Results for 'Mike Forster'

999 found
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  1.  3
    Back to the Future: A Methodology for Comparing Old A-Level and New AS Standards.Gill Elliott, Mike Forster, Jackie Greatorex & John F. Bell - 2002 - Educational Studies 28 (2):163-180.
    Curriculum 2000 has meant significant change for the post-16 sector. New qualifications have been introduced (e.g. the new Advanced Subsidiary examination) and the number of students involved in education and training post-16 has increased. In this scenario how can the standards of new qualifications, particularly the new Advanced Subsidiary examinations, be compared with those of previous qualifications? One method is to use the prior achievement of candidates (i.e. GCSE results) as a basis for comparison of their results on subsequent qualifications (...)
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  2.  19
    Hegel’s Idea of a ‘Phenomenology of Spirit’.Michael N. Forster - 1998 - University of Chicago Press.
    In Hegel's Idea of a Phenomenology of Spirit, Michael N. Forster advances an original reading of the work.
  3.  83
    Kant and Skepticism.Michael N. Forster (ed.) - 2009 - Princeton University Press.
    This book puts forward a much-needed reappraisal of Immanuel Kant's conception of and response to skepticism, as set forth principally in the Critique of Pure Reason. It is widely recognized that Kant's theoretical philosophy aims to answer skepticism and reform metaphysics--Michael Forster makes the controversial argument that those aims are closely linked. He distinguishes among three types of skepticism: "veil of perception" skepticism, which concerns the external world; Humean skepticism, which concerns the existence of a priori concepts and synthetic (...)
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  4.  37
    Model Selection in Science: The Problem of Language Variance.M. Forster - 1999 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (1):83-102.
    Recent solutions to the curve-fitting problem, described in Forster and Sober ([1995]), trade off the simplicity and fit of hypotheses by defining simplicity as the paucity of adjustable parameters. Scott De Vito ([1997]) charges that these solutions are 'conventional' because he thinks that the number of adjustable parameters may change when the hypotheses are described differently. This he believes is exactly what is illustrated in Goodman's new riddle of induction, otherwise known as the grue problem. However, the 'number of (...)
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  5.  33
    John Locke's Politics of Moral Consensus.Greg Forster - 2005 - Cambridge University Press.
    The aim of this book is twofold: to explain the reconciliation of religion and politics in the work of John Locke, and to explore the relevance of that reconciliation for politics in our own time. Confronted with deep social divisions over ultimate beliefs, Locke sought to unite society in a single liberal community. Reason could identify divine moral laws that would be acceptable to members of all cultural groups, thereby justifying the authority of government. Greg Forster demonstrates that Locke's (...)
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  6. Herder's Philosophy.Michael N. Forster - 2018 - Oxford University Press.
    Johann Gottfried Herder is a towering figure in modern thought, but one who has hitherto been severely underappreciated. Michael Forster seeks to rectify that situation by exploring the full range of his ideas, and showing their enormous impact in philosophy, linguistics, anthropology, and comparative literature.
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  7. Wat ik geloof.E. Forster - 2006 - Nexus 46.
    In dit essay keert Forster zich tegen geloof met een grote G: het fundamentalistisch geloof in een religie als de enige bron van waarheid, maar ook het geloof in de macht en het geweld van grote mannen en ideologieën. Hij stelt er zijn eigen geloof met een ‘heel kleine g’ tegenover, een geloof in vrijheid, democratie en individualisme, in de adel van de geest.
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  8. How to Tell When Simpler, More Unified, or Less Ad Hoc Theories Will Provide More Accurate Predictions.Malcolm Forster & Elliott Sober - 1994 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (1):1-35.
    Traditional analyses of the curve fitting problem maintain that the data do not indicate what form the fitted curve should take. Rather, this issue is said to be settled by prior probabilities, by simplicity, or by a background theory. In this paper, we describe a result due to Akaike [1973], which shows how the data can underwrite an inference concerning the curve's form based on an estimate of how predictively accurate it will be. We argue that this approach throws light (...)
