Results for 'Medicine, Experimental'

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  1.  30
    Historical and Philosophical Perspectives on Experimental Practice in Medicine and the Life Sciences.Frank W. Stahnisch - 2005 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 26 (5):397-425.
    The aim of this paper is to discuss a key question in the history and philosophy of medicine, namely how scholars should treat the practices and experimental hypotheses of modern life science laboratories. The paper seeks to introduce some prominent historiographical methods and theoretical approaches associated with biomedical research. Although medical scientists need no convincing that experimentation has a significant function in their laboratory work, historians, philosophers, and sociologists long neglected its importance when examining changes in medical theories or (...)
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  2. An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine.Claude Bernard, Henry Copley Greene & Lawrence Joseph Henderson - 1927 - Classics of Medicine Library.
     
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  3. Medicine, Life and Function: Experimental Strategies and Medical Modernity at the Intersection of Pathology and Physiology.Frank Stahnisch - 2012 - Project Verlag.
     
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  4.  65
    Introduction to Beauvoir's "Analysis of Claude Bernard's Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine".Margaret A. Simons & Helene N. Peters - 2004 - In Margaret A. Simons, Marybeth Timmermann & Mary Beth Mader (eds.), Philosophical Writings. University of Illinois Press. pp. 15-22.
    In December 1924 when Simone de Beauvoir almost certainly wrote her essay analyzing Claude Bernard's "Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine," a classic text in the philosophy of science, she was a 16 yr old student in a senior-level philosophy class at a private Catholic girls' school. Given the popular conception of existentialism as anti science, Beauvoir's early interest in science, reflected in her baccalaureate successes as well as her paper on Bernard, may be surprising. But her enthusiasm (...)
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  5.  2
    Death and the Internal Milieu: Claude Bernard and the Origins of Experimental Medicine.Alan G. Wasserstein - 1995 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 39 (3):313-326.
  6.  15
    Meditation Meets Behavioural Medicine. The Story of Experimental Research on Meditation.Jensine Andresen - 2000 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 7 (11-12):11-12.
    This paper juxtaposes Asian spiritual narratives on meditation alongside medical and scientific narratives that emphasize meditation's efficacy in mitigating distress and increasing well-being. After proposing a working definition of meditation that enables it usefully to be distinguished from categories of similar practices such as prayer, I examine meditation's role in Mind/Body medicine in the West. Here, I survey a number of scientific studies of meditation, including the work of Dr. Herbert Benson and his colleagues who examine a meditational variant they (...)
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  7. Claude Bernard on Experimental Medicine—Some Unpublished Notes.Hebbel E. Hoff, Roger Guillemin & Edvart Sakiz - 1964 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 8 (1):30-49.
  8. History and Philosophy of Medicine and the Practice of Experimental Research.Frank Stahnisch - 2005 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 26:397-425.
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  9. An Experimental Basis for Environmental Medicine.J. H. Whitlock - 1974 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 17 (4):455-481.
  10.  8
    Humanised Models of Cancer in Molecular Medicine: The Experimental Control of Disanalogy.Paolo Maugeri & Alessandro Blasimme - 2011 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 33 (4).
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  11. The Investigative Enterprise: Experimental Physiology in Nineteenth-Century Medicine.William Coleman & Frederic L. Holmes - 1992 - Journal of the History of Biology 25 (3):497-500.
     
