Balancing Change and Tradition in Global Education Reform is an invaluable resource for policymakers, faculty, students, and anyone interested in how decisions made about the education system ultimately affect the quality of education, educational access, and social justice.
Objectives: To study the attitudes of both medical and non-medical students towards the do-not-resuscitate decision in a university in Hong Kong, and the factors affecting their attitudes.Methods: A questionnaire-based survey conducted in the campus of a university in Hong Kong. Preferences and priorities of participants on cardiopulmonary resuscitation in various situations and case scenarios, experience of death and dying, prior knowledge of DNR and basic demographic data were evaluated.Results: A total of 766 students participated in the study. There were statistically (...) significant differences in their DNR decisions in various situations between medical and non-medical students, clinical and preclinical students, and between students who had previously experienced death and dying and those who had not. A prior knowledge of DNR significantly affected DNR decision, although 66.4% of non-medical students and 18.7% of medical students had never heard of DNR. 74% of participants from both medical and non-medical fields considered the patient’s own wish as the most important factor that the healthcare team should consider when making DNR decisions. Family wishes might not be decisive on the choice of DNR.Conclusions: Students in medical and non-medical fields held different views on DNR. A majority of participants considered the patient’s own wish as most important in DNR decisions. Family wishes were considered less important than the patient’s own wishes. (shrink)
These long-awaited, well-edited volumes complete the projected ten-volume edition, six volumes of which appeared in 1931-5. Volume VII contains, among other things, the important but previously unpublished "On the Logic of drawing History from Ancient Documents," "The Association of Ideas," and "Habit," as well as a sharp criticism of telepathy. Volume VIII reprints Peirce's major reviews of such works as Frazer's Berkeley, Royce's The World and the Individual, and Pearson's Grammar of Science, and contains some of his correspondence with pivotal (...) figures such as Carus, Dewey, James, and Lady Welby. The bibliography is superb.--P. W. (shrink)
We propose that people typically reason about realistic situations using neither content-free syntactic inference rules nor representations of specific experiences. Rather, people reason using knowledge structures that we term pragmatic reasoning schemas, which are generalized sets of rules defined in relation to classes of goals. Three experiments examined the impact of a “permission schema” on deductive reasoning. Experiment 1 demonstrated that by evoking the permission schema it is possible to facilitate performance in Wason's selection paradigm for subjects who have had (...) no experience with the specific content of the problems. Experiment 2 showed that a selection problem worded in terms of an abstract permission elicited better performance than one worded in terms of a concrete but arbitrary situation, providing evidence for an abstract permission schema that is free of domain-specific content. Experiment 3 provided evidence that evocation of a permission schema affects not only tasks requiring procedural knowledge, but also a linguistic rephrasing task requiring declarative knowledge. In particular, statements in the form if p then q were rephrased into the form p only if q with greater frequency for permission than for arbitrary statements, and rephrasings of permission statements produced a pattern of introduction of modals totally unlike that observed for arbitrary conditional statements. Other pragmatic schemas, such as “causal” and “evidence” schemas can account for both linguistic and reasoning phenomena that alternative hypotheses fail to explain. (shrink)
This book continues the Muirhead Library of Philosophy series. It is a sequel to Trethowan’s own Absolute Value, to which frequent reference is made by the author. Together with that work, it comprises the lectures the author delivered in the Department of Religion of Brown University in 1969. It is chiefly a work of theological reflection: Trethowan is seeking new conceptual models for the Christian experience of God. In this vein, he devotes the bulk of the book to explorations of (...) the nature of faith and of the At-onement effected in the experience of God by the Christian mystics. An interesting treatment of the mystical experience of the Absolute concludes the book. This is not to suggest that Trethowan’s work will not be of interest to a general philosophical audience as well. The author begins his investigations with a discussion of contemporary positions which are opposed to metaphysical and theistic claims; within this context, Trethowan’s suggests some useful criticisms of Flew’s position. Searching for an experience of the Absolute that can serve to ground theistic claims, Trethowan examines the formulations of Coreth and Marcel; in the author’s estimate each yields an important emphasis, although some criticism must be directed to their respective accounts. The author’s own solution surfaces in the course of his treatment of faith. Its inspiration is largely Blondel’s "logic of action" : man’s experience of his own range of action leads him to an "option" in favor of the Absolute, an option which includes assent to the Christian experience of the Absolute. Trethowan also indicates a theory of signs, in which signs mediate but also are dynamically directed toward an experienced Absolute. The author’s treatment of Blondel has the advantage of providing the reader with lengthy citations from Blondel in translation.—W. L. P. (shrink)
In all of the writings of Martin Buber there is one major theme which serves as a peg upon which he hangs most of his further thoughts. Nahum Glatzer uses this underlying theme, interpreting it as a "way of response," and brings together selections from many of Buber's works. Thus not only does the reader see the centrality of the "way of response" for this great Jewish thinker, but he captures a feeling for the man himself as well. The "way (...) of response" is not a concept expounded but a life lived, and the selections Glatzer employs in his book brings this out very well.—W. P. G. (shrink)
The psychologist-philosopher B.F. Skinner and the physicist-philosopher P.W. Bridgman, both dedicated empiricists, initially entered into an intellectual relationship that seemed destined to be warm and fruitful. Yet, it ended up unfulfilled. Since I am now perhaps one of the few who knew both men as colleagues for many years, I might be able to throw some unique light on their interaction, and on what I consider to be one of the missed opportunities in the history of ideas.
