Search results for 'analogy' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Louis Vervoort & Yves Gingras, Macroscopic Oil Droplets Mimicking Quantum Behavior: How Far Can We Push an Analogy?
    We describe here a series of experimental analogies between fluid mechanics and quantum mechanics recently discovered by a team of physicists. These analogies arise in droplet systems guided by a surface (or pilot) wave. We argue that these experimental facts put ancient theoretical work by Madelung on the analogy between fluid and quantum mechanics into new light. After re-deriving Madelung’s result starting from two basic fluid-mechanical equations (the Navier-Stokes equation and the continuity equation), we discuss the relation with the (...)
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  2.  22
    Jason Swartwood (forthcoming). "Drinking, Texting, and Moral Arguments From Analogy". Think.
    In this dialogue, I illustrate why moral arguments from analogy are a valuable part of moral reasoning by considering how texting while driving is, morally speaking, no different than drunk driving.
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  3. Susan Dwyer, Bryce Huebner & Marc D. Hauser (2010). The Linguistic Analogy: Motivations, Results, and Speculations. Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (3):486-510.
    Inspired by the success of generative linguistics and transformational grammar, proponents of the linguistic analogy (LA) in moral psychology hypothesize that careful attention to folk-moral judgments is likely to reveal a small set of implicit rules and structures responsible for the ubiquitous and apparently unbounded capacity for making moral judgments. As a theoretical hypothesis, LA thus requires a rich description of the computational structures that underlie mature moral judgments, an account of the acquisition and development of these structures, and (...)
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  4.  61
    Fabrizio Macagno & Douglas Walton (2009). Argument From Analogy in Law, the Classical Tradition, and Recent Theories. Philosophy and Rhetoric 42 (2):154-182.
    Argument from analogy is a common and formidable form of reasoning in law and in everyday conversation. Although there is substantial literature on the subject, according to a recent survey ( Juthe 2005) there is little fundamental agreement on what form the argument should take, or on how it should be evaluated. Th e lack of conformity, no doubt, stems from the complexity and multiplicity of forms taken by arguments that fall under the umbrella of analogical reasoning in argumentation, (...)
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  5. Dennis Schulting (2009). Kant's Copernican Analogy: Beyond the Non-Specific Reading. Studi Kantiani 22:39-65.
    References to Kant's so-called Copernicanism or Copernican turn are often put in very general terms. It is commonly thought that Kant makes the Copernican analogy solely in order to point out the fact as such of a paradigm shift in philosophy. This is too historical an interpretation of the analogy. It leaves unexplained both Kant's and Copernicus' reasons for advancing their respective hypotheses, which brought about major changes in the conceptual schemes of philosophy and astronomy. My contention is (...)
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  6.  37
    André Juthe (2005). Argument by Analogy. Argumentation 19 (1):1-27.
    ABSTRACT: In this essay I characterize arguments by analogy, which have an impor- tant role both in philosophical and everyday reasoning. Arguments by analogy are dif- ferent from ordinary inductive or deductive arguments and have their own distinct features. I try to characterize the structure and function of these arguments. It is further discussed that some arguments, which are not explicit arguments by analogy, nevertheless should be interpreted as such and not as inductive or deductive arguments. The (...)
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  7.  49
    John Perry (2010). Gentiles and Homosexuals: A Brief History of an Analogy. Journal of Religious Ethics 38 (2):321-347.
    This paper examines the argument that moral approval of homosexuality is analogous to the early church's inclusion of gentiles. The analogy has a long but often overlooked history, dating back to the start of the modern gay-rights movement. It has recently gained greater prominence because of its importance to the Episcopal Church's debate with the wider Anglican Communion. Beginning with the Episcopal Church argument, we see that there are five specific areas most in need of further clarification. In this (...)
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  8.  75
    Roger M. White (2009). Talking About God: The Concept of Analogy and the Problem of Religious Language. Ashgate Pub. Ltd..
    Introduction -- The mathematical roots of the concept of analogy -- Aristotle : the uses of analogy -- Aristotle : analogy and language -- Thomas Aquinas -- Immanuel Kant -- Karl Barth -- Final reflections.
