions the relation between physical theory and metaphysics and, more specifically, between astronomy and physics–an issue still of importance today. He critiques the answers given by Greek thought, Arabic science, medieval Christian scholasticism, and, finally, the astronomers of the Renaissance.
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  29.  77
    Radykalny konwencjonalizm współcześnie.Trela Renata - 2014 - Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal 4 (2):325-340.
    Inthisarticle,IreconstructKazimierzAjdukiewicz’sviewthathecalledradical conventiona‐ l i s m (as opposed to moderate conventionalism developed by Henri Poincaré and Pierre Duhem). then, I recall little‐known criticism of this approach developed by Stefan Amsterdamski. Finally, I demonstrate, contrary to the conception of the originator’s declarations, that a radical conventio‐ nalism is not a ‘paper ction’. On the other hand, the standpoint of radical conventionalism is useful due to the precision of expressions provided to it by Ajdukiewicz; it shows the di culties that have (...)
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  30. Mixture and Chemical Combination and Related Essays.Paul Needham (ed.) - 2002 - Dordrecht, Nederländerna: Kluwer.
    This is a translation of Duhem's Le mixte et la combination chimique (1902) together with eight related essays including Les theories de la chaleur (1895), Thermochimie (1897), L'oeuvre de M. J. H. van 't Hoff (1900) and a short extract from Traité d'énergétique (1911) dealing with the nature of mixtures.
     
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  31.  57
    On Duhem's and Quine's Theses.Jules Vuillemin - 1979 - Grazer Philosophische Studien Graz 9:69-96.
    The "Duhem-Quine thesis" says that isolated hypotheses are not singularly verifiable by experience, only the whole body of a theory being able to be subjected to the test of experience. I first examine the rather divergent meanings this thesis takes when it is replaced in the different contexts of Duhem's and Quine'sphilosophies. Secondly, questions are asked about the acceptability of the thesis, its logical strength and its historical soundness. Finally, the consequences of some doubts raised by this inquiry (...)
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  32. The Duhem Thesis.Roger Ariew - 1984 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 35 (4):313-325.
  33. Comment: Duhem's Middle Way.Ernan McMullin - 1990 - Synthese 83 (3):421 - 430.
    Duhem attempted to find a middle way between two positions he regarded as extremes, the conventionalism of Poincaré and the scientific realism of the majority of his scientific colleagues. He argued that conventionalism exaggerated the arbitrariness of scientific formulations, but that belief in atoms and electrons erred in the opposite direction by attributing too much logical force to explanatory theories. The instrumentalist sympathies so apparent in Duhem's writings on the history of astronomy are only partially counterbalanced by his (...)
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  34.  57
    Duhem's Physicalism.Paul Needham - 1998 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 29 (1):33-62.
    Duhem is often described as an anti-realist or instrumentalist. A contrary view has recently been expressed by Martin (1991) (Pierre Duhem: Philosophy and History in the Work of a Believing Physicist (La Salle, IL: Open Court)), who suggests that this interpretation makes it difficult to understand the vantage point from which Duhem argues in La science allemande (1915) that deduction, however impeccable, cannot establish truths unless it begins with truths. In the same spirit, the present paper seeks (...)
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  35.  2
    Medieval Cosmology: Theories of Infinity, Place, Time, Void, and the Plurality of Worlds.Pierre Maurice Marie Duhem - 1985 - University of Chicago Press.
    These selections from Le système du monde, the classic ten-volume history of the physical sciences written by the great French physicist Pierre Duhem (1861-1916), focus on cosmology, Duhem's greatest interest. By reconsidering the work of such Arab and Christian scholars as Averroes, Avicenna, Gregory of Rimini, Albert of Saxony, Nicole Oresme, Duns Scotus, and William of Occam, Duhem demonstrated the sophistication of medieval science and cosmology.
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  36. Duhem–Quine Virtue Epistemology.Abrol Fairweather - 2012 - Synthese 187 (2):673-692.
    The Duhem-Quine Thesis is the claim that it is impossible to test a scientific hypothesis in isolation because any empirical test requires assuming the truth of one or more auxiliary hypotheses. This is taken by many philosophers, and is assumed here, to support the further thesis that theory choice is underdetermined by empirical evidence. This inquiry is focused strictly on the axiological commitments engendered in solutions to underdetermination, specifically those of Pierre Duhem and W. V. Quine. Duhem (...)
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  37.  67
    Pierre Duhem's Conception of Natural Classification.Andrew Lugg - 1990 - Synthese 83 (3):409 - 420.
    Duhem's discussion of physical theories as natural classifications is neither antithetical nor incidental to the main thrust of his philosophy of science. Contrary to what is often supposed, Duhem does not argue that theories are better thought of as economically organizing empirical laws than as providing information concerning the nature of the world. What he is primarily concerned with is the character and justification of the scientific method, not the logical status of theoretical entities. The crucial point to (...)
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  38.  92
    Pierre Duhem's the Aim and Structure of Physical Theory: A Book Against Conventionalism.Roberto Maiocchi - 1990 - Synthese 83 (3):385 - 400.
    I reject the widely held view that Duhem's 1906 book La Théorie physique is a statement of instrumentalistic conventionalism, motivated by the scientific crisis at the end of the nineteenth century. By considering Duhem's historical context I show that his epistemological views were already formed before the crisis occured; that he consistently supported general thermodynamics against the new atomism; and that he rejected the epistemological views of the latter's philosophical supporters. In particular I show that Duhem rejected (...)
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  39.  63
    Duhem's Problem, the Bayesian Way, and Error Statistics, or "What's Belief Got to Do with It?".Deborah G. Mayo - 1997 - Philosophy of Science 64 (2):222-244.