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  9.  4
    .Marc Forster - unknown
    There is a vacuum in three generations of the Grotowski men�s lives�this becomes clear within the film�s first ten minutes. First Hank wakes alone in the middle of the night, vomits for no apparent reason, and makes a ritual trip to a lonely diner. Next Hank�s boy Sonny perfunctorily screws a prostitute who�after they have finished�tells him "you look so sad." Finally, Buck�the eldest played by Peter Boyle�wanders through the house sucking breath from an oxygen tank, adds a new page (...)
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  10.  36
    A Note on Freedom From Detachment in the Logic of Paradox.Jc Beall, Thomas Forster & Jeremy Seligman - 2013 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 54 (1):15-20.
    We shed light on an old problem by showing that the logic LP cannot define a binary connective $\odot$ obeying detachment in the sense that every valuation satisfying $\varphi$ and $(\varphi\odot\psi)$ also satisfies $\psi$ , except trivially. We derive this as a corollary of a more general result concerning variable sharing.
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  11.  12
    Harnessing the Wandering Mind: The Role of Perceptual Load.Sophie Forster & Nilli Lavie - 2009 - Cognition 111 (3):345-355.
  12.  94
    Kant's Final Synthesis: An Essay on the Opus Postumum.Eckart Förster - 2000 - Harvard University Press.
    This is the first book in English devoted entirely to Kant's Opus postumum and its place in the Kantian oeuvre.
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  13.  89
    Neither Dogma nor Common Sense: Moore's Confidence in His 'Proof of an External World'.Paul Forster - 2008 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 16 (1):163 – 195.
    (2008). Neither Dogma nor Common sense: Moore's confidence in his ‘proof of an external world’1. British Journal for the History of Philosophy: Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 163-195.
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  14.  28
    Commonality in Codes of Ethics.Margaret Forster, Tim Loughran & Bill McDonald - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 90 (S2):129 - 139.
    We create a database of company codes of ethics from firms listed on the Standard & Poor's 500 Index and, separately, a sample of small firms. The SEC believes that "ethics codes do, and should, vary from company to company." Using textual analysis techniques, we measure the extent of commonality across the documents. We find substantial levels of common sentences used by the firms, including a few cases where the codes of ethics are essentially identical. We consider these results in (...)
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  15. A Philosopher’s Guide to Empirical Success.Malcolm R. Forster - 2007 - Philosophy of Science 74 (5):588-600.
    The simple question, what is empirical success? turns out to have a surprisingly complicated answer. We need to distinguish between meritorious fit and ‘fudged fit', which is akin to the distinction between prediction and accommodation. The final proposal is that empirical success emerges in a theory dependent way from the agreement of independent measurements of theoretically postulated quantities. Implications for realism and Bayesianism are discussed. ‡This paper was written when I was a visiting fellow at the Center for Philosophy of (...)
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  16.  95
    A Survey of Managers' Perceptions of Corporate Ethics and Social Responsibility and Actions That May Affect Companies' Success.Ron Cacioppe, Nick Forster & Michael Fox - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 82 (3):681 - 700.
    This exploratory study examines how managers and professionals regard the ethical and social responsibility reputations of 60 well-known Australian and International companies, and how this in turn influences their attitudes and behaviour towards these organisations. More than 350 MBA, other postgraduate business students, and participants in Australian Institute of Management (Western Australia) management education programmes were surveyed to evaluate how ethical and socially responsible they believed the 60 organisations to be. The survey sought to determine what these participants considered ‘ethical’ (...)
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  17.  44
    German Philosophy of Language: From Schlegel to Hegel and Beyond.Michael N. Forster - 2011 - Oxford University Press.
    This book not only sets the historical record straight but also champions the Herderian tradition for its philosophical depth and breadth.
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  18.  82
    CSR and Stakeholder Theory: A Tale of Adam Smith. [REVIEW]Jill A. Brown & William R. Forster - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 112 (2):301-312.
    This article leverages insights from the body of Adam Smith’s work, including two lesser-known manuscripts—the Theory of Moral Sentiments and Lectures in Jurisprudence —to help answer the question as to how companies should morally prioritize corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives and stakeholder claims. Smith makes philosophical distinctions between justice and beneficence and perfect and imperfect rights, and we leverage those distinctions to speak to contemporary CSR and stakeholder management theories. We address the often-neglected question as to how far a company (...)