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  12.  1
    Local Styles and Experimental LogicHistory of the American Physiological Society: The First Century, 1887 - 1987John R. Brobeck Orr E. Reynolds Toby A. AppelPhysiology in the American Context, 1850 - 1940Gerald L. GeisonWalter B. Cannon: The Life and Times of a Young ScientistSaul Benison A. Clifford Barger Elin L. WolfeThe Development of American Physiology: Scientific Medicine in the Nineteenth CenturyW. Bruce FyeThe Investigative Enterprise: Experimental Physiology in Nineteenth-Century MedicineWilliam Coleman Frederic L. Holmes. [REVIEW]Steve Sturdy - 1989 - Isis 80 (2):289-294.
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  13.  3
    Lamarck, by LJ Jordanova; Science and Medicine in France: The Emergence of Experimental Physiology 1790? 1855, by John E. Lesch; Death is a Social Disease: Public Health and Political Economy in Early Industrial France, by William Coleman; and Georges Cuvier: Vocation, Science and Authority in Post-Revolutionary France, by Dorinda Outram. [REVIEW]J. V. Pickstone - 1988 - History of Science 26:201-211.
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  14.  1
    Creativity in Experimental Medicine: On Some Endocrinological and Neuro-Endocrinological Matters.C. Debru - 1991 - Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 44 (1):3.
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  15.  1
    François Magendie, Pioneer in Experimental Physiology and Scientific Medicine in XIX Century France by J. M. D. Olmsted. [REVIEW]J. De C. M. Saunders - 1947 - Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 37:90-91.
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  16.  1
    Sour Clinical Trials: Autonomy and Adaptive Preferences in Experimental Medicine.James Rocha - 2013 - In Juha Räikkä & Jukka Varelius (eds.), Adaptation and Autonomy: Adaptive Preferences in Enhancing and Ending Life. Springer. pp. 101--115.
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  17. Sticky Technique.In Situ Hybridisation: Application to Developmental Biology and Medicine. Edited by N. Harris and D. G. Wilkinson. Cambridge University Press: Society for Experimental Biology Seminar Series 40. 288pp. $59.50, £35. [REVIEW]Julian F. Burke - 1991 - Bioessays 13 (12):692-692.
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  18. Science and Medicine in France: The Emergence of Experimental Physiology, 1790-1855John E. Lesch.Caroline Hannaway - 1985 - Isis 76 (4):622-623.
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  19. Claude Bernard and the Experimental Method in Medicine by J. M. D. Olmsted; E. Harris Olmsted. [REVIEW]Chauncey Leake - 1952 - Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 43:374-374.
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  20. Galina Kichigina, The Imperial Laboratory: Experimental Physiology and Clinical Medicine in Post-Crimean Russia. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi. Pp. Ii+374. ISBN 978-90-420-2658-2. £72.20. [REVIEW]Elizabeth Neswald - 2010 - British Journal for the History of Science 43 (3):491-493.
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  21. Essay Review: Science in France: Lamarck, Science and Medicine in France: The Emergence of Experimental Physiology 1790-1855, Death is a Social Disease: Public Health and Political Economy in Early Industrial France, Georges Cuvier: Vocation, Science and Authority in Post-Revolutionary France, Georges Cuvier: Vocation, Science and Authority in Post-Revolutionary France. [REVIEW]J. V. Pickstone - 1988 - History of Science 26 (2):201-211.
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  22. Essay Review: Science in France: Lamarck, Science and Medicine in France: The Emergence of Experimental Physiology 1790–1855, Death is a Social Disease: Public Health and Political Economy in Early Industrial France, Georges Cuvier: Vocation, Science and Authority in Post-Revolutionary France, Georges Cuvier: Vocation, Science and Authority in Post-Revolutionary FranceLamarck. JordanovaL. J. . Pp. Vii + 118£1.95 .Science and Medicine in France: The Emergence of Experimental Physiology 1790–1855. LeschJohn E. . Pp. Vii + 276£22.Death is a Social Disease: Public Health and Political Economy in Early Industrial France. ColemanWilliam . Pp. Vii + 322£35.Georges Cuvier: Vocation, Science and Authority in Post-Revolutionary France. OutramDorinda . Pp. Vii + 299£25. [REVIEW]J. V. Pickstone - 1988 - History of Science 26 (2):201-211.
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  23. Book Review: Krueger G 2008: Hope and Suffering: Children, Cancer, and the Paradox of Experimental Medicine. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. 216 Pp. USD35.00 . ISBN: 9780 8018 8831 1. [REVIEW]S. J. Santacroce - 2009 - Nursing Ethics 16 (6):837-838.
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  24. Glandular Politics: Experimental Biology, Clinical Medicine, and Homosexual Emancipation in Fin-de-Siecle Central Europe.Chandak Sengoopta - 1998 - Isis 89 (3):445-473.
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  25. Early Modern Experimental Philosophy.Peter R. Anstey & Alberto Vanzo - 2016 - In Justin Sytsma & Wesley Buckwalter (eds.), A Companion to Experimental Philosophy. Blackwell. pp. 87-102.
    In the mid-seventeenth century a movement of self-styled experimental philosophers emerged in Britain. Originating in the discipline of natural philosophy amongst Fellows of the fledgling Royal Society of London, it soon spread to medicine and by the eighteenth century had impacted moral and political philosophy and even aesthetics. Early modern experimental philosophers gave epistemic priority to observation and experiment over theorising and speculation. They decried the use of hypotheses and system-building without recourse to experiment and, in some quarters, (...)
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  26.  8
    Medicine in a Neurocentric World: About the Explanatory Power of Neuroscientific Models in Medical Research and Practice. [REVIEW]Lara Huber & Lara Kutschenko - 2009 - Medicine Studies 1 (4):307-313.
    Medicine in a Neurocentric World: About the Explanatory Power of Neuroscientific Models in Medical Research and Practice Content Type Journal Article Category Editorial Notes Pages 307-313 DOI 10.1007/s12376-009-0036-2 Authors Lara Huber, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz Institute for History, Philosophy and Ethics of Medicine Am Pulverturm 13 55131 Mainz Germany Lara K. Kutschenko, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz Institute for History, Philosophy and Ethics of Medicine Am Pulverturm 13 55131 Mainz Germany Journal (...)
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  27. An Introduction to the Experimental Method.James Maxwell Little - 1961 - Minneapolis, Burgess Pub. Co..
     