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  9. Eric Dietrich (2010). Analogical Insight: Toward Unifying Categorization and Analogy. Cognitive Processing 11 (4):331-.
    The purpose of this paper is to present two kinds of analogical representational change, both occurring early in the analogy-making process, and then, using these two kinds of change, to present a model unifying one sort of analogy-making and categorization. The proposed unification rests on three key claims: (1) a certain type of rapid representational abstraction is crucial to making the relevant analogies (this is the first kind of representational change; a computer model is presented that demonstrates this (...)
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  10. Nicholas D. Smith (1999). Plato's Analogy of Soul and State. Journal of Ethics 3 (1):31-49.
    In Part I of this paper, I argue that the arguments Plato offers for the tripartition of the soul are founded upon an equivocation, and that each of the valid options by which Plato might remove the equivocation will not produce a tripartite soul. In Part II, I argue that Plato is not wholly committed to an analogy of soul and state that would require either a tripartite state or a tripartite soul for the analogy to hold. It (...)
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  11.  58
    Alex Levine (2009). Partition Epistemology and Arguments From Analogy. Synthese 166 (3):593 - 600.
    Nineteenth and twentieth century philosophies of science have consistently failed to identify any rational basis for the compelling character of scientific analogies. This failure is particularly worrisome in light of the fact that the development and diffusion of certain scientific analogies, e.g. Darwin’s analogy between domestic breeds and naturally occurring species, constitute paradigm cases of good science. It is argued that the interactivist model, through the notion of a partition epistemology, provides a way to understand the persuasive character of (...)
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  12. Mathew Lu (2013). Defusing Thomson's Violinist Analogy. Human Life Review 39 (1):46-62.
    In this paper I take a critical look at Judith Jarvis Thomson famous violinist analogy for abortion. I argue that while the violinist example does show that a right to life does not entail a right to be given the means of life, the violinist cast is relevantly different from the pregnancy case. I also argue that Thomson's positive argument in favor of the permissibility of abortion fails because it is based on a false conception of bodily self-ownsership. Finally, (...)
     
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  13.  96
    Allison Barnes & Paul R. Thagard (1997). Empathy and Analogy. Dialogue 36 (4):705-720.
    We contend that empathy is best viewed as a kind of analogical thinking of the sort described in the multiconstraint theory of analogy proposed by Keith Holyoak and Paul Thagard (1995). Our account of empathy reveals the Theory-theory/Simulation theory debate to be based on a false assumption and formulated in terms too simple to capture the nature of mental state ascription. Empathy is always simulation, but may simultaneously include theory-application. By properly specifying the analogical processes of empathy and their (...)
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  14.  21
    Jon C. Olson (2012). The Jerusalem Decree, Paul, and the Gentile Analogy to Homosexual Persons. Journal of Religious Ethics 40 (2):360-384.
    Revisionists and traditionalists appeal to Acts 15, welcoming the Gentiles, for analogies directing the church's response to homosexual persons. John Perry has analyzed the major positions. He faults revisionists for inadequate attention to the Jerusalem Decree and faults one traditionalist for using the Decree literally rather than through analogy. I argue that analogical use of the Decree must supplement rather than displace the plain sense. The Decree has been neglected due to assumptions that Paul opposed it, that it expired, (...)
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  15.  31
    William R. Brown (1995). The Domain Constraint on Analogy and Analogical Argument. Informal Logic 17 (1).
    Domain constraint, the requirement that analogues be selected from "the same category," inheres in the popular saying "you can't compare apples and oranges" and the textbook principle "the greater the number of shared properties, the stronger the argument from analogy." I identify roles of domains in biological, linguistic, and legal analogy, supporting the account of law with a computer word search of judicial decisions. I argue that the category treatments within these disciplines cannot be exported to general informal (...)
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  16.  43
    Daryl Koehn (1997). Business and Game-Playing: The False Analogy. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 16 (12-13):1447-1452.