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  19. Wittgenstein on Family Resemblance Concepts.Michael Forster - 2010 - In Arif Ahmed (ed.), Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press.
     
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  20.  82
    The Pros and Cons of Masked Priming.Kenneth Forster - 1998 - Journal Of Psycholinguistic Research 27 (2):203-233.
  21. Die 25 Jahre der Philosophie: Eine Systematische Rekonstruktion.Eckart Förster - 2011 - Vittorio Klostermann.
  22. The Iterative Conception of Set.Thomas Forster - 2008 - Review of Symbolic Logic 1 (1):97-110.
    The phrase ‘The iterative conception of sets’ conjures up a picture of a particular settheoretic universe – the cumulative hierarchy – and the constant conjunction of phrasewith-picture is so reliable that people tend to think that the cumulative hierarchy is all there is to the iterative conception of sets: if you conceive sets iteratively, then the result is the cumulative hierarchy. In this paper, I shall be arguing that this is a mistake: the iterative conception of set is a good (...)
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  23.  49
    Bayes and Bust: Simplicity as a Problem for a Probabilist's Approach to Confirmation. [REVIEW]Malcolm R. Forster - 1995 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 46 (3):399-424.
    The central problem with Bayesian philosophy of science is that it cannot take account of the relevance of simplicity and unification to confirmation, induction, and scientific inference. The standard Bayesian folklore about factoring simplicity into the priors, and convergence theorems as a way of grounding their objectivity are some of the myths that Earman's book does not address adequately. 1Review of John Earman: Bayes or Bust?, Cambridge, MA. MIT Press, 1992, £33.75cloth.
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  24.  74
    Predictive Accuracy as an Achievable Goal of Science.Malcolm R. Forster - 2002 - Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2002 (3):S124-S134.
    What has science actually achieved? A theory of achievement should define what has been achieved, describe the means or methods used in science, and explain how such methods lead to such achievements. Predictive accuracy is one truth‐related achievement of science, and there is an explanation of why common scientific practices tend to increase predictive accuracy. Akaike’s explanation for the success of AIC is limited to interpolative predictive accuracy. But therein lies the strength of the general framework, for it also provides (...)
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  25. Counterexamples to a Likelihood Theory of Evidence.Malcolm R. Forster - 2006 - Minds and Machines 16 (3):319-338.
    The likelihood theory of evidence (LTE) says, roughly, that all the information relevant to the bearing of data on hypotheses (or models) is contained in the likelihoods. There exist counterexamples in which one can tell which of two hypotheses is true from the full data, but not from the likelihoods alone. These examples suggest that some forms of scientific reasoning, such as the consilience of inductions (Whewell, 1858. In Novum organon renovatum (Part II of the 3rd ed.). The philosophy of (...)
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  26.  22
    The Effect of Psychological Distance on Perceptual Level of Construal.Nira Liberman & Jens Förster - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (7):1330-1341.
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  27. Kant's Philosophy of Language?Michael N. Forster - 2012 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 74 (3):485.
  28.  82
    Miraculous Consilience of Quantum Mechanics.Malcolm R. Forster - 2010 - In Ellery Eells & James Fetzer (eds.), The Place of Probability in Science. Springer. pp. 201--228.
  29.  79
    Is There "a Gap" in Kant's Critical System?Eckart Förster - 1987 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 25 (4):533-555.
  30.  34
    What Do We Prime? On Distinguishing Between Semantic Priming, Procedural Priming, and Goal Priming.Jens Forster, Nira Liberman & Ronald S. Friedman - 2009 - In Ezequiel Morsella, John A. Bargh & Peter M. Gollwitzer (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Human Action. Oxford University Press. pp. 173--193.
  31.  14
    “If Only…”: When Counterfactual Thoughts Can Reduce Illusions of Personal Authorship.Laura Dannenberg, Jens Förster & Nils B. Jostmann - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):456-463.
    Illusions of personal authorship can arise when causation for an event is ambiguous, but people mentally represent an anticipated outcome and then observe a corresponding match in reality. When people do not maintain such high-level outcome representations and focus instead on low-level behavioral representations of concrete actions, illusions of personal authorship can be reduced. One condition that yields specific action plans and thereby moves focus from high-level outcomes to low-level actions is the generation of counterfactual thoughts. Hence, in the present (...)