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  28.  5
    Experimental Design in Psychology and the Medical Sciences.A. E. Maxwell - 1958 - New York: Wiley.
  29.  47
    Chronique et motifs de la controverse entre les écoles médicales de Paris et de Montpellier.Dominique Raynaud - 2011 - In Pascal Nouvel (ed.), Repenser le Vitalisme: Histoire Et Philosophie du Vitalisme. Presses Universitaires de France. pp. 33--55.
    The controversy between the medical schools of Paris and Montpellier extends roughly from the death of Barthez (1806) to the publication of the Introduction to the study of experimental medicine of Claude Bernard (1865), with a peak during which the controversy merges with the polemic between Louis Peisse and Jacques Lordat (1840-1843). This study aims to document as accurately as possible the arguments that were exchanged during this controversy, by seeking their reasons and explaining how the experimental medicine (...)
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  30.  49
    On Medicine as a Human Science.Marco Buzzoni - 2003 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (1):79-94.
    All the powerful influences exertedby the subjective-interpersonal dimension onthe organic or technical-functional dimensionof sickness and health do not make anintersubjective test concerning medicaltherapeutic results impossible. Theseinfluences are not arbitrary; on the contrary,they obey laws that are de facto sufficientlystable to allow predictions and explanationssimilar to those of experimental sciences.While, in this respect, the rules concerninghuman action are analogous to the scientificlaws of nature, they can at any time be revokedby becoming aware of them. Law-like andreproducible regularities in the sciences (...)
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  31.  47
    The Role of Basic Science in Evidence-Based Medicine.Adam la Caze - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (1):81-98.
    Proponents of Evidence-based medicine (EBM) do not provide a clear role for basic science in therapeutic decision making. Of what they do say about basic science, most of it is negative. Basic science resides on the lower tiers of EBM's hierarchy of evidence. Therapeutic decisions, according to proponents of EBM, should be informed by evidence from randomised studies (and systematic reviews of randomised studies) rather than basic science. A framework of models explicates the links between the mechanisms of basic science, (...)
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  32.  6
    The Physical and the Moral: Anthropology, Physiology, and Philosophical Medicine in France, 1750-1850.Elizabeth A. Williams - 1994 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book explores the tradition of the 'science of man' in French medicine of the era 1750-1850, focusing on controversies about the nature of the 'physical-moral' relation and their effects on the role of medicine in French society. Its chief purpose is to recover the history of a holistic tradition in French medicine that has been neglected because it lay outside the mainstream themes of modern medicine, which include experimental, reductionist, and localistic conceptions of health and disease. Professor Williams (...)
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  33.  24
    Introduction to "Experience in Natural Philosophy and Medicine".Alberto Vanzo - 2016 - Perspectives on Science 24 (3):255-263.
    The articles in the special issue "Experience in natural philosophy and medicine" discuss the roles and notions of experience in the works of a range of early modern authors, including Galileo Galilei, Francis Bacon, the Dutch atomist David Gorlaeus, William Harvey, and Christian Wolff. The articles extend the evidential basis on which we can rely to identify trends, changes and continuities in the roles and notions of experience in the period of the Scientific Revolution. They shed light on the longstanding (...)
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  34. Genetics and the Law.Aubrey Milunsky, George J. Annas, National Genetics Foundation & American Society of Law and Medicine - 1976 - Plenum Press.
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  35. Medical Experimentation Personal Integrity and Social Policy.Charles Fried - 1974
     