    A number of business writers have argued that business is a game and, like a game, possesses its own special rules for acting. While we do not normally tolerate deceit, bluffing is not merely acceptable but also expected within the game of poker. Similarly, lies of omission, overstatements, puffery and bluffs are morally acceptable within business because it, like a game, has a special ethic which permits these normally immoral practices. Although critics of this reasoning have used deontological and utilitarian (...)
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  17. Joshua P. Hochschild (2010). The Semantics of Analogy: Rereading Cajetan's De Nominum Analogia. University of Notre Dame Press.
    Systematizing Aquinas? : a paradigm in crisis -- Reconstructing Cajetan's question : the semantic intent of De nominum analogia -- Analogy, semantics, and the "concept vs. judgment" critique -- Some insufficient semantic rules for analogy -- Cajetan's semantic principles -- The semantics of analogy : inequality and attribution -- The semantics of proportionality: the proportional unity of concepts -- The semantics of proportionality : concept formation and judgment -- The semantics of proportionality : syllogism and dialectic.
     
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  18.  8
    Harm Kloosterhuis (2005). Reconstructing Complex Analogy Argumentation in Judicial Decisions: A Pragma-Dialectical Perspective. Argumentation 19 (4):471-483.
    Empirical research in the field of legal interpretation shows that, in many cases, analogy argumentation is complex rather than simple. Traditional analytical approaches to analogy argumentation do not explore that complexity. In most cases analogy argumentation is reconstructed as a simple form of argumentation that consists of two premises and a conclusion. This article focuses on the question of how to analyze and evaluate complex analogy argumentation. It is shown how the pragma-dialectical approach provides clues for (...)
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  19. Don Locke (1973). Just What is Wrong with the Argument From Analogy? Australasian Journal of Philosophy 51 (August):153-56.
    A reply to hyslop and jackson, American philosophical quarterly, April 1972: I argue that the argument form analogy begs the question, Much as does the inductive justification of induction, Of which it is a version.
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  20.  11
    Gregor Kroupa (2015). The Poets and the Philosophers: Genius and Analogy in Descartes and the Encyclopédie (Following Aristotle). L'Esprit Créateur 55 (2):34-47.
    The article tackles the relationship between genius and analogy in Descartes’s early writings and the programmatic writings of the Encyclopédie. For Descartes, ingenious analogies between phenomena that are not obviously related belong more properly to poetic truth discourse, whereas philosophy must be content with the more easily observable and methodical mechanistic comparisons. In the encyclopedic ordering of Diderot and d’Alembert, on the other hand, ingenious analogies are not specific to any particular field of knowledge, since genius consists precisely in (...)
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  21. Bence Nanay (2011). Popper's Darwinian Analogy. Perspectives on Science 19 (3):337-354.
    One of the most deeply entrenched ideas in Popper's philosophy is the analogy between the growth of scientific knowledge and the Darwinian mechanism of natural selection. Popper gave his first exposition of these ideas very early on. In a letter to Donald Campbell, 1 Popper says that the idea goes back at least to the early thirties. 2 And he had a fairly detailed account of it in his "What is dialectic?", a talk given in 1937 and published in (...)
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  22.  23
    Kathleen L. Slaney & Michael D. Maraun (2005). Analogy and Metaphor Running Amok: An Examination of the Use of Explanatory Devices in Neuroscience. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 25 (2):153-172.
    The use of analogy and metaphor as descriptive and explanatory devices in neuroscientific research was examined. In particular, four analogies/metaphors common to research having to do with the brain and its function were illustrated. It is argued that the use of these and other similar literary devices in neuroscientific research sometimes leads to certain conceptual confusions and, thus, fails to aid in clarifying the nature of those phenomena they are intended to explain. 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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  23. Theodore W. Budlong (1975). Analogy, Induction and Other Minds. Analysis 35 (January):111-112.
    Alvin plantinga and michael slote, Following ayer, Have attempted to formulate the argument from analogy for the existence of other minds as an enumerative induction. Their way of avoiding the 'generalizing from a single case' objection is shown to be fallacious.
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  24.  13
    Hendrik Kaptein (2005). Legal Progress Through Pragma-Dialectics? Prospects Beyond Analogy and E Contrario. Argumentation 19 (4):497-507.