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  32.  35
    Socrates' Demand for Definitions.Michael N. Forster - 2006 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 31:1-47.
  33.  11
    Is Banara Really a Word?☆.Xiaomei Qiao, Kenneth Forster & Naoko Witzel - 2009 - Cognition 113 (2):254-257.
  34.  49
    Attention, Intention and Domain-Specific Processing.Matthew Finkbeiner & Kenneth I. Forster - 2008 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (2):59-64.
  35.  13
    Unconscious Cognition Isn’T That Smart: Modulation of Masked Repetition Priming Effect in the Word Naming Task.Sachiko Kinoshita, Kenneth I. Forster & Michael C. Mozer - 2008 - Cognition 107 (2):623-649.
  36. Connectionism and the Fate of Folk Psychology: A Reply to Ramsey, Stich and Garon.Malcolm Forster & Eric Saidel - 1994 - Philosophical Psychology 7 (4):437 – 452.
    Ramsey, Stick and Garon (1991) argue that if the correct theory of mind is some parallel distributed processing theory, then folk psychology must be false. Their idea is that if the nodes and connections that encode one representation are causally active then all representations encoded by the same set of nodes and connections are also causally active. We present a clear, and concrete, counterexample to RSG's argument. In conclusion, we suggest that folk psychology and connectionism are best understood as complementary (...)
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  37.  13
    Detour to Arrive: Distancing in Service of Approach Goals.Jens Förster & Ronald S. Friedman - 2013 - Emotion Review 5 (3):259-263.
    Although in most situations approaching desired end-states entails decreasing distance between oneself and an object, and avoiding undesired end-states increases such distance, in some cases distancing can also be a means to approach a given goal. We highlight examples involving responses to obstacles to achievement and self-control dilemmas, showing that motivational direction is not equivalent to the motivational strategy involved when people pursue their goals.
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  38. On the Very Idea of Denying the Existence of Radically Different Conceptual Schemes.Michael N. Forster - 1998 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 41 (2):133 – 185.
    It has become very popular among philosophers to attempt to discredit, or at least set severe limits to, the thesis that there exist conceptual schemes radically different from ours. This fashion is misconceived. Philosophers have attempted to justify it in two main ways: by means of arguments which are a priorist relative to the relevant linguistic and textual evidence (and either independent of or based upon positive theories of meaning, understanding, and interpretation); and by means of arguments which are a (...)
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  39.  68
    How Do Simple Rules `Fit to Reality' in a Complex World?Malcolm R. Forster - 1999 - Minds and Machines 9 (4):543-564.
    The theory of fast and frugal heuristics, developed in a new book called Simple Heuristics that make Us Smart (Gigerenzer, Todd, and the ABC Research Group, in press), includes two requirements for rational decision making. One is that decision rules are bounded in their rationality –- that rules are frugal in what they take into account, and therefore fast in their operation. The second is that the rules are ecologically adapted to the environment, which means that they `fit to reality.' (...)
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  40.  37
    Hegel and Skepticism.Michael N. FORSTER - 1989 - Harvard University Press.
    This book should cause a re-evaluation of Hegel, and German Idealism generally, and contribute to a re-evaluation of the skeptical tradition in philosophy.
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  41.  68
    The Golfer's Dilemma: A Reply to Kukla on Curve-Fitting.Malcolm R. Forster - 1995 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 46 (3):348-360.
    Curve-fitting typically works by trading off goodness-of-fit with simplicity, where simplicity is measured by the number of adjustable parameters. However, such methods cannot be applied in an unrestricted way. I discuss one such correction, and explain why the exception arises. The same kind of probabilistic explanation offers a surprising resolution to a common-sense dilemma.
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  42.  57
    Die Bedeutung von §§ 76, 77 der "Kritik der Urteilskraft" für die Entwicklung der nachkantischen Philosophie [Teil 1].Eckart Förster - 2002 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 56 (2):169-190.