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  36.  19
    Paternalism, Consent, and the Use of Experimental Drugs in the Military.J. Wolfendale & S. Clarke - 2008 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 33 (4):337-355.
    Modern military organizations are paternalistic organizations. They typically recognize a duty of care toward military personnel and are willing to ignore or violate the consent of military personnel in order to uphold that duty of care. In this paper, we consider the case for paternalism in the military and distinguish it from the case for paternalism in medicine. We argue that one can consistently reject paternalism in medicine but uphold paternalism in the military. We consider two well-known arguments for the (...)
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  37. Introduction À l'Étude de la Médecine Expérimentale.Claude Bernard - 1865 - Librairie Joseph Gilbert.
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  38. Towards a Notion of Intervention in Big-Data Biology and Molecular Medicine.Emanuele Ratti & Federico Boem - forthcoming - In Marco Nathan & Giovanni Boniolo (eds.), Philosophy of Molecular Medicine - Foundational Issues in Research and Practice. Routledge.
    We claim that in contemporary studies in molecular biology and biomedicine, the nature of ‘manipulation’ and ‘intervention’ has changed. Traditionally, molecular biology and molecular studies in medicine are considered experimental sciences, whereas experiments take the form of material manipulation and intervention. On the contrary “big science” projects in biology focus on the practice of data mining of biological databases. We argue that the practice of data mining is a form of intervention although it does not require material manipulation. We (...)
     
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  39. Claude Bernard Extraits de Son Oeuvre.Claude Bernard - 1947 - Presses Universitaires de France.
     
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  40. How Scientists Find Out.William D. Lotspeich - 1965 - Boston: Little, Brown.
     
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  41. Genetics and the Law.A. Milunsky - 1985 - Bioessays 2 (1):36-37.
     