    I argue that the Bayesian Way of reconstructing Duhem's problem fails to advance a solution to the problem of which of a group of hypotheses ought to be rejected or "blamed" when experiment disagrees with prediction. But scientists do regularly tackle and often enough solve Duhemian problems. When they do, they employ a logic and methodology which may be called error statistics. I discuss the key properties of this approach which enable it to split off the task of testing (...)
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  40.  57
    Duhem, the Arabs, and the History of Cosmology.F. Jamil Ragep - 1990 - Synthese 83 (2):201 - 214.
    Duhem has generally been understood to have maintained that the major Greek astronomers were instrumentalists. This view has emerged mainly from a reading of his 1908 publication To Save the Phenomena. In it he sharply contrasted a sophisticated Greek interpretation of astronomical models (for Duhem this was that they were mathematical contrivances) with a naive insistence of the Arabs on their concrete reality. But in Le Système du monde, which began to appear in 1913, Duhem modified his (...)
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  41.  34
    Duhem, Quine and a New Empiricism.Mary Hesse - 1969 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 3:191-209.
    As in the case of great books in all branches of philosophy, Pierre Duhem's Le Théorie Physique , first published in 1906, can be looked to as the progenitor of many different and even conflicting currents in subsequent philosophy of science. On a superficial reading, it seems to be an expression of what later came to be called deductivist and instrumentalist analyses of scientific theory. Duhem's very definition of physical theory, put forward early in the book, is the (...)
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  42. Duhem, Quine and Grünbaum on Falsification.Gary Wedeking - 1969 - Philosophy of Science 36 (4):375-380.
    In Chapter 4 of [2] Grünbaum sets out to refute Einstein's philosophy of physical geometry. The latter's theory is seen as lying within the tradition of "anti-empiricist conventionalism" of Duhem and Quine as opposed to the "qualified empiricism" of Poincaré, Carnap and Reichenbach. Consequently Grünbaum sets the stage for his critique of Einstein by discussing certain of the views of these other thinkers. But in these preliminary discussions the various theses are confused and misrepresented in such a way as (...)
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  43. Uneasy Genius: The Life and Work of Pierre Duhem.Stanley L. Jaki & Pierre Duhem - 1987 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 38 (3):406-408.
     
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  44.  45
    Duhem’s Theory of Mixture in the Light of the Stoic Challenge to the Aristotelian Conception.Paul Needham - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 33 (4):685-708.
    The bulk of Duhem's writing which bears on the understanding of mixtures suggests he adopted an Aristotelian position which he opposed only to the atomic view. A third view from antiquity-that of the Stoics-seems not to be taken into account. But his lines of thought are not always as explicit as could be wished. The Stoic view is considered here from a perspective which Duhem might well have adopted. This provides a background against which his somewhat unorthodox Aristotelianism (...)
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  45.  68
    II—M.G.F. Martin.M. G. F. Martin - 1997 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 71 (1):75-98.
  46. String and M-Theory: Answering the Critics. [REVIEW]M. J. Duff - 2013 - Foundations of Physics 43 (1):182-200.
    Using as a springboard a three-way debate between theoretical physicist Lee Smolin, philosopher of science Nancy Cartwright and myself, I address in layman’s terms the issues of why we need a unified theory of the fundamental interactions and why, in my opinion, string and M-theory currently offer the best hope. The focus will be on responding more generally to the various criticisms. I also describe the diverse application of string/M-theory techniques to other branches of physics and mathematics which render the (...)
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  47.  46
    Pierre Duhem: Mixture and Chemical Combination and Related Essays. Edited and Translated, with an Introduction, by Paul Needham.Robert J. Deltete & Anastasios Brenner - 2004 - Foundations of Chemistry 6 (3):203-232.
    The following is an essay review of Paul Needham's translation of Pierre Duhem's Lemixte et la combinaison chimique and a numberof other essays. In this review we describe theintent and general features of Le mixte and try to place it in the larger context of Duhem'sprogram for energetics. The long essay (Essay3) opposing Marcellin Berthelot'sthermochemistry is singled out for detailedcommentary, since it gives Duhem's reasons forendorsing Josiah Willard Gibbs's chemicalstatics. We argue that a chemical mechanics ofa Gibbsian (...)
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  48.  34
    Pierre Duhem and Ernst Mach on Thought Experiments.Marco Buzzoni - 2018 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 8 (1):1-27.
  49.  47
    Duhem and Quine.Paul Needham - 2000 - Dialectica 54 (2):109-132.
    The rejection of the idea that the so‐called Duhem‐Quine thesis in fact expresses a thesis upheld by either Duhem or Quine invites a more detailed comparison of their views. It is suggested that the arguments of each have a certain impact on the positions maintained by the other. In particular, Quine's development of his notion of ontological commitment is enlisted in the interpretation of Duhem's position. It is argued that this counts against the instrumentalist construal usually put (...)
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  50.  51
    Duhem and Koyré on Domingo de Soto.William Wallace - 1990 - Synthese 83 (2):239 - 260.
    Galileo's view of science is indebted to the teaching of the Jesuit professors at the Collegio Romano, but Galileo's concept of mathematical physics also corresponds to that of Giovan Battista Benedetti. Lacking documentary evidence that would connect Benedetti directly with the Jesuits, or the Jesuits with Benedetti, I infer a common source: the Spanish connection, that is, Domingo de Soto. I then give indications that the fourteenth-century work at Oxford and Paris on calculationes was transmitted via Spain and Portugal to (...)
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