    In diesem zweiten Teil wird zuerst gezeigt, dass Hegel sich am Anfang seiner Jenaer Zeit genau wie Schelling am §76 der Kritik der Urteilskraft mit Kants Gedanken eines Urgrunds orientiert, in dem Sein und Denken, Subjektives und Objektives zusammenfallen. Nach Schellings Weggang 1803 kommt Hegel aber durch seinen Freund Schelver zunehmend mit Goethe in Kontakt, dessen Methodologie eines intuitiven Verstandes im Sinne von KdU §77 Schelver als neuberufener Botanikprofessor und Direktor des botanischen Gartens in die Praxis umzusetzen hat. Hegel übernimmt (...)
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  43.  79
    Unification and Scientific Realism Revisited.Malcolm R. Forster - 1986 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:394 - 405.
    Van Fraassen has argued that quantum mechanics does not conform to the pattern of common cause explanation used by Salmon as a precise formulation of Smart's 'cosmic coincidence' argument for scientific realism. This paper adds to this list some common examples from classical physics that also do not conform to Salmon's explanatory schema. This is bad news and good news for the realist. The bad news is that Salmon's argument for realism does not work; the good news is that realism (...)
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  44.  16
    Masked Repetition Priming: Lexical Activation or Novel Memory Trace?Kenneth Forster, Jill Booker, Daniel L. Schacter & Christopher Davis - 1990 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28 (4):341-345.
  45.  16
    Permutations and Wellfoundedness: The True Meaning of the Bizarre Arithmetic of Quine's NF.Thomas Forster - 2006 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 71 (1):227 - 240.
    It is shown that, according to NF, many of the assertions of ordinal arithmetic involving the T-function which is peculiar to NF turn out to be equivalent to the truth-in-certain-permutation-models of assertions which have perfectly sensible ZF-style meanings, such as: the existence of wellfounded sets of great size or rank, or the nonexistence of small counterexamples to the wellfoundedness of ∈. Everything here holds also for NFU if the permutations are taken to fix all urelemente.
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  46.  69
    Herder’s Philosophy of Language, Interpretation, and Translation: Three Fundamental Principles.Michael N. Forster - 2002 - Review of Metaphysics 56 (2):323 - 356.
    A GOOD CASE COULD BE MADE that Herder is the founder not only of the modern philosophy of language but also of the modern philosophy of interpretation and translation and that he has many things to say on these subjects from which we may still learn today. This essay will not attempt to make such a case, but it will be concerned with some aspects of Herder’s position that would be central to it: three fundamental principles in his philosophy of (...)
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  47.  74
    Kant, Boole and Peirce's Early Metaphysics.Paul Forster - 1997 - Synthese 113 (1):43-70.
    Charles Peirce is often credited for being among the first, perhaps even the first, to develop a scientific metaphysics of indeterminism. After rejecting the received view that Peirce developed his views from Darwin and Maxwell, I argue that Peirce's view results from his synthesis of Immanuel Kant's critical philosophy and George Boole's contributions to formal logic. Specifically, I claim that Kant's conception of the laws of logic as the basis for his architectonic, when combined with Boole's view of probability, yields (...)
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  48. ZF + "Every Set is the Same Size as a Wellfounded Set".Thomas Forster - 2003 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 68 (1):1-4.
    Let ZFB be ZF + "every set is the same size as a wellfounded set". Then the following are true. Every sentence true in every (Rieger-Bernays) permutation model of a model of ZF is a theorem of ZFB. (i.e.. ZFB is the theory of Rieger-Bernays permutation models of models of ZF) ZF and ZFAFA are both extensions of ZFB conservative for stratified formulæ. The class of models of ZFB is closed under creation of Rieger-Bernays permutation models.
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  49.  30
    Morally Managing Medical Mistakes.Martin L. Smith & Heidi P. Forster - 2000 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9 (1):38-53.
    Mistakes and errors happen in most spheres of human life and activity, including in medicine. A mistake can be as simple and benign as the collection of an extra and unnecessary urine sample. Or a mistake can cause serious but reversible harm, such as an overdose of insulin in a patient with diabetes, resulting in hypoglycemia, seizures, and coma. Or a mistake can result in serious and permanent damage for the patient, such as the failure to consider epiglottitis in an (...)
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  50.  26
    The Psychological Status of Overgenerated Sentences.Sandra E. Freedman & Kenneth I. Forster - 1985 - Cognition 19 (2):101-131.
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