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  42. From Empirics to Empiricists.Alberto Vanzo - 2014 - Intellectual History Review 24 (4):517-538.
    Although the notion of empiricism looms large in many histories of early modern philosophy, its origins are not well understood. This paper aims to shed light on them. It examines the notions of empirical philosopher, physician, and politician that are employed in a range of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century texts, alongside related notions (e.g. "experimental philosophy") and methodological stances. It concludes that the notion of empiricism used in many histories of early modern thought does not have pre-Kantian origins. It first (...)
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  43. Do We Need Some Large, Simple Randomized Trials in Medicine?John Worrall - 2009 - Epsa.
    In a randomized clinical trial (RCT), a group of patients, initially assembled through a mixture of deliberation (involving explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria) and serendipity (which patients happen to walk into which doctor’s clinic while the trial is in progress), are divided by some random process into an experimental group (members of which will receive the therapy under test) and a control group (members of which will receive some other treatment – perhaps placebo, perhaps the currently standard treatment for (...)
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  44.  2
    Print Me an Organ? Ethical and Regulatory Issues Emerging From 3D Bioprinting in Medicine.Frederic Gilbert, Cathal D. O’Connell, Tajanka Mladenovska & Susan Dodds - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-19.
    Recent developments of three-dimensional printing of biomaterials in medicine have been portrayed as demonstrating the potential to transform some medical treatments, including providing new responses to organ damage or organ failure. However, beyond the hype and before 3D bioprinted organs are ready to be transplanted into humans, several important ethical concerns and regulatory questions need to be addressed. This article starts by raising general ethical concerns associated with the use of bioprinting in medicine, then it focuses on more particular ethical (...)
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  45.  19
    Experimental History and Herman Boerhaave's Chemistry of Plants.U. Klein - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 34 (4):533-567.
    In the early eighteenth century, chemistry became the main academic locus where, in Francis Bacon's words, Experimenta lucifera were performed alongside Experimenta fructifera and where natural philosophy was coupled with natural history and 'experimental history' in the Baconian and Boyleian sense of an inventory and exploration of the extant operations of the arts and crafts. The Dutch social and political system and the institutional setting of the university of Leiden endorsed this empiricist, utilitarian orientation toward the sciences, which was (...)
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  46.  12
    Regenerative Medicine: Stem Cells and the Science of Monstrosity.M. Cooper - 2004 - Medical Humanities 30 (1):12-22.
    The nineteenth century science of teratology concerned itself with the study of malformations or “monstrosities”, as they were then called. The first major contribution to the field was the work of Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Histoire Generale et Particulière des Anomalies de l’Organisation chez l’Homme et les Animaux, published in 1832, whose classifications formed the basis for the later experimental science of teratogeny, the art of reproducing monstrosities in animal embryos. In this article, I will argue that recent developments in (...)
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  47.  35
    Was There a Bacteriological Revolution in Late Nineteenth-Century Medicine?Michael Worboys - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 38 (1):20-42.
    That there was a ‘Bacteriological Revolution’ in medicine in the late nineteenth-century, associated with the development of germ theories of disease, is widely assumed by historians; however, the notion has not been defined, discussed or defended. In this article a characterisation is offered in terms of four linked rapid and radical changes: a series of discoveries of the specific causal agents of infectious diseases and the introduction of Koch’s Postulates; a reductionist and contagionist turn in medical knowledge and practice; greater (...)
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  48.  5
    The Emergence of New Scientific Disciplines in Portuguese Medicine: Marck Athias's Histophysiology Research School, Lisbon (1897–1946). [REVIEW]Isabel Amaral - 2006 - Annals of Science 63 (1):85-110.
    Summary This paper discusses the emergence of new medical experimental specialties at the Medical School of Surgery (Escola Médico-Cirúrgica) and the Faculty of Medicine of Lisbon University (Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa) between 1897 and 1946, as a result of the activities of Marck Athias's (1875?1946) histophysiology research school. In 1897, Marck Athias, a Portuguese physician who had graduated from the Faculty of Medicine in Paris, founded a research school in Lisbon along the lines of Michael Foster's (...)
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  49.  6
    Clinical Decision-Making and Secondary Findings in Systems Medicine.T. Fischer, K. B. Brothers, P. Erdmann & M. Langanke - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):32.
    BackgroundSystems medicine is the name for an assemblage of scientific strategies and practices that include bioinformatics approaches to human biology ; “big data” statistical analysis; and medical informatics tools. Whereas personalized and precision medicine involve similar analytical methods applied to genomic and medical record data, systems medicine draws on these as well as other sources of data. Given this distinction, the clinical translation of systems medicine poses a number of important ethical and epistemological challenges for researchers working to generate systems (...)
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  50.  9
    Medicine as a Human Science Between the Singularity of the Patient and Technical Scientific Reproducibility.Marco Buzzoni - 2003 - Poiesis and Praxis 1 (3):171-184.
    The often-emphasized tension between the singularity of the patient and technical–scientific reproducibility in medicine cannot be resolved without a discussion of the epistemological and methodological status of the human sciences. On the one hand, the rules concerning human action are analogous to the scientific laws of nature. They are de facto sufficiently stable to allow predictions and explanations similar to those of experimental sciences. From this point of view, it is only a trivial truth, but still a methodological irrelevancy, (...)
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