The syntactic structure of the system of pure implicational relevant logic P - W is investigated. This system is defined by the axioms B = (b → c) → (a → b) → a → c, B' = (a → b) → (b → c) → a → c, I = a → a, and the rules of substitution and modus ponens. A class of λ-terms, the closed hereditary right-maximal linear λ-terms, and a translation of such λ-terms M to BB'I-combinators (...) M + is introduced. It is shown that a formula α is provable in P - W if and only if α is a type of some λ-term in this class. Hence these λ-terms represent proof figures in the Natural Deduction version of P - W. Errol Martin (1982) proved that no formula with form α → α is provable in P - W without using the axiom I. We show that a β-normal form λ-term M in the class is η reducible to λ x.x if the translated BB'I-combinator M + contains I. Using this theorem and Martin's result, we prove that a λ-term in the class is βη-reducible to λ x.x if the λ-term has a type α → α. Hence the structure of proofs of α → α in P - W is determined. (shrink)
The logical system P-W is an implicational non-commutative intuitionistic logic defined by axiom schemes B = (b → c) → (a → b) → a → c, B' = (a → b) → (b → c) → a → c, I = a → a with the rules of modus ponens and substitution. The P-W problem is a problem asking whether α = β holds if α → β and β → α are both provable in P-W. The answer is (...) affirmative. The first to prove this was E. P. Martin by a semantical method. In this paper, we give the first proof of Martin's theorem based on the theory of simply typed λ-calculus. This proof is obtained as a corollary to the main theorem of this paper, shown without using Martin's Theorem, that any closed hereditary right-maximal linear (HRML) λ-term of type α → α is βη-reducible to λ x.x. Here the HRML λ-terms correspond, via the Curry-Howard isomorphism, to the P-W proofs in natural deduction style. (shrink)
The syntactic structure of the system of pure implicational relevant logic $P - W$ is investigated. This system is defined by the axioms $B = (b \rightarrow c) \rightarrow (a \rightarrow b) \rightarrow a \rightarrow c, B' = (a \rightarrow b) \rightarrow (b \rightarrow c) \rightarrow a \rightarrow c, I = a \rightarrow a$, and the rules of substitution and modus ponens. A class of $\lambda$-terms, the closed hereditary right-maximal linear $\lambda$-terms, and a translation of such $\lambda$-terms $M$ to $BB'I$-combinators (...) $M^+$ is introduced. It is shown that a formula $\alpha$ is provable in $P - W$ if and only if $\alpha$ is a type of some $\lambda$-term in this class. Hence these $\lambda$-terms represent proof figures in the Natural Deduction version of $P - W$. Errol Martin (1982) proved that no formula with form $\alpha \rightarrow \alpha$ is provable in $P - W$ without using the axiom $I$. We show that a $\beta$-normal form $\lambda$-term $M$ in the class is $\eta$ reducible to $\lambda x.x$ if the translated $BB'I$-combinator $M^+$ contains $I$. Using this theorem and Martin's result, we prove that a $\lambda$-term in the class is $\beta\eta$-reducible to $\lambda x.x$ if the $\lambda$-term has a type $\alpha \rightarrow \alpha$. Hence the structure of proofs of $\alpha \rightarrow \alpha$ in $P - W$ is determined. (shrink)
This is a commissioned review of Copan, P. and Craig, W. The Kalām Cosmological Argument Volume Two: Scientific Evidence for the Beginning of the Universe New York: Bloomsbury, US$172.50, ISBN 978-1-50-133587-7.
We describe new results in parametrized complexity theory. In particular, we prove a number of concrete hardness results for W[P], the top level of the hardness hierarchy introduced by Downey and Fellows in a series of earlier papers. We also study the parametrized complexity of analogues of PSPACE via certain natural problems concerning k-move games. Finally, we examine several aspects of the structural complexity of W [P] and related classes. For instance, we show that W[P] can be characterized in terms (...) of the DTIME ) and NP. (shrink)
In “Imagination and Judgment” W.P. Ker argues, contrary to the “ordinary teaching” of the moralists of his day, that we have good reason to consider imagination as “the highest form of practical wisdom or prudence” (475). Modes of imaginative thought that direct human passion towards morally valuable ends are best understood as a form of reason or an intellectual virtue, as opposed to a dangerous distraction from reality and threat to good judgment. Ker’s piece remains of interest partly because it (...) anticipates some of the most important contributions to moral theory made by philosophers, most notably Iris Murdoch and Martha Nussbaum, who have developed conceptions of ‘moral imagination’ in more recent decades. More significantly, reflecting on Ker’s catalogue of the positive and direct roles played by imagination in moral reasoning reveals that there is further work to be done in clarifying the concept of imagination in relation to practical reason. (shrink)