    Pragma-dialectical approaches to legal argumentation seem to be rather different from traditional approaches appealing to standards of propositional logic. Pragma-dialectical analysis of arguments by analogy and e contrario seem to fall foul to the rigors of logical analysis, in which problems or even concepts of analogy and e contrario seem to disappear. The brunt of both types of special legal argumentation appears to be borne by often implicit general principles and an appeal to the system of the law (...)
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  25.  1
    Jonathan Curtis Rutledge (forthcoming). The Parent Analogy: A Reassessment. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion:1-10.
    According to the parent analogy, as a caretaker’s goodness, ability and intelligence increase, the likelihood that the caretaker will make arrangements for the attainment of future goods that are unnoticed or underappreciated by their dependents also increases. Consequently, if this analogy accurately represents our relationship to God, then we should expect to find many instances of inscrutable evil in the world. This argument in support of skeptical theism has recently been criticized by Dougherty. I argue that Dougherty’s argument (...)
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  26.  60
    Michael J. Wreen (2007). A Second Form of Argument From Analogy. Theoria 73 (3):221-239.
    One form of argument from analogy is identified and Stephen Barker's remarks about a second kind of argument from analogy, non-inductive (and non-deductive) argument from analogy, are used as a springboard to identify a second form. That form is then refined, explained, exemplified, and related to the first form. It is argued that there is a spectrum of different forms of argument from analogy, with the two forms identified being end points on the spectrum. Except in (...)
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  27.  25
    Claudio Marcelo Viale (2008). Extending West's Analogy Royce, Mead, and American Philosophy. Ideas Y Valores 57 (137):25-39.
    In The American Evasion of Philosophy Cornell West makes a comparison between the developments of European and classical American philosophies. Within West's analogy, however, two important American figures are missing: Josiah Royce and George H. Mead. In the context of this framework, this article ..
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  28.  42
    Stephen H. Daniel (2011). Berkeley's Rejection of Divine Analogy. Science Et Esprit 63 (2):149-161.
    Berkeley argues that claims about divine predication (e.g., God is wise or exists) should be understood literally rather than analogically, because like all spirits (i.e., causes), God is intelligible only in terms of the extent of his effects. By focusing on the harmony and order of nature, Berkeley thus unites his view of God with his doctrines of mind, force, grace, and power, and avoids challenges to religious claims that are raised by appeals to analogy. The essay concludes by (...)
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  29.  12
    Naomi Beck (2005). Enrico Ferri's Scientific Socialism: A Marxist Interpretation of Herbert Spencer's Organic Analogy. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 38 (2):301 - 325.
    Spencer's evolutionary philosophy is usually identified with right-wing doctrines such as individualism, laissez-faire liberalism and even conservatism. Since he himself defended similar positions, it is perhaps not surprising that the study of the political interpretations of his ideas has drawn relatively little attention. In this article I propose to examine a rather atypical reading of Spencer's organic analogy, though definitely not a marginal one: Enrico Ferri's Marxist doctrine of Scientific Socialism. Ferri is not a figure unknown to scholars interested (...)
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  30. Carolyn Benson & Julian Fink (2012). Legal Oughts, Normative Transmission, and the Nazi Use of Analogy. Jurisprudence 3 (2):445-463.
    In 1935, the Nazi government introduced what came to be known as the abrogation of the pro- hibition of analogy. This measure, a feature of the new penal law, required judges to stray from the letter of the written law and to consider instead whether an action was worthy of pun- ishment according to the ‘sound perception of the people’ and the ‘underlying principle’ of existing criminal statutes. In discussions of Nazi law, an almost unanimous conclusion is that a (...)
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  31.  25
    Richard I. Sikora (1977). The Argument From Analogy is Not an Argument for Other Mnds. American Philosophical Quarterly 14 (April):137-41.
    If the argument from analogy is an argument for other minds it must rely on a single case, The correlation of your mind with your body. If instead it only attempts to show that certain sorts of experiences are associated with other bodies, It can rely on innumerable correlations of your experiences with your behavior. Having determined in this way that ostensive memories are associated with another body and that they are the kind one would expect if one mind (...)
