Edited by T. Parent (Virginia Tech)
|Summary||"Knowing-Wh" is intended to cover knowing who(m), knowing whose, knowing what, knowing which, knowing when, and knowing why. (Standardly, knowing how is also included, but this has its own category on PhilPapers.) Sometimes, "knowing whether" is included as well; [knowing + DP] and [knowing + INF] are also closely related. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in knowing-wh, given the recent "intellectualism" debate on knowing how; see Stanley & Williamson 2001. An analogous yet broader "intellectualism" debate is occurring with knowing-wh, and a related discussion on whether a unified account of knowing-wh is even possible. In addition, other interesting issues arise concerning knowing-wh, especially on the context-sensitivity of knowing-wh attributions.|
|Key works||The work in formal semantics on "knowing-wh" starts with Hamblin 1958. But the early works regularly cited are Karttunen 1977 and Groenendijk & Stokhof 1982. These are good examples of what Schaffer 2007 calls "orthodox reductionism" about knowing-wh, though Schaffer provides an important attack on such views. The first serious attempt to accomodate the context-sensitivity of knowing-wh was Boër & Lycan 1975 and the book-length version Boër & Lycan 1986. Braun 2006 has recently argued, however, that the context-sensitivity should be accommodated by Gricean pragmatics, rather than by Boer and Lycan's semantic parameter. But see DeRose 2009, ch. 2 appendix, for a rejoinder. Finally, knowing-wh is standardly given an "intellectualist" account, akin to Stanley&Williamson's view of knowing how. Ginzburg 1995 and Ginzburg 1995 attacks this view of knowing-wh, but Stanley 2011 in his chapter 2 has offered an important reply to Ginzburg.|
|Introductions||There is currently no introductory overview of issues concerning "knowing-wh" (though the present editor is currently drafting such a piece). Higginbotham 1996 provides good coverage of some of the issues and related matters.|
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- Knowledge How (182)
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