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  32.  4
    A. Vendemiati (1994). Analogy of the Law-a Study of Aquinas, Thomas. Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica 86 (3):468-490.
    The article studies the treatise De Lege (Summa Theologiae, I-II, qq. 90-108) showing the conceptual development and theological setting: everything comes from the lex aeterna and everything leads to the lex nova. The Thomistic concept of law is not unique or misunderstanding: it is analog. The analogy is applied according to a double movement. According to the analogy of proportionality, the analogiatum princeps is human law; according to the analogy of intrinsic attribution, the analogatum princeps is the (...)
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  33.  22
    John Perry (2012). Vocation and Creation: Beyond the Gentile-Homosexual Analogy. Journal of Religious Ethics 40 (2):385-400.
    One strand of the church's conversation about homosexuality compares present-day acceptance of homosexuals to the church's acceptance of Gentiles in Acts 15. In a previous article, “Gentiles and Homosexuals,” I presented the history of that strand. In a reply to my article, Olson proposes to reimagine the analogy via the “radical new perspective on Paul” and argues that doing so exposes problems with my original analysis. I defend myself against these criticisms, while also entering into the spirit of Olson's (...)
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  34.  4
    Bartosz Brożek (2015). Analogy and Balancing. A Reply to David Duarte. Revus 25:163-170.
    The goal of the paper is to reply to David Duarte’s critique of the partial reducibility thesis―a claim I defended in one of my books that analogy is partly reducible to the balancing of legal principles. In the first part of the paper I sketch the framework against which the thesis was formulated, i.e. Robert Alexy’s theory of legal reasoning. In the second part I attempt to rebut Duarte’s objections, pointing out that they do not take into account the (...)
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  35.  21
    Joseph M. Notterman (2000). Note on Reductionism in Cognitive Psychology: Reification of Cognitive Processes Into Mind, Mind-Brain Equivalence, and Brain-Computer Analogy. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 20 (2):116-121.
    This note brings together three phenomena leading to a tendency toward reductionism in cognitive psychology. They are the reification of cognitive processes into an entity called mind; the identification of the mind with the brain; and the congruence by analogy of the brain with the digital computer. Also indicated is the need to continue studying the effects upon behavior of variables other than brain function. 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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  36.  58
    Ralph M. McInerny (1961). The Logic of Analogy. The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff.
    CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM OF ANALOGY "Let lu start with a review of the theories of other thinkers; for the proofs of a theory are difficulties for the contrary ...
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  37.  6
    Dino Alfier (2011). Critical Practical Analogy: A Research Tool for Reflecting and Making. Journal of Research Practice 7 (1):Article P3.
    What contribution can visual art practice bring to interdisciplinary research? And how to give an account of practice-led research that acknowledges the need for interdisciplinary intelligibility? I consider these two questions by reflecting on the methodology--which I call "critical practical analogy" (CPA)--that I have developed while investigating the metaethical implications of French philosopher Simone Weil's notion of attention, during my practice-led PhD. In order to address the first question, I consider as a case study a research art project that (...)
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  38.  6
    Zbigniew Tworak (2006). Analogy and Diagonal Argument. Logic and Logical Philosophy 15 (1):39-66.
    In this paper, I try to accomplish two goals. The first is to provide a general characterization of a method of proofs called — in mathematics — the diagonal argument. The second is to establish that analogical thinking plays an important role also in mathematical creativity. Namely, mathematical research make use of analogies regarding general strategies of proof. Some of mathematicians, for example George Polya, argued that deductions is impotent without analogy. What I want to show is that there (...)
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  39.  4
    Eric Steinhart (1994). Beyond Proportional Analogy: A Structural Model of Analogical Mapping. Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 2 (1):95-129.
    A model of analogical mapping is proposed that uses five principles to generate consistent and conflicting hypotheses regarding assignments of elements of a source domain to analogous elements of a target domain. The principles follow the fine conceptual structure of the domains. The principles are: (1) the principle of proportional analogy; (2) the principle of mereological analogy, (3) the principle of chain reinforcement; (4) the principle of transitive reinforcement; and (5) the principle of mutual inconsistency. A constraint-satisfaction network (...)
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  40.  2
    David Duarte (2015). Analogy and Balancing: The Partial Reducibility Thesis and Its Problems. Revus 25:141-154.
    With an analysis of the structure and the sequence of analogy, the paper is mainly a critique to the partial reducibility thesis: a thesis sustaining that analogy, besides a strictly analogical step, is in the remaining part reducible to balancing. Thus, the paper points out some problems raised by the partial reducibility thesis, such as the contingency of reducibility or the fact that a proper analogy is done under the cover of a balancing. The main point is, (...)
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  41. Steven A. Long (2011). Analogia Entis: On the Analogy of Being, Metaphysics, and the Act of Faith. University of Notre Dame Press.
    First principles and the challenge of Parmenidean monism -- St. Thomas on analogia entis in the Scriptum super sententiis and in De veritate -- Consideration of objections to the view that the analogia entis is the analogy of proper proportionality -- The analogy of being and the transcendence and analogical intelligibility of the act of faith.
     
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  42.  14
    David B. Zilberman (2006). Analogy in Indian and Western Philosophical Thought. Springer.
    This book is unusual in many respects. It was written by a prolific author whose tragic untimely death did not allow to finish this and many other of his undertakings. It was assembled from numerous excerpts, notes, and fragments according to his initial plans. Zilberman’s legacy still awaits its true discovery and this book is a second installment to it after The Birth of Meaning in Hindu Thought (Kluwer, 1988). Zilberman’s treatment of analogy is unique in its approach, scope, (...)
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  43. Kris McDaniel (2010). A Return to the Analogy of Being. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 81 (3):688 - 717.
    Recently, I’ve championed the doctrine that fundamentally different sorts of things exist in fundamentally different ways.1 On this view, what it is for an entity to be can differ across ontological categories.2 Although historically this doctrine was very popular, and several important challenges to this doctrine have been dealt with, I suspect that contemporary metaphysicians will continue to treat this view with suspicion until it is made clearer when one is warranted in positing different modes of existence.3 I address this (...)
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  44. W. H. Leatherdale (1974). The Role of Analogy, Model, and Metaphor in Science. American Elsevier Pub. Co..
  45. Uwe Steinhoff, Drowning the Shallow Pond Analogy: A Critique of Garrett Cullity's Attempt to Rescue It.
    Garrett Cullity concedes that saving a drowning child from a shallow pond at little cost to oneself is not actually analogous to giving money to a poverty relief organization like Oxfam. The question then arises whether this objection is fatal to Peters Singer's argument for a duty of assistance or whether it can be saved anyway. Cullity argues that not saving the drowning child and not giving money to organizations like Oxfam are still morally analogous, that is, not giving money (...)
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  46.  4
    Levi B. Larkey & Bradley C. Love (2003). CAB: Connectionist Analogy Builder. Cognitive Science 27 (5):781-794.
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  47.  34
    Stella Christie & Dedre Gentner (2014). Language Helps Children Succeed on a Classic Analogy Task. Cognitive Science 38 (2):383-397.
    Adult humans show exceptional relational ability relative to other species. In this research, we trace the development of this ability in young children. We used a task widely used in comparative research—the relational match-to-sample task, which requires participants to notice and match the identity relation: for example, AA should match BB instead of CD. Despite the simplicity of this relation, children under 4 years of age failed to pass this test (Experiment 1), and their performance did not improve even with (...)
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  48.  19
    Rens Bod (2009). From Exemplar to Grammar: A Probabilistic Analogy‐Based Model of Language Learning. Cognitive Science 33 (5):752-793.
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  49.  39
    Andrew Lovett, Emmett Tomai, Kenneth Forbus & Jeffrey Usher (2009). Solving Geometric Analogy Problems Through Two‐Stage Analogical Mapping. Cognitive Science 33 (7):1192-1231.
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  50.  3
    G. E. R. Lloyd (1966). Polarity and Analogy. Cambridge [Eng.]University Press.
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